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录入者 :欢乐菩提(名师教育)
In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task after the mini-lecture. When the lecture is over, you will be given two minutes to check your notes, and another ten minutes to complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE, using no more than three words in each gap. Make sure the word(s) you fill in is (are) both grammatically and semantically acceptable. You may refer to your notes while completing the task. Use the blank sheet for note-taking. Now, listen to the mini-lecture.    Observation Behaviour
People do observation in daily life context for safety or for proper behaviour. However, there are differences in daily life observation and research observation.
---- daily life observation
--(1) ________
--defendence on memory
---- research observation
-- (2) _________
-- careful record keeping
B.Ways to select samples in research
---- time sampling
-- systematic: e.g. fixed intervals every hour
-- random: fixed intervals but (3) _______
Systematic sampling and random sampling are often used in combination.
---- (4) _______
-- definition: selection of different locations
-- reason: humans’ or animals’ behaviour (5) ______ across circumstances
-- (6) ______: more objective observations
C.Ways to record behaviour (7) _______
---- observation with intervention
-- participant observation: researcher as observer and participant
-- field experiment: research (8) ______ over conditions
---- observation without intervention
-- purpose: describing behaviour (9) ______
-- (10) ______ : no intervention
-- researcher: a passive recorder
In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of 20 multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark the best answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
I used to look at my closet and see clothes. These days, whenever I cast my eyes upon the stacks of shoes and hangers of shirts, sweaters and jackets, I see water.
It takes 569 gallons to manufacture a T-shirt, from its start in the cotton fields to its appearance on store shelves. A pair of running shoes? 1,247 gallons.
Until last fall, Id been oblivious to my "water footprint", which is defined as the total volume of freshwater that is used to produce goods and services, according to the Water Footprint Network. The Dutch nonprofit has been working to raise awareness of freshwater scarcity since 2008, but it was through the "Green Blue Book" by Thomas M. Kostigen that I was able to see how my own actions factored in.
Ive installed gray-water systems to reuse the wastewater from my laundry, machine and bathtub and reroute it to my landscape - systems that save, on average, 50 gallons of water per day. Ive set up rain barrels and infiltration pits to collect thousands of gallons of storm water cascading from my roof. Ive even entered the last bastion of greendom -installing a composting toilet.
Suffice to say, Ive been feeling pretty satisfied with myself for all the drinking water Ive saved with these big-ticket projects.
Now I realize that my daily consumption choices could have an even larger effect –not only on the local water supply but also globally: 1.1 billion people have no access to freshwater, and, in the future, those who do have access will have less of it.
To see how much virtual water 1 was using, I logged on to the "Green Blue Book" website and used its water footprint calculator, entering my daily consumption habits. Tallying up the water footprint of my breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks, as well as my daily dose of over-the-counter uppers and downers - coffee, wine and beer- Im using 512 gallons of virtual water each day just to feed myself.
In a word: alarming.
Even more alarming was how much hidden water I was using to get dressed. Im hardly a clotheshorse, but the few new items I buy once again trumped the amount of water flowing from my faucets each day. If Im serious about saving water, I realized I could make some simple lifestyle shifts. Looking more closely at the areas in my life that use the most virtual water, it was food and clothes, specifically meat, coffee and, oddly, blue jeans and leather jackets.
Being a motorcyclist, I own an unusually large amount of leather - boots and jackets in particular. All of it is enormously water intensive. It takes 7,996 gallons to make a leather.jacket, leather being a byproduct of beef. It takes 2,866 gallons of water to make a single pair of blue jeans, because theyre made from water-hogging cotton.
Crunching the numbers for the amount of clothes I buy every year, it looks a lot like my friends swimming pool. My entire closet is borderline Olympic.
My late resolution is to buy some items used. Underwear and socks are, of course, exempt from this strategy, but 1 have no problem shopping less and also shopping at Goodwill. In fact, Id been doing that for the past year to save money. My clothes outrageous water footprint just reintbrced it for me.
More conscious living and substitution, rather than sacrifice, are the prevailing ideas with the water footprint. Its one Im trying, and thats had an unusual upside. I had a hamburger recently, and I enjoyed it a lot more since it is now an occasional treat rather than a weekly habit.
(One gallon =3.8 litres)
According to the passage, the Water Footprint Network[2分]
made the author aware of freshwater shortage.
helped the author get to know the Green Blue Book.
worked for freshwater conservation for nonprofit purposes.
collaborated with the Green Blue Book in freshwater conservation.
Which of the following reasons can best explain the authors feeling of self-satisfaction?[2分]
He made contribution to drinking water conservation in his own way.
Money spent on upgrading his household facilities was worthwhile.
His house was equipped with advanced water-saving facilities.
He could have made even greater contribution by changing his lifestyle.
According to the context, "...how mv own actions factored in" means[2分]
how I could contribute to water conservation.
what efforts I should make to save fresh water.
what behaviour could be counted as freshwater-saving.
how much of what I did contributed to freshwater shortage.
According to the passage, the author was more alarmed by the fact that[2分]
he was having more meat and coffee.
his clothes used even more virtual water.
globally there will be less fresh water.
his lifestyle was too extravagant.
"My entire closet is borderline Olympic" is an example of[2分]
What is the tone of the author in the last paragraph?[2分]
In her novel of "Reunion, American Style", Rona Jaffe suggests that a class reunion "is more than a sentimental journey. It is also a way of answering the question that lies at the back of nearly all our minds. Did they do better than I?"
Jaffes observation may be misplaced but not completely lost. According to a study conducted by social psychologist Jack Sparacino, the overwhelming majority who attend reunions arent there invidiously to compare their recent accomplishments with those of their former classmates. Instead, they hope, primarily, to relive their earlier successes.
Certainly, a few return to show their former classmates how well they have done; others enjoy observing the changes that have occurred in their classmates (not always in themselves, of course). But the majority who attend their class reunions do so to relive the good times they remember having when they were younger. In his study, Sparacino found that, as high school students, attendees had been more popular, more often regarded as attractive, and more involved in extracurricular activities than those classmates who chose not to attend. For those who turned up at their reunions, then, the old times were also the good times!
It would appear that Americans have a special fondness for reunions, judging by their prevalence. Major league baseball players, fraternity members, veterans groups, high school and college graduates, and former Boy Scouts all hold reunions on a regular basis. In addition, family reunions frequently attract blood relatives from faraway places who spend considerable money and time to reunite.
Actually, in their affection for reuniting with friends, family or colleagues, Americans are probably no different from any other people, except that Americans have created a mind-boggling number and variety of institutionalized forms of gatherings to facilitate the satisfaction of this desire. Indeed, reunions have increasingly become formal events that are organized on a regular basis and, in the process, they have also become big business.
Shell Norris of Class Reunion, Inc., says that Chicago alone has 1,500 high school reunions each year. A conservative estimate on the national level would be 10,000 annually. At one time, all high school reunions were organized by volunteers, usually female homemakers. In the last few years, however, as more and more women have entered the labour force, alumni reunions are increasingly being planned by specialized companies rather than by part-time volunteers.
The first college reunion was held by the alumni of Yale University in 1792. Graduates of Pennsylvania, Princeton, Stanford, and Brown followed suit. And by the end of the 19th century,
most 4-year institutions were holding alumni reunions.
The variety of college reunions is impressive. At Princeton, alumni parade through the town wearing their class uniforms and singing their alma mater. At Marietta College, they gather for a dinner-dance on a steamship cruising the Ohio River.
Clearly, the thought of cruising on a steamship or marching through the streets is usually not, by itself, sufficient reason for large numbers of alumni to return to campus. Alumni who decide to attend their reunions share a common identity based on the years they spent together as undergraduates. For this reason, universities that somehow establish a common bond – for example, because they are relatively small or especially prestigious - tend to draw substantial numbers of their alumni to reunions. In an effort to enhance this common identity, larger colleges and universities frequently build their class reunions on participation in smaller units, such as departments or schools. Or they encourage "affinity reunions" for groups of former cheerleaders, editors, fraternity members, musicians, members of military organizations on campus, and the like.
Of course, not every alumnus is fond of his or her alma mater. Students who graduated during the late 1960s may be especially reluctant to get involved in alumni events. They were part of the generation that conducted sit-ins and teach-ins directed at university administrators, protested military recruitment on campus and marched against "establishment politics." If this generation has a common identity, it may fall outside of their university ties - or even be hostile to them. Even as they enter their middle years, alumni who continue to hold unpleasant memories of college during this period may not wish to attend class reunions.
According to the passage, Sparacinos study[2分]
provided strong evidence for Jaffes statement.
showed that attendees tended to excel in high school study.
found that interest in reunions was linked with school experience.
found evidence for attendees intense desire for showing off success.
Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a distinct feature of U.S. class reunions?[2分]
U.S. class reunions are usually occasions to show off ones recent success.
Reunions are regular and formal events organized by professional agencies.
Class reunions have become a profitable business.
Class reunions have brought about a variety of activities.
What mainly attracts many people to return to campus for reunion?[2分]
The variety of activities for class reunion.
The special status their university enjoys.
Shared experience beyond the campus.
Shared undergraduate experience on campus.
The rhetorical function of the first paragraph is to[2分]
introduce Rona Jeffes novel.
present the authors counterargument.
serve as prelude to the authors argument.
bring into focus contrasting opinions.
What is the passage mainly about?[2分]
Reasons for popularity and (non)attendance for alumni reunions.
A historical perspective for alumni reunions in the United States.
Alumni reunions and American university traditions.
Alumni reunion and its social and economic implications.
One time while on his walk George met Mr. Cattanzara coming home very late from work. He wondered if he was drunk but then could tell he wasnt. Mr. Cattanzara, a stocky, bald-headed man who worked in a change booth on an IRT station, lived on the next block after Georges, above a shoe repair store. Nights, during the hot weather, he sat on his stoop in an undershirt, reading the New York Times in the light of the shoemakers window. He read it from the first page to the last, then went up to sleep. And all the time he was reading the paper, his wife, a fat woman with a white face, leaned out of the window, gazing into the street, her thick white arms folded under her loose breast, on the window ledge.
Once in a while Mr. Cattanzara came home drunk, but it was a quiet drunk. He never made any trouble, only walked stiffly up the street and slowly climbed the stairs into the hall. Though drunk he looked the same as always, except for his tight walk, the quietness, and that his eyes were wet. George liked Mr. Cattanzara because he remembered him giving him nickels to buy lemon ice with when he was a squirt. Mr. Cattanzara was a different type than those in the neighbourhood. He asked different questions than the others when he met you, and he seemed to know what went on in all the newspapers. He read them, as his fat sick wife watched from the window.
"What are you doing with yourself this summer, George?" Mr. Cattanzara asked. "l see you walkin around at night."
George felt embarrassed. "I like to walk."
"What are you doin in the day now?"
"Nothing much just now. Im waiting for a job." Since it shamed him to admit that he wasnt working, George said, "Im reading a lot to pick up my education."
"What are you readin?"
George hesitated, then said, "I got a list of books in the library once and now Im gonna read them this summer." He felt strange and a little unhappy saying this, but he wanted Mr. Cattanzara to respect him.
"How many books are there on it?"
"I never counted them. Maybe around a hundred."
Mr. Cattanzara whistled through his teeth.
"I figure if l did that," George went on earnestly, "it would help me in my education. 1 dont mean the kind they give you in high school. I want to know different things than they learn there, if you know what I mean."
The change maker nodded. "Still and all, one hundred books is a pretty big load for one
"It might take longer."
"After youre finished with some, maybe you and I can shoot the breeze about them?" said Mr. Cattanzara.
"When Im finished," George answered.
Mr. Cattanzara went home and George continued on his walk. After that, though he had the urge to, George did nothing different from usual. He still took his walks at night, ending up in the little park. But one evening the shoemaker on the next block stopped George to say he was a good boy, and George figured that Mr. Cattanzara had told him all about the books he was reading. From the shoemaker it must have gone down the street, because George saw a couple of people smiling kindly at him, though nobody spoke to him personally. He felt a little better around the neighbourhood and liked it more, though not so much he would want to live in it forever. He had never exactly disliked the people in it, yet he had never liked them very much either. It was the fault of the neighbourhood. To his surprise, George found out that his father and his sister Sophie knew about his reading too. His father was too shy to say anything about it - he was never much of a talker in his whole life -- but Sophie was softer to George, and she showed him in other ways she was proud of him.
In the excerpt, Mr. Cattanzara was described as a man who[2分]
was fond of drinking.
showed a wide interest.
often worked overtime.
liked to gossip after work.
It can be inferred from the passage that[2分]
Mr. Cattanzara was surprised at Georges reading plan.
Mr. Cannazara was doubtful about George throughout.
George was forced to tell a lie and then regretted.
George lied at the beginning and then became serious.
After the street conversation with Mr. Cattanzara, George[2分]
remained the same as usual.
became more friendly with Mr. Cattanzara.
began to like his neighbours more than ever.
continued to read the books from the list.
We can tell from the excerpt that George[2分]
had a neither close nor distant relationship with his father.
was dissatisfied with his life and surroundings.
found that his sister remained skeptical about him.
found his neighbours liked to poke their nose into him.
Abraham Lincoln turns 200 this year, and hes beginning to show his age. When his birthday arrives, on February 12, Congress will hold a special joint session in the Capitols National Statuary Hall, a wreath will be laid at the great memorial in Washington, and a webcast will link school classrooms for a "teach-in" honouring his memory.
Admirable as they are, though, the events will strike many of us Lincoln fans as inadequate, even halfhearted -- and another sign that our appreciation for the 16th president and his towering achievements is slipping away. And you dont have to be a Lincoln enthusiast to believe that this is something we cant afford to lose.
Compare this years celebration with the Lincoln centennial, in 1909. That year, Lincolns likeness made its debut on the penny, thanks to approval from the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury. Communities and civic associations in every comer of the country erupted in parades, concerts, balls, lectures, and military displays. We still feel the effects today: The momentum unloosed in 1909 led to the Lincoln Memorial, opened in 1922, and the Lincoln Highway, the first paved transcontinental thoroughfare.
The celebrants in 1909 had a few inspirations we lack today. Lincolns presidency was still a living memory for countless Americans. In 2009 we are farther in time from the end of the Second World War than they were from the Civil War; families still felt the loss of loved ones from that awful national trauma.
But Americans in 1909 had something more: an unembarrassed appreciation for heroes and an acute sense of the way that even long-dead historical figures press in on the present and make us who we are.
One story will illustrate what lm talking about.
In 2003 a group of local citizens arranged to place a statue of Lincoln in Richmond, Virginia, former capital of the Confederacy. The idea touched off a firestorm of controversy. The Sons of Confederate Veterans held a public conference of carefully selected scholars to "reassess" the legacy of Lincoln. The verdict - no surprise - was negative: Lincoln was labeled everything from a racist totalitarian to a teller of dirty jokes.
I covered the conference as a reporter, but what really unnerved me was a counter-conference of scholars to refute the earlier one. These scholars drew a picture of Lincoln that only our touchy-feely age could conjure up. The man who oversaw the most savage war in our history was described - by his admirers, remember - as "nonjudgmental," "unmoralistic," "comfortable with ambiguity."
I felt the way a friend of mine felt as we later watched the unveiling of the Richmond statue in a subdued ceremony: "But hes so small!"
The statue in Richmond was indeed small; like nearly every Lincoln statue put up in the past half century, it was life-size and was placed at ground level, a conscious rejection of the heroic - approachable and human, yes, but not something to look up to.
The Richmond episode taught me that Americans have lost the language to explain Lincolns greatness even to ourselves. Earlier generations said they wanted their children to be like Lincoln: principled, kind, compassionate, resolute. Today we want Lincoln to be like us.
This helps to explain the long string of recent books in which writers have presented a Lincoln made after their own image. Weve had Lincoln as humorist and Lincoln as manic-depressive, Lincoln the business sage, the conservative Lincoln and the liberal Lincoln, the emancipator and the racist, the stoic philosopher, the Christian, the atheist - Lincoln over easy and Lincoln scrambled.
Whats often missing,, though, i, s the timeless Lincoln, the Lincoln whom all generations, our own no less than that of 1909, can lay claim to. Lucky for us, those memorializers from a century ago - and, through them, Lincoln himself- have left us a hin, t of where to find him. The Lincoln Memorial is the mos, , t visited of our presidential monuments. Here is where we find the Lincoln who endures: in the words he left us, defining the country weve inherited. Here is the Lincoln who can be endlessly renewed and who, 200 years after his birth, retains the power to renew us.
The author thinks that this years celebration is inadequate and even halfhearted because[2分]
no Lincoln statue will be unveiled.
no memorial coins will be issued.
no similar appreciation of Lincoln will be seen.
no activities can be compared to those in 1909.
According to the passage, what really makes the 1909 celebrations different from this years?[2分]
Respect for great people and their influence.
Variety and magnitude of celebration activities.
Structures constructed in memory of Lincoln.
Temporal proximity to Lincolns presidency.
In the authors opinion, the counter-conference[2分]
rectified the judgment by those carefully selected scholars.
offered a brand new reassessment perspective.
came up with somewhat favourable conclusions.
resulted in similar disparaging remarks on Lincoln.
According to the author, the image of Lincoln conceived by contemporary people[2分]
conforms to traditional images.
reflects the present-day tendency of worship.
shows the present-day desire to emulate Lincoln.
reveals the variety of current opinions on heroes.
Which of the following best explains the implication of the last paragraph?[2分]
Lincolns greatness remains despite the passage of time.
The memorial is symbolic of the great mans achievements.
Each generation has it own interpretation of Lincoln.
People get to know Lincoln through memorializers.
There are ten multiple-choice questions in this section. Mark the best answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
The Maori people are natives of[0.5分]
New Zealand.
The British monarch is the Head of[0.5分]
Americans celebrate Independence Day on[0.5分]
July 4th.
October 11th.
May 31st.
September 6th.
Canada is bounded on the north by[0.5分]
the Pacific Ocean.
the Atlantic Ocean.
the Arctic Ocean.
the Great Lakes.
Who is the author of The Waste Lana?[0.5分]
George Bernard Shaw.
W.B. Yeats.
Dylan Thomas.
T.S. Eliot.
Which of the following novelists wrote The Sound and the Fury?[0.5分]
William Faulkner.
Ernest Hemingway.
Scott Fitzgerald.
John Steinbeck.
"The lettuce was lonely without tomatoes and cucumbers for company" is an example of[0.5分]
In English ifa word begins with a [l] or a [r], then the next sound must be a vowel. This is a (n)[0.5分]
assimilation rule.
sequential rule.
deletion rule.
grammar rule.
Which of the following is an example of clipping?[0.5分]
The type of language which is selected as appropriate to a particular type of" situation is called[0.5分]
The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proof-read the passage and correct it in the following way:
For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank
provided at the end of the line.
For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a "L" sign and write the
word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the
For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the
blank provided at the end of the line.
When A art museum wants a new exhibit, (1) an
it never buys things in finished form and hangs (2) never
them on the wall. When a natural history museum
wants an exhibition, it must often build it. (3) exhibit
Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed.
The central problem of translating has always been whether to translate literally or freely. The argument has been going since at least the first (1) ______
century B.C. Up to the beginning of the 19th century, many writers
favoured certain kind of “free” translation: the spirit, not the letter; the (2) _______
sense not the word; the message rather the form; the matter not (3) _______
the manner. This is the often revolutionary slogan of writers who (4) _______
wanted the truth to be read and understood. Then in the turn of 19th (5) _______
century, when the study of cultural anthropology suggested that
the linguistic barriers were insuperable and that the language (6) _______
was entirely the product of culture, the view translation was impossible (7) _______
gained some currency, and with it that, if was attempted at all, it must be as (8) _______
literal as possible. This view culminated the statement of the (9) _______
extreme “literalists” Walter Benjamin and Vladimir Nobokov.
The argument was theoretical: the purpose of the translation, the
nature of the readership, the type of the text, was not discussed. Too
often, writer, translator and reader were implicitly identified with
each other. Now, the context has changed, and the basic problem remains. (10) _____
Translate the underlined part of the following text into English. Write your translation on
Tortured by the pains gathering in her heart, she felt something was burning between her eyebrows. Her chest was brimmed with depression which was likely to run out of her throat at any moment. She could not think clearly any longer when the headmaster told her that the child suffered from developmental retardation. She strode up and down in the room where her child stayed with other pals. There was only one window in the room, out of which some shady trees were whispering. “Just leave it here”, she told herself, “This is the best choice by far, for there are kind priests and nuns in this place which may also be renovated into a Medicare center”. The child was her secret which would be kept in the buildings behind the woods.
Translate the underlined part of the following text into Chinese Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
In some cases, intelligent people implementing intelligent policies are responsible for producing a "boomerang effect"; they actually create more of whatever it is they seek to reduce in the first place.
The boomerang effect has been achieved many times in recent years by men and women of goodwill. State legislatures around the nation have recently raised the drinking age back to 21 in an effort to reduce the prevalence of violent deaths among our young people. But such policies seem instead to have created the conditions for even more campus violence. Some college students who previously drank in bars and lounges under the watchful supervision of bouncers (夜总会,酒吧等保安人员) (not to mention owners ea~er to keep their liquor licenses) now retreat to the sanctuary of their fraternity houses and apartments, where they no longer control their behaviour - or their drinking.
The boomerang effect has also played a role in attempts to reduce the availability of illicit drugs. During recent years, the federal government has been quite successful in reducing the supply of street drugs. As fields are burned and contraband (违禁品)confiscated, the price of street drugs has skyrocketed to a point where cheap altematives have begun to compete in the marketplace. Unfortunately, the cheap alternatives are even more harmful than the illicit drugs they replace.
boomerang: a curved flat piece of wood that can be thrown so as to retum to the thrower 回飞镖[10分]
A recent survey of 2,000 college students asked about their attitudes towards phone calls and text-messaging (also known as Short Message Service) and found the students main goal was to pass along information in as little time, with as little small talk, as possible. "What they like most about their mobile devices is that they can reach other people," says Naomi Baron, a professor of linguistics at American University in Washington, D.C., who conducted the survey. "What they like least is that other people can reach them." How far do you agree with Professor Baron?
In the first part of your essay you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary.
You should supply an appropriate title for your essay.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, language and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.
Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.[15分]

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