The conclusion can be deduced from the premises.[1分]
I can no longer tolerate his actions.[1分]
Our plan is to allocate one member of staff to handle appointments.[1分]
She has been the subject of massive media coverage.[1分]
I expect that she will be able to cater for your particular needs.[1分]
The index is the government's chief gauge of future economic activity.[1分]
It's sensible to start any exercise program gradually at first.[1分]
A lot of people could fall ill after drinking contaminated water.[1分]
You have to be patient if you want to sustain your position.[1分]
She stood there, trembling with fear.[1分]
The food is insufficient for three people.[1分]
Thousands of people perished in the storm.[1分]
But in the end he approved of our proposal.[1分]
For young children, getting dressed is a complicated business.[1分]
In Britain and many other countries, appraisal is now a tool of management.[1分]
Surgery that can improve the way a person looks is becoming more and more popular in the United States. This kind of surgery is called cosmetic surgery, and both men and women are turning to this treatment as a way of keeping their appearance young as well as keeping competitive (有竞争力的) in their jobs. Men especially are beginning to turn to face-lifts (面部拉皮手术), liposuction (taking fat out of the body), and implants (putting artificial, parts into their bodies) to help them look younger. As companies downsize (缩编) and move younger employees into higher positions, older employees in their late forties and early fifties feel the need to look and act younger in order to stay competitive. These operations are not without dangers, however.
One young woman had an eye operation to get rid of the bags under her eyes. She described her experience as terrible. She said, "When he started cutting, I was fully awake. Even though he'd given me an injection near my eyes, I saw everything." She went on to explain, "1 knew I had to keep still because of what he was doing. He was scraping (刮) away fat underneath my eyes. It took about ten minutes. After he finished, I felt I couldn't walk. I was so faint." Her troubles did not end after the operation for two weeks. Her eyes were swollen (肿胀的) and almost completely closed, and even dark glasses could not hide the side effects of the operation.
Liposuction, taking fat out of the body, is probably the most popular cosmetic operation in the United States. It seems simple enough. First, a small cut is made over the place where the patient wants the fat removed. Next, a small pipe is put into the cut. A machine like a vacuum cleaner is then used to suck the fat out of the body. However, as one doctor explained, some problems can happen after the operation. He warned; "Irregular lumps and loose skin can result from this operation. If it is not evenly done, liposuction can produce a very lumpy result." Patients often must have more liposuction to correct the problem.
Cosmetic surgery is more popular in the US than anywhere else.[1分]
The way a man looks has little to do with the job opportunities he may have.[1分]
There are hardly any risks involved in cosmetic operations[1分]
The young woman was by no means satisfied with the eye operation.[1分]
The eye operation was such a failure that the woman refused to pay for it.[1分]
Not everyone is a good candidate for liposuction.[1分]
Sometimes liposuction patients may have to undergo more than one operation.[1分]
1.If someone says to you your music CDs don’t really hold any music on them, and they only have numbers recorded on them, you may not believe it. In fact, he is right in that sound is actually recorded onto the CDs as special numbers — a digital code.1 The code is pressed onto the CD as bumps on a long spiral track almost five kilometerslong. These bumps are an average of 0.5 microns wide.
2.A small laser beam shines onto the bumps as the CD turns. The light is reflected back to a receiver that records how the laser light bounces back. This lets the CD player2 turn the reflected light back into the original code. This means you can hear the original code as music.
3.Digital codes are used with many technologies. E-mail needs these kinds of code numbers. Space probes communicate with their ground station on earth using digital codes. Bar codes are read as digital codes in computer systems. Digital communications with cell phones need digital codes. Weather radios also tune in to specific signals using these codes.
4.There are many types of compact disk. One format is called CD-RWs. They can be recorded on and re-recorded on (rewritten on) as you would do with a floppy disk3. Another format is the CD-ROM. The technology for recording on these disks is different from other CDs. These CDs have a dye layer that the CD writer can darken or leave clear. The clear and dark spots are the digital code. CD-ROM stands for Compact Disc — Read Only
Memory.4 This disk is like a “super” floppy disk that can hold lots of information. One CD-ROM can hold the same amount of data as 500 floppy disks. Information is permanently recorded onto it. Computer games and other programs are considered to be CD-ROMs.
5.CDs were first sold to the public in 1982. These CDs still play well and sound fine. Current CDs are expectedto last between 70 to 200 years. Of course, you can make sure your CDs last a long time by taking care of them.
6.Science keeps on developing. It may not be many more years before a completely new technology is invented5 and introduced to the public for music recording. In the meantime, there is no doubt you will continue to enjoy listening to your favorite music on CDs6 and playing your favorite computer games on CD-ROMs.
A.Digital Code Has Wide Applications
B.Floppy Disks Are Outdated
C.CDs Are Durable
D.CD’s Working Principle Is Explained
E.CD-RWs Play Better Than CD-ROWs
F.CDs Are of Many Formats
Paragraphs 1 & 2__________[1分]
A.shine on bumps
B.take many more years
C.be the key parts
D.restore the original code
E.be written on and rewritten on
F.keep contact with their ground station efficiently
One advantage of CD-RWs is that they can like floppy disks.[1分]
The author predicts it will not before a new technology is invented for music recording.[1分]
The laser beam-emitting device and the receiver are considered to of a CD player.[1分]
Space probes could not without using digital codes.[1分]
The Best Way to Reduce Your Weight
You hear this：“No wonder you are fat.All you ever do is eat.”You feel sad：“I skip my breakfast and supper.I run every morning and evening.What else can I do?”Basically you can do nothing.Your genes，not your life habits，determine your weight and your body constantly tries to maintain it.
Albert Stunkard of the University of Pennsylvania found from experiments that，“80 percent of the children of two obese parents become obese，as compared with no more than 14 percent of the offspring of two parents of normal weight.”
How can obese people become normal or even thin through dieting?Well，dieting can be effective，but the health costs are tremendous.Jules Hirsch，a research physician at Rockefeller University，did a study of eight fat people.They were given a liquid formula providing 600 calories a day1.After more than 10 weeks，the subjects lost 45kg on average.But after leaving the hospital，they all regained.The results were surprising：by metabolic measurement，fat people who lost large amounts of weight seemed like they were starving.They had psychiatric problems.They dreamed of food or breaking their diet2.They were anxious and depressed;some were suicidal.They hid food in their rooms.Researchers warn that it is possible that weight reduction doesn’t result in normal weight，but in an abnormal state resembling that of starved non-obese people.
Thin people，however，suffer from the opposite：They have to make a great effort to gain weight.Ethan Sims，of the University of Vermont，got prisoners to volunteer to gain weight.In four to six months，they ate as much as they could.They succeeded in increasing their weight by 20 to 25 percent.But months after the study ended，they were back to normal weight and stayed there.
This did not mean that people are completely without hope in controlling their weight.It means that those who tend to be fat will have to constantly battle their genetic inheritance if they want to significantly lower their weight.
The findings also provide evidence for something scientists thought was true-each person has a comfortable weight range3.The range might be as much as 9kg.Someone might weigh 60-69kg without too much effort.But going above or below the natural weight range is difficult.The body resists by feeling hungry or full and changing the metabolism to push the weight back to the range it seeks.
skip/skIp/v.跳过 obese/Eu5bi:s/adi.肥胖的metabolic/metE5bClIk/adj.新陈代谢的 psychiatric/7saIkI5Atrik/adj.精神病的
1.They were given a liquid formula providing 600 calories a day.他们被给予一种流食配方，每天提供600热卡。
2.They dreamed of food or breaking their diet.他们梦中吃食品，或是不是只吃规定的食品。
3.The findings alsoprovide evidence forsomething scientists thought was true-each person has a comfortable weight range.结论还证实了科学家认为是正确的一点，即每个人的体重有一个适当的幅度。
What determines your weight?[3分]
What did Jules Hirsch do in his study?[3分]
He let the eight fat people skip supper.
He let the eight fat people skip breakfast.
He let the eight fat people run every morning and evening.
He gave the eight fat people a liquid formula providing 600 calories a day.
What happened to the eight fat people after they left the hospital?[3分]
They were back to normal weight.
What did Ethan Sims make his subjects do?[3分]
Battle their genetic inheritance.
What did scientists think was true?[3分]
Each person has a fixed weight range.
Each person has a weight range of 9 kg.
Each person wants to control his weight.
Each person wants to eat to his heart’s content.
Evidence of Ancient Hunters
Russian and Norwegian scientists have reported finding stone objects and animal bones in the far north of European Russia. The scientists say the objects provide the first evidence that ancient hunters lived in the area more than 30 thousand years ago. They say this is at least 15 thousand years earlier than experts had thought.
The Russian and Norwegian team worked at a camp along the Usa River and the Arctic Circle. The scientists say they found several ancient stone tools. They also found 123 bones from animals such as horses, reindeer(驯鹿)and wolves.
The scientists say their most important discovery was a tusk from an ancient elephant called a mammoth(猛犸). The huge, curved tooth was more than l meter long. The tusk is covered with small cuts. The scientists believe humans made the marks with sharp-edged stone tools.
The scientists used a process known as radiocarbon(放射性碳)dating to measure the age of the tusk. Radiocarbon dating shows the level of a radioactive form of carbon in a substance. The tests showed the tusk is about 36 thousand years old.
The scientists say they are not sure what kind of humans left the stone objects and bones along the river. They said the people were either early humans called Neanderthals(穴居人,尼安德特人) or modern humans. Modern humans spread through Europe and Asia 30 thousand years ago. The scientists say the ancient people needed a high level of social development to survive in the extremely cold environment.
The objects were discovered about 300 kilometers northeast of another area where scientists say humans once lived. That area has objects more closely linked to modern humans. Those objects are believed to be about 28 thousand years old.
Nature magazine also published a report by John Gowlett of the University of Liverpool in England. He said the discovery shows the ability of early humans to do the unexpected. He also said the discovery should renew debate about the effects of the climate on the movements of early human population.
Before people found stone objects and animal bones in the north of European Russia, some experts thought human beings lived in that area about[3分]
The following statements are true concerning the significance of the finding EXCEPT that[3分]
it brings forwards the time in which ancient hunters lived in that area
it provides the evidence of a high level of ancient human society
it showed the unexpected ability of the early humans
it indicates the effect of climate on the movement of early human population
Which is the most important discovery among the findings[3分]
mammoth tusk covered with small cuts
How old is the tusk? About years old[3分]
What did the ancient people need to survive in the extremely cold environment[3分]
the ability to do the unexpected
a high level of social development
A.proverb allegedly (据说) from ancient China was widely spread in the West：“If you want to be happy for a few hours，go to get drunk;if you want the happiness to last three years，get married：if you want a lifetime happiness，take up gardening.”The reason for the last option is this：Gardening is not only useful;it helps you to identify yourself with nature，and thus brings you new joy each day besides improving your health.
A.research of a US university that I've read gives a definition of happiness as what makes a person feel comfortably pleased. To put it specifically, happiness is an active state of mind where one thinks one's life is meaningful, satisfactory and comfortable. This should be something lasting rather than transitory.
Lots of people regard it the happiest to be at leisure. But according to the study, it is not a person with plenty of leisure but one at work that feels happy, especially those busy with work having little time for leisure. Happiness does not spell gains one is after but a desire to harvest what one is seeking for. People often do not cherish what they already have but yearn for what they cannot get. That is somewhat like a man indulging in dreams of numerous lovers while reluctant to settle down with the woman beside him.
Happiness is a game balancing between two ends -- what one has and what one wishes for, i.e. one's dream and the possibility to realize it. The study comes to this conclusion: A happy man is one who aims high but never forgets his actual situation; one who meets challenges that tap his ability and potentiality; one who is proud of his achievements and the recognition given to him. He has self-respect and self-confidence; treasures his own identity and loves freedom. He is sociable and enjoys wide-range communication with others; he is helpful and ready to accept assistance. He knows he is able to endure sufferings and frustrations; he is sensible enough to get fun from daily chores. He is a man capable of love and passion.
Gardening can bring lifelong happiness because[3分]
it is a profitable business.
it can improve a gardener's ability to remake nature.
a gardener can enjoy a very happy relationship in marriage.
nature is an unexhausted source of joy
The research of the US university found that most people feel happy when they[3分]
take the job of gardening.
Why does the writer mention "a man indulging in dreams of numerous lovers" (Lines 5 --6, Para. 3)?[3分]
To demonstrate the problem in marriage in modern society.
To illustrate a radical way to achieve happiness.
To criticize those who do not value what they already have.
To indicate that happiness covers something besides the desire to gain
What kind of person is more likely to be unhappy according to the study?[3分]
The one who has self-respect and confidence.
The one who is ambitious without consideration of his actual situation.
The one who can take pleasure in communicating with others.
The one who are ready to render help and accept help from others.
What is happiness?[3分]
A transitory state of mind.
Getting everything what one desires.
An all-working and no-leisure life.
A desire based on our actual situation.
Mind Those Manners on the Subway
So, there you are, just sitting there in the subway car, enjoying that book you just bought ____________ (46) Or, the person sitting next to you takes out a nail clipper (指甲刀) and begins cutting his or her nails.
Annoying? Many of us have to spend some time every day on public transportation. ____________ (47) So, to make the trip more pleasant, we suggest the following:
Let passengers get off the bus or subway car before you can get on. ____________ (48)
Stand away from the doors when they are closing.
Don’t talk loudly on a bus or subway. Chatting loudly with your friends can be annoying to others. ____________ (49)
Don’t think your bags and suitcases (手提箱) deserve a seat of their own.
Use a tissue whenever you cough or sneeze (打喷嚏). An uncovered sneeze can spread germs (细菌), especially in crowded places.
Don’t cut your nails or pick your nose on public transportation.
Don’t read over other people’s shoulder. ____________ (50) It can make people uncomfortable. They might think you’re too stingy (小气的) even to buy a newspaper. Or they might think you’re judging their behavior.
A.Don’t eat food in your car.
B.Don’t shout into your mobile phone on a bus or subway.
C.We all know that some behaviors are simply unacceptable.
D.Many people do this on subways, but it’s really annoying.
E.Getting off and on in an orderly manner can save time for all.
F.Suddenly, you feel someone leaning over your shoulder reading along with you.
margaret sanger and birth control
margaret sanger, an american nurse, was the first to start the modern birth control movement in the united states. in 1912 she (1) publishing information about women's reproductive (生殖的) concerns through articles and books. in 1914 sanger was charged (2) violation of, the comstock law, which federal legislation had passed in 1873 forbidding the mailing of sexy material (3) information about birth control and contraceptive (避孕的) devices. though she was put in jail for these activities, sanger (4) to publish and spread information about birth control. she and her sister ethel byrne opened the first of several birth control clinics in america on october 16, 1916, in brooklyn, new york.
the comstock law was rewritten by congress in 1936 to (5) birth control information and devices. many states had laws forbidding distribution or use of contraceptive devices but the constitutionality (合宪性) of these laws was increasingly (6). in 1965, the supreme court of the united states ruled that married people have the right to practice birth control without government intervention. in 1972, the court (7) that unmarried people have the same right.
today there are more birth control options (8), but overpopulation and unwanted pregnancies remain worldwide (9). having more children than one can support may lead (10) poverty, illness, and high death rates for babies, children, and women.
the problem of teenage pregnancy is (11) worse in the united states (12) in almost any other developed country. studies show that birth rates for women under 20 are higher in the united states than in 29 other (13) countries. a detailed study suggested that the problem of teenage pregnancy in the united states may be (14) to less sex education in schools and lower availability (可获性) of contraceptive services and supplies to young people. this study (15) the view of people in the united states who argue that sex education or making contraceptive supplies available to school-age children promotes sexual activity.