2010年6月大学英语四级考试全真预测试卷一Model Test One
Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition one topic: City Problems. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese:
Nowsdays, millions of migrant workers flock into cities in search of jobs and better living. However, with the sharp rise in the urban population, many problems arise in the development of cities.
Firstly, cities become more and more crowded, putting much pressure upon transportation, housing, sanitation, education, employment and so on. City services and facilities have been strained to a breaking point. Secondly, a growing number of private cars emit a huge amount of carbon dioxide, leaving the air mercilessly polluted.What ismore, the city is also threatened by an increase in crime. There is not a single day passing without the report of someone being robbed, kidnapped or even murdered.
Last but not least, city-dwellers are not only separated from the nature but also isolated from each other, even not knowing name of their next-door neighbor.
All these problems have harmed the attractiveness of the city. More people may seek to live in the suburbs if there isn't any improvement.
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1.For questions 1-7, mark
Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage.
For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Scientists Weigh Options for Rebuilding New Orleans
As experts ponder how best to rebuild the devastated (毁坏)city, one question is whether to wall off—or work with—the water.
Even before the death toll from Hurricane Katrina is tallied, scientists are cautiously beginning to discuss the future of New Orleans. Few seem to doubt that this vital heart of U.S. commerce and culture will be restored, but exactly how to rebuild the city and its defenses to avoid a repeat catastrophe is an open question. Plans for improving its levees and restoring the barrier of wetlands around New Orleans have been on the table since 1998, but federal dollars needed to implement them never arrived. After the tragedy, that's bound to change, says John Day, an ecologist at Louisiana State University (LSU) in Baton Rouge. And if there is an upside to the disaster, he says, it's that 'now we've got a clean slate to start from."
Many are looking for guidance to the Netherlands, a country that, just like bowl-shaped New Orleans, sits mostly below sea level, keeping the water at bay with a construction of amazing scale and complexity. Others, pointing to Venice's long-standing adaptations, say it's best to let water flow through the city, depositing sediment to offset geologic subsidence—a model that would require a radical rethinking of architecture. Another idea is to let nature help by restoring the wetland buffers between sea and city.
But before the options can be weighed, several unknowns will have to be addressed. One is precisely how the current defenses failed. To answer that, LSU coastal scientists Paul Kemp and Hassan Mashriqui are picking their way through the destroyed city and surrounding region, reconstructing the size of water surges by measuring telltale marks left on the sides of buildings and highway structures. They are feeding these data into a simulation of the wind and water around New Orleans during its ordeal.
"We can't say for sure until this job is done," says Day, "but the emerging picture is exactly what we've predicted for years." Namely, several canals—including the MRGO, which was built to speed shipping in the 1960s—have the combined effect of funneling surges from the Gulf of Mexico right to the city's eastern levees and the lake system to the north. Those surges are to blame for the flooding. "One of the first things we'll see done is the complete backfilling of the MRGO canal," predicts Day, "which could take a couple of years."
The levees, which have been provisionally repaired, will be shored up further in the months to come, although their long-term fate is unclear. Better levees would probably have prevented most of the flooding in the city center. To provide further protection, a mobile dam system, much like a storm surge barrier in the Netherlands, could be used to close off the mouth of Lake Pontchartrain. But most experts agree that these are short-term fixes.
The basic problem for New Orleans and the Louisiana coastline is that the entire Mississippi River delta is subsiding and eroding, plunging the city deeper below sea level and removing a thick cushion of wetlands that once buffered the coastline from wind and waves. Part of the subsidence is geologic and unavoidable, but the rest stems from the levees that have hemmed in the Mississippi all the way to its mouth for nearly a century to prevent floods and facilitate shipping. As a result, river sediment is no longer spread across the delta but dumped into the Gulf of Mexico. Without a constant stream of fresh sediment, the barrier islands and marshes are disappearing rapidly, with a quarter, roughly the size of Rhode Island, already gone.
After years of political wrangling, a broad group pulled together by the Louisiana government in 1998 proposed a massive $14 billion plan to save the Louisiana coasts, called Coast 2050 (now modified into a plan called the Louisiana Coastal Area project). Wetland restoration was a key component. "It's one of the best and cheapest hurricane defenses," says Day, who chaired its scientific advisory committee.
Although the plan was never given more than token funding, a team led by Day has been conducting a pilot study since 2000, diverting part of the Mississippi into the wetlands downstream of the city. "The results are as good as we could have hoped," he says, with land levels rising at about 1 centimeter per year—enough to offset rising sea levels, says Day.
Even if the wetlands were restored and new levees were built, the combination of geologic subsidence and rising sea levels will likely sink New Orleans another meter by 2100. The problem might be solved by another ambitious plan, says Roel Boumans, a coastal scientist at the University of Vermont in Burlington who did his ph.D. at LSU: shoring up the lowest land with a slurry of sediment piped in from the river. The majority of the buildings in the flooded areas will have to be razed anyway, he says, "so why not take this opportunity to fix the root of the problem?" The river could deposit enough sediment to raise the bottom of the New Orleans bowl to sea level "in 50 to 60 years," he estimates. In the meantime, people could live in these areas Venice-style, with buildings built on stilts. Boumans even takes it a step further: "You would have to raise everything about 30 centimeters once every 30 years, so why not make the job easier by making houses that can float."
Whether that is technically or politically feasible—Day, for one, calls it "not likely" —remains to be seen, especially because until now, the poorest residents lived in the lowest parts of the city. Any decision on how best to protect the city in the future will be tied to how many people will live there, and where. "there may be a large contingent of residents and businesses who choose not to return," says Bill Good, an environmental scientist at LSU and manager of the Louisiana Geological Survey's Coastal Processes section. It is also not yet clear how decisions about the reconstruction will be made, says Good, "Since there is no precedent of comparable magnitude." Every level of government is sure to be involved, and "the process is likely to be ad hoc."
Even with the inevitable mingling of science and politics, we still have "a unique chance to back out of some bad decisions," says Good, who grew up in New Orleans. "I hope that we don't let this once-in-history opportunity slip through our fingers in the rush to rebuild the city:"
The passage gives a general description of the suggestions to reconstruct New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.[1分]
Two examples to deal with water are Netherlands and Venice.[1分]
The canals have nothing to do with the flooding.[1分]
The levees will be shored up further with clear long-term fate.[1分]
The basic problem for New Orleans is the subsidence of Mississippi River delta.[1分]
The key component of Coast 2050 is wetland restoration.[1分]
The plan of Coast 2050 will get billions of federal funding.[1分]
New Orleans will likely sink ________________ by 2100.[1分]
Another ambitious plan is to shoring up the lowest land with a slurry of sediment ________________.[1分]
How decisions about the reconstruction will be made is also ________________.[1分]
Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D], and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
The man doesn't want to see Mr. Williams.
Mr. Jones is in an inferior position to Mr. Williams.
Mr. Jones used to be in charge.
Mr. Williams doesn't want to see the man.
They need to make more efforts.
The others have done the greater part of it.
They've finished more than half of it.
The knife belongs to him.
Bob should mind his own business.
The man once borrowed Bob's knife.
Bob's knife isn't as good as that of the man.
He'll miss the meeting that afternoon.
He can't have an appointment with the host.
He won't miss the meeting.
Because she didn't fulfill her promise.
Because her mother would be very angry.
Because she can't finish the job ahead of schedule.
Because she would be the last to finish the job.
He always talks on the phone for that long if it's toll free.
They had so much free time to talk on the phone for that long.
They talked on the phone for too long.
He wants to know what they talked about.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
He is a teacher of English in Cambridge.
He is a specialist in computer science.
He is a consultant to a Scottish company.
He is a British tourist to China.
In a flat near the college.
Certain things cannot be learned from books.
Foreign students had better live on campus.
Choice of where to live varies from person to person.
British families usually welcome foreign students.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Ways to determine the age of a fossil.
The identity of a fossil the woman found.
A comparison of two shellfish fossils.
Plans for a field trip to look for fossils.
He has never seen a fossil that old.
It could be many millions of years old.
It is probably a recent specimen.
He will ask the lab how old it is.
Put it in her collection.
Leave it with her professor.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
She didn't want to be a typist.
She was not energetic enough to do the job.
She was not enthusiastic about typing.
She never went to a university.
Because nobody wanted to hire her as a pilot.
Because she wanted to prove that a woman could fly an airplane.
Her parents didn't want to hire a pilot.
She did not have enough money to hire a pilot.
Questions 29 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Reading magazine articles.
Selecting information sources.
Gathering non-relevant materials.
Stealing another person's ideas.
Sharing notes with someone else.
Handing in assignments late.
In the student's own words.
It should be assimilated thoroughly.
It should be enclosed in quotation marks.
It should be paraphrased by the author.
It should be authorized by the source.
Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Seasonal variations in nature.
How intelligence changes with the change of seasons.
How we can improve our intelligence.
Why summer is the best season for vacation.
All people are less intelligent in summer than in the other seasons of the year.
Heat has no effect on people's mental abilities.
People living near the equator are the most intelligent.
Both climate and temperature exert impact on people's intelligence.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blank, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
Building after building under water. (36) ________ in shelters. Thousands of others unsure where to go. (37) ________ for help. Anarchy. Bodies in streets. This is what one of America's historic cities was (38) ________ to this week by a powerful storm, Katrina.
Officials want everyone still left in New Orleans, Louisiana, to leave for now. The (39) ________ of New Orleans says thousands may be dead. (40) ________ Katrina also caused death and (41) ________ in parts of Mississippi and Alabama along the Gulf of Mexico. Federal officials reported Friday that more than one million five hundred thousand homes and businesses (42) ________ without electric power.
New Orleans is famous for its wild Mardi Gras (43) ________ and night life in the French Quarter. (44) ________________________. New Orleans has depended on levees, dams made of earth, to control floods from the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain.
Katrina struck on Monday. New Orleans avoided a direct hit. But two of the levees failed the next day. Most of the city was flooded. Helicopters dropped huge sandbags to fill the breaks. (45) ________________________.
America faces one of the worst natural events in its history. President Bush says the recovery will take years. (46) ________________________. The Bush administration is expected to ask for more in the weeks to come.
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
Blue is the world's favorite color. It is also the color most often 47 with intellect and authority.
Most uniforms are blue. In Greek and Roman mythology, blue is the color of sky gods. In the Old Testament, God is 48 by deep blue. Blue and turquoise (青绿色)are represented by the Islamic religion. It is the 49 color in the mosques of the world.
Blue symbolizes truth, peace and cooperation. It is the color of the flag of the United Nations and of Europe. As the coolest color of the spectrum, it is the hue most likely to have a receding effect. As in the skies and water that 50 us, blue is seen as a peaceful and 51 color. Blue light has seen to 52 blood pressure by calming the nervous system hence relaxing the body and mind. Blue creates large airy spaces. It makes rooms bigger.
The wrong shade of blue can be uncomfortable. It can also be cold and sterile(枯燥的)unless 53 with warmer colors.
Light and soft blue makes us feel quiet and protected from the bustle(喧闹)and 54 of the day. Blue bedrooms are restful. Blue bath rooms are appropriately watery. Blue 55 depth with greens and reds. Dark blue represents the night making us calm. Its apparently calming effect makes it the perfect tone for the quieter 56 of your living space.
A.represented I. activity
B.engage J. zones
C.refreshing K. foolish
D.surround L. line
F.dominant N. associated
G.lower O. rash
Directions: There are 2 passages in the section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C], and [D]. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
Question 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Most shoplifters (商店扒手)agree that the January sales offer wonderful opportunities for the hard-working thief. With the shops so crowded and the staff so busy, it does not require any extraordinary talent to help you to take one or two little things and escape unnoticed. It is known, in the business, as "hoisting".
But the hoisting game is not what it used to be. Even at the height of the sales, shoplifters today never know if they are being watched by one of those evil little balls that hang from the ceilings of so many department stores above the most desirable goods.
As if that was not trouble enough for them, they can now be filmed at work and obliged to attend a showing of their performance in court.
Selfridges was the first big London store to install closed-circuit videotape equipment to watch its sales floors. In October last year the store won its first court case for shoplifting using a evidence a videotape clearly showing a couple stealing dresses. It was an important test case which encouraged other stores to install similar equipment.
When the balls, called sputniks, first make an appearance in shops, it was widely believed that their only function was to frighten shoplifters. Their somewhat ridiculous appearances, the curious holes and red lights going on and off, certainly make the theory believable.
It did not take long, however, for serious shoplifters to start showing suitable respect. Soon after the equipment was in operation at Selfridges, store detective Brian Chadwick was sitting in the control room watching a woman secretly putting bottles of perfume into her bag.
"As she turned to go," Chadwick recalled, "she suddenly looked up at the 'sputnik' and stopped. She could not possibly have seen that the camera was trained on her because it is completely hidden, but she must have had a feeling that I was looking at her."
"For a moment she paused, but then she returned to counter and started putting everything back. When she had finished, she opened her bag towards the camera to show it was empty and hurried out of the store."
January is a good month for shoplifters because ________.[1分]
they don't need to wait for staff to serve them
they don't need any previous experience as thieves
there are so many people in the store
January sales offer wonderful opportunities for them
The sputniks hanging from the ceiling are intended ________.[1分]
to watch the most desirable goods
to make films that can be used as evidence
to frighten shoplifters by their appearance
to be used as evidence against shoplifters
The case last October was important because ________ .[1分]
the store got the dresses back
the equipment was able to frighten shoplifters
other shops found out about the equipment
the kind of evidence supplied was accepted by court
The woman stealing perfume ________.[1分]
guessed what the sputniks were for
was frightened by its shape
could see the camera filming her
knew that the detective had seen her
The woman's action before leaving the store shows that she ________.[1分]
was sorry for what she had done
was afraid she would be arrested
decided she didn't want what she had picked up
wanted to prove she had not intended to steal anything
Questions 62 to 66 are based in the following passage.
The largest shark known to us, Megalodon, is extinct. Or is it? Carcharodon Megalodon, commonly known as Megalodon, is believed to have lived between 1 million and 5 million years ago and thought to have been 52 feet long. It is (or was) a shark that had a jaw 7 or more feet wide. Fairly recently, there has been some speculation about whether it is extinct or just out of reach. But few people believe that Megalodon has found a home deep in the ocean.
There are many known "Living Fossils": Coelacanth, Sea Cucumbers, Sea Urchins, Lobsters, Sea Stars. The common ones like lobsters and sea urchins are not really looked on as anything amazing. They've been around for thousands of years or more, and are easily accessible to us. What if they weren't accessible and yet still existed? We would label them extinct. The discovery of a live Coelacanth, a fish long believed extinct, challenged some scientists' long-held beliefs on extinction. There have been recent discoveries of incredibly large squid, and deep-sea fish never before seen by scientists.
In the 1960s the U.S. Navy set up underwater microphones around the world to track Soviet submarines. The network, known as the Sound Surveillance System, still lies deep below the ocean's surface in a layer of water known as the "deep sound channel". The temperature and pressure of the channel allow sound waves to travel undisturbed. NOAA's Acoustic Monitoring Project has been using the Sound Surveillance System to listen for changes in ocean structure like ocean currents or volcanic activity. Most of the sounds recorded are common and of no concern. One sound, identified in 1977 by U.S. Navy "spy" sensors, was odd. It was obviously a marine animal but the call was more powerful than any of the calls made by any other reported sea creature. It was too big for a whale. Could it be a deep-sea monster? One possibility was a giant squid, but no one is sure. It was named "Bloop". Could it be Megalodon? If Megalodon is still alive down in the bottom of the ocean, we may some day soon discover it. Then what? Deep sea diving will never be the same, that's for sure!
The following is commonly known EXCEPT ________.[1分]
Megalodon, the largest shark, is extinct
Megalodon is not extinct but just out of reach
Megalodon was 52 feet long and had a jaw 7 or more feet wide
Megalodon lived between several million years ago.
What makes scientists doubt about the belief that Megalodon is extinct?[1分]
The discovery of many "Living Fossils".
The discovery of the fossils of lobsters.
The discovery of a live Coelacanth.
The discovery of the fossils of sea urchins.
What was special in their recorded sounds?[1分]
To listen for changes in ocean structure.
To listen for changes of ocean currents or volcanic activity.
To Make sure whether there was a giant squid deep in the ocean.
To follow the track of the Soviet warships under water.
What was special in their recorded sounds?[1分]
A strange, powerful animal sound was heard.
A big whale's sound was heard.
A sea monster's sound was heard.
A giant squid's sound was heard.
What can be concluded from the passage?[1分]
Scientists' discoveries always change people's belief.
There are too many secrets to be discovered.
Megalodon may be still alive deep in the ocean.
"Deep sound channel" allows sound waves to travel undisturbed.
Part V Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D] on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
Before the 20th century the horse provided day to day transportation in the United States. Trains were used only for long-distance transportation.
Today the car is the most popular 67 of transportation in all of the United States. It has completely 68 the horse as a means of everyday transportation. Americans use their car for 69 90 percent of all personal 70 .
Most Americans are able to 71 cars. The average price of a 72 made car was, 500 in 1950, 740 in 1960 and up 73 750 in 1975. During this period American ear manufacturers set about 74 their products and work efficiency.
Meanwhile, the yearly income of the 75 family increased from 1950 to 1975 76 than the price of cars. For this reason, 77 a new car takes a smaller 78 of a family's total earnings today.
In 1951 79 it took 8.1 months of an average family's 80 to buy a new car. In 1962, a new car 81 8.3 of a family's annual earnings. By 1975 it only took 4.75 82 income. In addition, the 1975 cars were technically 83 to models from previous years.
The 84 of the automobile extends throughout the economy 85 the car is so important to Americans. Americans spend more money 86 their cars running than on any other item.
Part VI Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentences on Answer Sheet 2 by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.
The chairman requested ________________________(所有书面资料都要储存在电脑硬盘上).[2分]
________________________ (如果我是你),I would have accepted such an offer given by the manager.[2分]
Do you mind ________________________(推迟这次会议到本季度末)?[2分]
________________________(考虑到各种各样的因素), our subjects should be rearranged to meet the requirements of the curriculum.[2分]
________________________(理完发之后),Professor Smith went straightly to the laboratory to proceed with his experiments.[2分]