All the walls in the building had the same (layout).[1分]
The storm caused (severe) damage.[1分]
The walls are made of (hollow) concret blocks.[1分]
Our aim was to (update) the health service and we succeeded.[1分]
Do we have to wear these name (tags)?[1分]
Joe came to the window as the crowd (chanted) ”Joe,Joe,Joe”[1分]
He (inspired) many young people to take up sports.[1分]
The city center was (wiped out) by the bomb.[1分]
Most baby can (take in) a wide range of food easily.[1分]
A larg crowd (assembled) outside the American embassy.[1分]
The weather was (crisp) and clear and you could see the mountains fifty miles away.[1分]
What (puzzles) me is why his books are so popular.[1分]
I think $7 a drink is a bit (steep), don’t you?[1分]
The (contempt) he felt for his fellow students was obvious.[1分]
Her comments about men are (utterly) ridiculous.[1分]
The human body is truly amazing. It allows us to sense the world around us, to do work and have fun, and to move from place to place. In fact, the human body does its work so well that most people don't think about it very much -- until they get sick.
The germs(致病菌)that make people sick are everywhere. You can't see them, but they're there. They're sitting on your desk. They're hiding on your computer's keyboard. They're even in the air that you are breathing. There are two types of germs: viruses and bacteria(细菌).Viruses are germs that can only live inside animals or plants. Viruses cause illnesses such as flu and measles(麻疹).Bacteria are tiny creatures. Some bacteria are good. They can help your stomach break down food. Other bacteria aren't so good. They can-make you sick. Bacteria can cause sore throats(喉痛)and ear infections.
How can you stop these tiny invaders from making you sick? Your skin is the first defense against germs. You can prevent some illnesses simply by washing, with soap and water. But germs can still enter the body through small cuts in the skin or through the mouth, eyes, and nose.
Once germs are inside your body, your immune(免疫的)system tries to protect you. It looks for and destroys germs. How does it do that? Special cells patrol your body. Some of these cells actually eat germs! Other cells make antibodies. An antibody sticks to a germ. There is a different antibody for each kind of germ. Some antibodies keep germs from making you sick. Others help your body find and kill germs. After a germ is destroyed, the antibodies stay in your body. They protect you if the same kind of germ comes back. That way you will not get the same illness twice.
You can keep your body healthy by eating a nutritious(有营养的)diet to make your immune system strong. You can also help your immune system fight germs by getting vaccinated(接种).Vaccines are medicines. They contain germs that have been killed or weakened. The dead germs can't make you sick. Instead, they cause your body to make antibodies.If the same germ ever shows up again, then your antibodies attack it.
Viruses can only live inside people or animals.[1分]
All bacteria cause illnesses.[1分]
Washing your skin can prevent some illnesses.[1分]
Germs can enter the body through the eyes.[1分]
The heart contains the body's strongest muscle.[1分]
After they kill germs, antibodies stay in the body.[1分]
Vaccines can make you sick.[1分]
1 Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease in which the patient's immune(免疫的)system attacks the central nervous system. This can lead to numerous physical and mental symptoms, as the disease affects the transmission of electrical signals between the body and the brain. However, the human body, being a flexible, adaptable system, can compensate for some level of damage, so a person with MS can look and feel fine even though the disease is present.
2 MS patients can have one of two main varieties of the disease: the relapsing form (复发型)and the primary progressive form. In the relapsing form, the disease progresses in a series of jumps; at times it is in remission(减轻).which means that a person's normal functions return for a period of time before the system goes into relapse and the disease again becomes more active. This is the most common form of MS; 80-90% of people have this form of the disease when they are first diagnosed. The relapse-remission cycle can continue for many years. Eventually, however, Ioss of physical and cognitive functions starts to take place and the remissions become less frequent.
3 In the primary progressive form of MS, there are no remissions and a continual but steady loss of physical and cognitive functions takes place. This condition affects about 10-15% of sufferers at diagnosis.
4 The expected course of the disease, or prognosis(预后),depends on many variables: the subtype of the disease, the patient's individual characteristics and the initial symptoms. Life expectancy of patients, however, is often nearly the same as that of an unaffected person - provided that a reasonable standard of care is received. In some cases a near-normal life span is possible.
5 The cause of the disease is unclear; it seems that some people have a genetic Susceptibility(易感性),which is triggered by some unknown environmental factor. Onset(发作)of the disease usually occurs in young adults between the ages of 20 and 40.It is more common in women than men; however, it has also been diagnosed in young children and in elderly people.
A.The Relapsing Form of MS
B.The Definition of MS
C.The Cause of MS
D.The Development of MS
E.The Treatment of MS
F.The Primary Progressive Form of MS
Paragraph 2 ______[1分]
A.the elderly people.
C.relatives of MS patients
F.the progressive form
MS affects the young adults of nerve cells between the body and ______.[1分]
An MS patient can feel fine for years without being affected much by the ______.[1分]
10-15% of MS patients are diagnosed as having _______.[1分]
Young adults might have a higher chance of developing the disease than_______.[1分]
New Attempts to Eradicate AIDS Virus
A high-profile attempt to eradicate the AIDS virus in a few patients continues to show promise.
But researchers won’t know for a year or more whether it will work, scientist David Ho told journalists here Wednesday for the Fourth Conference in Viruses and Infections.
“This is a study that’s in progress,” says Ho, head of the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, New York.
The study involves 20 people who started combinations of anti-HIV drugs very early in the course of the disease, within 90 days of their infections. They’ve been treated for up to 18 months. Four others have dropped out because of side effects or problems complying with the exacting drug system.
The drugs have knocked the AIDS virus down to undetectable levels in the blood of all remaining patients. And, in the latest development, scientists have now tested lymph nodes and semen from a few patients and found no virus reproducing there, Ho says. “Bear in mind that undetectable does not equal absent,” Ho says.
Ho has calculated that the drugs should be able to wipe out remaining viruses – at least from known reservoirs throughout the body – in two to three years. But the only way to prove eradication would be to stop the drugs and see if the virus comes back. On Wednesday, Ho said he wouldn’t ask any patient to consider that step before 2 (1/2) years of treatment.
And he emphasized that he is not urging widespread adoption of such early, aggressive treatment outside of trials. No one knows the long-term risks.
But other scientists are looking at similar experiments. A federally funded study will put 300 patients on triple-drug treatments and then see if some responding well after six months can continue to suppress the virus on just one or two drugs, says researcher Douglas Richman of the University of California, San Diego. Some patients in that study also may be offered the chance to stop therapy after 18 months or more, he says.
According to the passage, the attempt to eradicate the AIDS virus[3分]
hasn’t been made seriously
is appreciated by California University
continues to show promise
will be successful in two and a half years
Which is NOT true about Ho’s study?[3分]
20 patients were involved in the study
The patients have used several anti-HIV drugs
16 patients withdrew from the experiment
The patients have been treated for up to 18months
The words “Bear in mind undetectable does not equal absent” by Ho’s means[3分]
AIDS virus can be undetectable in the blood.
AIDS virus is undetectable in the blood.
No AIDS virus can be detected in the blood.
No virus found in the blood means no AIDS.
We prove that the drugs have wiped out the remaining viruses by[3分]
using up all the drugs at once.
waiting for the virus to die slowly.
asking the patients’ feeling about the disease.
stopping the drugs to see if the virus comes back.
Other scientists are looking at experiments that are similar in that they are[3分]
the ways the patients are treated
the size of the experiment
the cost of the experiment
the time the experiment takes
Gross National Happiness
In the last century, new technology improved the lives of many people in many countries. However, one country resisted these changes. High in the Himalayan mountains of Asia, the kingdom of Bhutan remained separate. Its people and Buddhist(佛教)culture had not been affected for almost a thousand years. Bhutan, however, was a poor country. People died at a young age. Most of its people could not read, and they did not know much about the outside world. Then, in 1972, a new ruler named King Jigme Singye Wangchuck decided to help Bhutan to become modern, but without losing its traditions.
King Wangchuck looked at other countries for ideas. He saw that most countries measured their progress by their Gross Natonal Product(GNP). The GNP measures products and money. When the number of products sold increases people say the country is making progress. King Wangchuck had a different idea for Bhutan. He wanted to measure his country’s progress by people’s happiness. If the people’s happiness increased, the king could say that Bhutan was making progress. To decide if people were happier, he created a measure called Gross National Happiness(GNH).
GNH is based on certain principles that create happiness. People are happier if they have health care, education, and jobs. They are happier when they live in a healthy, protected environment. They are happier when they can keep their traditional culture and customs. Finally, people are happier when they have a good, stable government.
Now these is some evidence of increased GNH in Bhutan. People are healthier and are living longer. More people are educated and employed. Teenty-five percent of the land has become national parks, and the country has almost no pollution. The Bhutanese continue to wear their traditional clothing and follow their ancient Buddhist customs. Bhutan has also become a democracy. In 2008, King Wangchuck gave his power to his son. Although the country still had a king, it held its first democratic elections that year. Bhutan had political parties and political candidates for the first time. Finally, Bhutan has connected to the rest of the world through television and internet.
Bhutan is a symbol for social progress. Many countries are now interested in Bhutan’s GNH. These countries are investigating their own ways to measure happiness. They want to create new policies that take care of their people, cultures, and land.
Brazil may be the nest country to use the principles of GNH. Brazilian leaders see the principles of GNH as a source of inspiration. Brazil is a large country with a diverse population. If happiness works as a measure of progress in Brazil, perhaps the rest of the world will follow.
Who was Jigme Singye Wangchuck?[3分]
Apart from moderizing Bhutan, what else did Wangchuck want to do for Bhutan?[3分]
To make its populaton grow.
To keep it separate from the world.
To encourage its people to get rich.
To keep its tradition and customs.
A country shows its progress with GNP by[3分]
According to GNH, people are happier if they[3分]
can change their religion.
have a good, stable government.
Today, many countries are[3分]
using the principles of GNH to measure their progress.
woking together to develop a common scale to measure GNH.
taking both Bhutan and Brazil as symbols for social progress.
trying to find their own ways to measure happiness.
Genetic engineering began when the DNA molecule(分子), the most basic unit of life, was first described in 1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick. An understanding of DNA led to the altering of normal cell reproduction. Experiments with altering human cells began in 1970. In one of the first experiments, patients were injected with a virus that would produce a life-saving enzyme, but their bodies would not accept it. In 1980 patients with a rare but fatal blood disease were injected with a purified gene that was cloned through DNA technology. Another failure.
Genetic engineering got a legal boost(激励) in 1980. The U.S. Supreme Court said that a patent could be granted on a genetically engineered "oil-eating" bacterium(细菌). This bacterium would help clean up oil spills. The ruling encouraged companies to invent new life forms, and three important medical products were quickly developed.
l Human interferon(干扰素)-- a possible solution to some cancers and viral disease. A newly engineered bacterium produced human interferon as a by-product. This new product reduced the cost of interferon.
l Human growth hormone-- for children whose bodies do not grow to normal height. An expensive growth hormone(荷尔蒙) was previously produced from human cadavers, but by changing the genetic make-up of the single-cell bacterium E. coli, and affordable growth hormone could be produced.
l Human insulin(胰岛素)-- for the treatment of diabetes. People with diabetes used to rely on a beef- or pork-based product until 1982. Now insulin can be manufactured by genetically altered bacteria.
Advances in genetic engineering have continued, though they constantly must be weighted against the safety of procedures. There is clearly much more to discover.
This passage is mainly about[3分]
the effects of altering cells.
the human growth hormone.
U.S. Supreme Court rulings.
Genetic enginerring may be defined as[3分]
the altering of normal cell reproduction
a branch of applied chemistry.
a procedure that holds little promise.
a study on life-saving enzymes.
According to the passage, human interferon[3分]
is a hormone that causes disease.
could be used to treat cancer.
In this passage, the three genetically engineered medical products are presented[3分]
In the last paragraph, the word "weighed" has the cloest meaning with[3分]
Voice Your Opinion——Change is Needed in Youth Sports
Everywhere you look, you see kids bouncing a basketball or waving a tennis racquet (网球拍)｡ And these kids are getting younger and younger. In some countries, children can compete on basketball, baseball, and volleyball teams starting at age nine. (46)And swimming and gymnastics classes begin at age four, to prepare children for competition.
It’s true that a few of these kids will develop into highly skilled athletes and may even become members of the national Olympic teams. (47) This emphasis on competition in sports is having serious negative effects.
Children who get involved in competitive sports at a young age often grow tired of their sport. Many parents pressure their kids to choose one sport and devote all their time to it. (48) But 66 percent of the young athletes wanted to play more than one sport-for fun.
Another problem is the pressure imposed by over-competitive parents and coaches. Children are not naturally competitive. In fact, a recent study by Paulo David found that most children don’t even understand the idea of competition until they are seven years old. (49)
The third, and biggest, problem for young athletes is the lack of time to do their homework, have fun, be with friends—in short, time to be kids. When they are forced to spend every afternoon at sports practice, they often start to hate their chosen sport. A searchers found that 70 percent of kids who take part in competitive sports before the of twelve quit before they turn eighteen. (50) Excessive competitive away all the enjoyment.
Need to remember the purpose of youth sports – to give kids a chance to have developing strong, healthy bodies.
A.Survey found that 79 percent of parents of young athletes wanted their children to concentrate on one sports.
B.The young soccer organization has teams for children as young as five.
C.Many of them completely lose interest in sports.
D.Sports for children have two important purposes.
E.But what about the others, the average kids?
F.Very young kids don't know why their parents are pushing them so hard?
It is well—known that life expectancy is longer in Japan than in most other countries. A 1 report also shows that Japan has the longest health expectancy in the world.
A healthy long life is the result of 2 in social environment.
Scientists are trying to work 3 exactly what keeps elderly Japanese people so healthy, and whether there is a lesson to be 4 from their lifestyles for the rest of us. Should we 5 any changes to our eating habits, for instance, or go jogging each day before breakfast? Is there some secret 6 in the Japanese diet that is particularly 7 to the human body?
Another factor 8 to the rapid population aging in Japan is a decline in birthrate.
Although longer life should be celebrated, it is 9 considered a social problem．The number of older people had 10 in the last half century and that has increased pension and medical costs．The country could soon be 11 an economic problem, if there are so many old people to be looked 12 and relatively few younger people working and paying taxes to support them．
13 the retirement age from 65 to 70 could be one solution to the problem. Work can give the elderly a 14 of responsibility and mission in life. It’s important that the elderly play active 15 in the society and live in harmony with all generations.
expectancy / ik'spektənsi,-təns/ 期望, 预期
life expectancy 预期寿命, 平均寿命
health expectancy 预期健康寿命
elderly /'eldəli / n. 年长者, 老年人 adj. 上了年纪的, 稍老的
decline / di'klain / n.下降, 衰落 vi. 下降, 衰 退
pension / 'penʃən / n. 退休金, 养老金, 津贴
retirement / ri'taiəmənt / n. 退休, 退役
responsibility / ri.spɔnsə'biliti / n. 责任, 职 责, 义务
1.A healthy long life is the result of . . .健康长寿是……的结果。
2.. .. could be one solution to the problem. ……是解决问题的可能方法之一。