The storm caused (severe) damage.[1分]
Many forms of cancer can be cured if (detected) early[1分]
The story was published with the (sole) purpose of selling newspapers[1分]
A large crowd (assembled) outside the American embassy[1分]
He kept in (constant) contact with his family while he was in Australia[1分]
On the table was a vase filled with (artificial) flowers[1分]
We had trouble finding a (pure) water supply[1分]
“What do you mean by that”Paul asked (sharply)[1分]
She only needs a (minute) amount of money[1分]
Keep your passport in a (secure) place[1分]
He (inspired) many young people to take up the sport[1分]
Did she accept his research (proposal)?[1分]
The city centre was (wiped out) by the bomb[1分]
I’d like to (withdraw) 500 from my current account[1分]
The (contempt) he felt for his fellow students was obvious[1分]
The human body is truly amazing. It allows us to sense the world around us, to do work and have fun, and to move from place to place. In fact, the human body does its work so well that most people don't think about it very much -- until they get sick.
The germs(致病菌)that make people sick are everywhere. You can't see them, but they're there. They're sitting on your desk. They're hiding on your computer's keyboard. They're even in the air that you are breathing. There are two types of germs: viruses and bacteria(细菌).Viruses are germs that can only live inside animals or plants. Viruses cause illnesses such as flu and measles(麻疹).Bacteria are tiny creatures. Some bacteria are good. They can help your stomach break down food. Other bacteria aren't so good. They can-make you sick. Bacteria can cause sore throats(喉痛)and ear infections.
How can you stop these tiny invaders from making you sick? Your skin is the first defense against germs. You can prevent some illnesses simply by washing, with soap and water. But germs can still enter the body through small cuts in the skin or through the mouth, eyes, and nose.
Once germs are inside your body, your immune(免疫的)system tries to protect you. It looks for and destroys germs. How does it do that? Special cells patrol your body. Some of these cells actually eat germs! Other cells make antibodies. An antibody sticks to a germ. There is a different antibody for each kind of germ. Some antibodies keep germs from making you sick. Others help your body find and kill germs. After a germ is destroyed, the antibodies stay in your body. They protect you if the same kind of germ comes back. That way you will not get the same illness twice.
You can keep your body healthy by eating a nutritious(有营养的)diet to make your immune system strong. You can also help your immune system fight germs by getting vaccinated(接种).Vaccines are medicines. They contain germs that have been killed or weakened. The dead germs can't make you sick. Instead, they cause your body to make antibodies.If the same germ ever shows up again, then your antibodies attack it.
Viruses can only live inside people or animals.[1分]
All bacteria cause illnesses.[1分]
Washing your skin can prevent some illnesses.[1分]
Germs can enter the body through the eyes.[1分]
The heart contains the body's strongest muscle.[1分]
After they kill germs, antibodies stay in the body.[1分]
Vaccines can make you sick.[1分]
1 Yes, alcoholism can be treated. Alcoholism treatment programs use both counseling and medication(药物治疗)to help a person stop drinking. Most alcoholics need help to recover from their disease. With support and treatment, many people are able to stop drinking and rebuild their lives.
2 A range of medication is used to treat alcoholism. Benzodiazepines(苯二氮平类药物) are sometimes used during the first days after a person stops drinking to help him or her safely withdraw from alcohol. However, these medications are not used beyond the first few days because they may be highly addictive. Other medications help people remain sober(清醒).One medication used for this purpose is naltrexone(环丙甲羟二羟吗啡酮). When combined with counseling, naltrexone can reduce the strong desire for alcohol and help prevent a person from returning to heavy drinking. Another medication, disulfiram (戒酒硫), discourages drinking by making the person feel sick if he or she drinks alcohol. Though several medications help treat alcoholism, there is no "magic bullet.“Developing new and more effective medications to treat alcoholism remains a high priority for researchers.
3 Alcoholism treatment works for many people. But just like any chronic disease, there are different levels of success in treatment. Some people stop drinking and remain sober. Others cannot stop drinking for any length of time. With treatment, one thing is clear, however, the longer a person stops drinking alcohol, the more likely he or she will be able to stay sober.
4 No, alcoholism cannot be cured at this time. Even if an alcoholic hasn't been drinking for a long time, he or she can still return to the drinking habit. To guard against it, an alcoholic must continue to avoid all alcoholic drinks.
A.What medications treat alcoholism?
B.What are drinking problems?
C.Can alcoholism be cured?
D.Does alcoholism treatment work?
E.what is alcoholism?
F.Can alcoholism be treated?
E.in every person
Medication can help some people ______[1分]
Disulfiram can prevent drinking by making the alcoholic _______[1分]
For alcoholism treatment,there is no single medication that works _______[1分]
The key to cure alcoholism is to avoid all _______[1分]
Genetic engineering began when the DNA molecule(分子), the most basic unit of life, was first described in 1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick. An understanding of DNA led to the altering of normal cell reproduction. Experiments with altering human cells began in 1970. In one of the first experiments, patients were injected with a virus that would produce a life-saving enzyme, but their bodies would not accept it. In 1980 patients with a rare but fatal blood disease were injected with a purified gene that was cloned through DNA technology. Another failure.
Genetic engineering got a legal boost(激励) in 1980. The U.S. Supreme Court said that a patent could be granted on a genetically engineered "oil-eating" bacterium(细菌). This bacterium would help clean up oil spills. The ruling encouraged companies to invent new life forms, and three important medical products were quickly developed.
l Human interferon(干扰素)-- a possible solution to some cancers and viral disease. A newly engineered bacterium produced human interferon as a by-product. This new product reduced the cost of interferon.
l Human growth hormone-- for children whose bodies do not grow to normal height. An expensive growth hormone(荷尔蒙) was previously produced from human cadavers, but by changing the genetic make-up of the single-cell bacterium E. coli, and affordable growth hormone could be produced.
l Human insulin(胰岛素)-- for the treatment of diabetes. People with diabetes used to rely on a beef- or pork-based product until 1982. Now insulin can be manufactured by genetically altered bacteria.
Advances in genetic engineering have continued, though they constantly must be weighted against the safety of procedures. There is clearly much more to discover.
This passage is mainly about[3分]
the effects of altering cells.
the human growth hormone.
U.S. Supreme Court rulings.
Genetic enginerring may be defined as[3分]
the altering of normal cell reproduction
a branch of applied chemistry.
a procedure that holds little promise.
a study on life-saving enzymes.
According to the passage, human interferon[3分]
is a hormone that causes disease.
could be used to treat cancer.
In this passage, the three genetically engineered medical products are presented[3分]
In the last paragraph, the word "weighed" has the cloest meaning with[3分]
Puerto Rican Cuisine(菜肴)
Puerto Rico, a Caribbean (加勒比海区) island rich in history and remarkable natural beauty, has a cuisine all its own. Immigration(移民) to the island has helped to shape its cuisine, with people from all over the world making various contributions to it. However, before the arrival of these immigrants, the Taino people lived on the island of Puerto Rico. Taino cuisine included such foods as rodents (啮齿动物), fresh shellfish and fish fried in corn oil.
Many aspects of Taino cuisine continue today in Puerto Rican cooking, but it has been heavily influenced by the Spanish, who invaded Puerto Rico in 1508, and Africans, who were initially brought to Puerto Rico to work as slaves. Taino cooking styles were mixed with ideas brought by the Spanish and Africans to create new dishes. The Spanish extended food choices by bringing cattle, pigs, goats, and sheep to the island. Africans also added to the island's food culture by introducing powerful, contrasting tastes in dishes. In fact, much of the food Puerto Rico is now famous for - coffee, coconuts, and oranges - was actually imported by foreigners to the island.
A common assumption many people make about Puerto Rican food is that it is very spicy(辛辣的). lt's true that chili peppers are popular; aij caballero in particular is a very hot chili pepper that Puerto Ricans enjoy. However, milder(微辣的) tastes are popular too, such as sofrito. As the base of many Puerto Rican dishes, sofrito is a sauce made from chopped onions, green bell peppers, sweet chili peppers, and a handful of other spices. It is fried in oil and then added to other dishes.
who lived in Puerto Rico first[3分]
In the first paragraph the word “it” refers to[3分]
the island’s natural beauty
what is the main idea of the second paragraph?[3分]
Taino dishes are important in Puerto Rican cooking
Food imported by foreigners isn’t really Puerto Rican
Puerto Rican cooking has many outside influences
African foods have probably had the most influence
How is sofrito used?[3分]
It is added to other dishes
It is used where foods are too spicy
It is eaten as a main dish
which of the following is NOT true?[3分]
softito is a type of extremely spicy food
Many people think Puerto Rican food is spicy
Puerto Rican cuisine uses a lot of chili peppers
Aij caballero is a type of chile pepper
"Clean your plate!" and "Be a member of the clean-plate club1!’’ Just about every kid in the US has heard this from a parent or grandparent. Often, it’s accompanied by an appeal: “Just think about those starving orphans in Africa!2" Sure, we should be grateful for every bite of food. Unfortunately, many people in the US take too many bites3. Instead of staying "clean the plate", perhaps we should save some food for tomorrow.
According to news reports, US restaurants are partly to blame for the growing bellies. A waiter puts a plate of food in front of each customer, with two to four times the amount recommended by the government, according to a USA Today story.4 Americans traditionally associate quantity with value and most restaurants try to give them that. They prefer to have customers complain about too much food rather than too little.
Barbara Rolls, a nutrition professor at Pennsylvania State University; told USA Today that restaurant portion sizes began (o grow in the 1970s, the same time that the American waistline began to expand.
Health experts have tried to get many restaurants to serve smaller portions. Now, apparently, some customers are calling for this too. The restaurant industry trade magazine QSR reported last month that 57 percent of more than 4,000 people surveyed believe restaurants serve portions that are too large; 23 percent had no opinion; 20 percent disagreed. But a closer look at the survey indicates that many Americans who can’t afford fine dining still prefer large portions. Seventy percent of those earning at least $150,000 per year prefer smaller portions; but only 45 percent of those earning less than $25,000 want smaller.
It’s not that working class Americans don’t want to eat healthy. It’s just that, "after long hours at low-paying jobs, getting less on their plate hardly seems like a good deal.5 They live frompaycheck to paycheck, happy to save a little money for next year’s Christmas presents.
Parents in the United States tend to ask their children[3分]
not to waste food at meals
to save food for tomorrow
not to eat too much at meals
American restaurants serve large portions because Americans[3分]
what happened in America in the 1970S?[3分]
The restaurants began to serve smaller portions
Health experts advised people to eat less
May American tried to get slim
the America waistline started to expand
what does the survey indicate?[3分]
20 percent Americans want smaller portions
57 percent Americans earn $150.000 per year
Low-income American prefer large portions
23 percent Americans earn less than $25.000per year
which of the following is NOT true of walking class Americans?[3分]
they live from paycheck to paycheck
they don’t have the habit of saving money
the want to be healthy eaters
Forests for Cities
You are standing in a beautiful forest in Japan. The air is clean and smells like plants and flowers. There are 175 different kinds of trees, and 60 kinds of birds live here. _____ (46) You are downtown in the city of Nara, Japan, in Kasugayama Forest, the oldest urban forest in the world. It was started more than a thousand years ago, and today it's very popular with tourists and artists.
Cities around the world are working to protect their urban forests. Some urban forests are parks, and some are just streets with a lot of trees. But all urban forests have many good effects on the environment. ______ (47) They also stop the noise from heavy traffic. They even make the weather better because they make the air 3-5 degrees cooler, and they stop strong winds.
Urban forests also have many good effects on people. They make the city more beautiful. In a crowded area, they give people a place to relax and spend time in nature. _ __(48)
In some countries, people are starting new urban forests. In England, there are now 1.3 million trees in an urban forest called Thames Chase, east of London. It was started in 1990, and it has grown very fast. Walking and bicycle clubs use the forest, and there are programs for children and artists.
Some older cities don't have space for a big urban forest, but planting trees on the streets makes the city better. Scientists found that commuters (通勤人员) feel more relaxed when they can see trees. Trees are even good for business. ____ (50) In the future, urban forests will become even more important as our cities grow bigger. In the megacities(超大城市) of tomorrow, people will need more green space to live a comfortable life. Planting trees today will make our lives better in the future.
A.People spend more time at shopping centers that have trees
B.In hot countries,urban forests are cool places for walking and other healthy exercises
C.But you are not in rural area
D.Trees take pollution out of the air
E.In 2033,it will have 5 million trees
F.It has many kinds of birds in the country
Going on a diet
A typical person needs about 1,800 calories per day to stay alive. These calories keep your heart 1_______and your lungs breathing. They keep your organs operating 2_______and, your brain running. They also keep your body warm. A person 3______weight because he or she consumes more calories per day than needed. The only way to lose fat is to 4______the number of calories that you consume per day. This is the basic 5______behind going on a diet.
Unfortunately,diets don't 6______for most people. They do lose weight but then go 7______ the diet and put it back. Building a sensible diet and exercise plan is the key to 8______ a consistent weight. You need to figure out how many calories you need in a day and how many you 9______ take in. The next step is to add ,exercise so that you can 10______the number of calories you can consume per day.
Exercise charts can show you how many calories different 11______of exercise can burn. Burning 250 or 500 calories per day can 12______a big difference. You can ride an exercise bike while you are watching TV or you can 13______ the stairs instead of the elevator. Find an exercise 14______. Exercise can be a lot easier if there is someone to talk to. It's a good idea to wear firm-fitting clothes if you are on a diet. 15______clothing acts as a reminder of what you are trying to accomplish.