The union representative put across her argument very effectively.[1分]
He talks tough but has a tender heart.[1分]
It is no use debating the relative merits of this policy.[1分]
Our statistics show that we consume all that we are capable of producing.[1分]
The fuel tanks had a capacity of 140 liters.[1分]
Our lives are intimately bound up with theirs.[1分]
Her faith upheld her in times of sadness.[1分]
The book provides a concise analysis of the country's history.[1分]
It is laid down in the regulations that all members must carry their membership cards at all times.[1分]
The council meeting terminated at 2 o'clock.[1分]
A red flag was placed there as a token of danger.[1分]
However bad the situation is, the majority is unwilling to risk change.[1分]
It has been said that the Acts provided a new course of action and did not merely regulate or enlarge an old one.[1分]
The secretary is expected to explore ideas for post-war reconstruction of the area.[1分]
The steadily rising cost of labor on the waterfront has greatly increased the cost of shipping cargo by water.[1分]
Sleep Problems Plague the Older Set
Older Americans often have difficulty getting a good night’S rest.It's a huge quality—of-life problem,experts say,because contrary to popular belief,seniors require about the same amount of sleep as younger adults.
“Sleep problems and sleep disorders are not an inherent(固有的)pa rt of aging,”said Dr.Harrison G.Bloom,an associate clinical professor of geriatrics(老年病学)and medicine at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City.“It’S pretty much of a myth that older people need less sleep than younger people.”
Yet.in a study published recently in The American Journal of Medicine,researchers found that more than half of older Americans have problems getting the sleep they need.
older people tend to have“sleep fragmentation,”meaning they wake up more often during the night,said study author Dr.Julie Gammck,an assistant professor of medicine in the Division of Geriatric Medicine at St.Louis University.
They also seem to get less“REM”sleep,the type of sleep during which rapid eye movement occurs,Bloom added.
It’s unclear what role these naturally occurring changes in sleep patterns have on person’s quality of life,Bloom said.“What is important,though,is that older people often have actual sleep disorders and problems with sleep,”he said.
And,experts say,there is usually more than one cause.
“Sleep trouble in older adults is typically associated with acute and chronic illnesses,including specific sleep disorders like sleep apnea(呼吸暂停)and restless leg syndrome that appear with greater frequency in older populations,”said Michael V.Vitiello , a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences and associate director of the University of Washington’S Northwest Geriatric Education Center.
Taking multiple medications,as many older people do,can also lead t0 fatigue a“ hypersomnia ,”or being tired all the time,Bloom added.
Another big problem,he noted,IS depression and anxiety.“Those are very commonly associated with sleep problems.”
Despite the prevalence(流行)of sleep difficulties in older adults,many patients Aren’t getting the help they need｡As a result,problems like insomnia(失眠),restless leg syndrome and sleep apnea are underdiagnosed and undertreated,Bloom said.
Sleep problems can seriously affect one’s quality of life[1分]
it is true that older people need less sleep than younger people[1分]
Younger people in America seldom complain of sleep disorders.[1分]
The number of older Americans with sleep problems is not small.[1分]
“SIeep fragmentation” refers to a marked lack of “REM” sleep[1分]
The causes of sleep problems in older people remain unidentified.[1分]
Actions will soon be taken in America to better help people with sleep problems[1分]
Owls and Larks(猫头鹰与云雀)
1.In this article, we look at the importance of sleep for learning, Most healthy adults need eight of more hours of sleep. But why do we need sleep in the first place? We need sleep for the brain to get a chance to rebuild memories stored during the day and associate these with previously learned things. If sleep is cut short by the alarm clock, how damaging is it? The truth is that it’s difficult to predict, as so much depends on how much sleep your body actually needs on that particular occasion.
2.The popular belief that people are naturally either larks (early risers) or owls is false. The reason why people tend to be one or the other has more to do with lifestyle, age, and personality. Many people who appear to be early birds may have just become so through habit, for example, parents with very young children. Teenagers can have difficulty falling asleep until late at night and then they naturally have problems getting up the following morning.
3.The main reason why owls are owls is that they tend to spend their time over a book, movie, or computer game till the early hours of the morning. They enjoy the quiet of the night when they can pursue their passion. On the other hand, larks can make better use of early morning hours where they can study in quiet at the time when their brains are most refreshed. So which is better for learning-an owl’s or a lark’s lifestyle? The simple truth is that it its more complex than simply being one or the other. Leading a well-balanced life in terms of work and play and sleeping enough to bring maximum refreshment is probably the secret.
4.As for naps, experts on insomnia (失眠) argue against taking naps, as these may keep people up at night. If your nap lasts only five minutes to half an hour and does not affect your ability to fall asleep in the night, it will probably help you be more alert in evening hours. Try not to drink a lot of alcohol, taking nicotine (尼古丁), do mentally intense activities like preparing for exams or doing exercise in the evening. Some people swear that drinking coffee never stops them from sleeping like a log, whereas others will never go near the stuff for fear of being awake all night. However, the best advice for most is to avoid it in the evening, and if you drink coffee before a nap, remember you are likely to awake soon as soon as the caffeine starting kicking in.
A.What should we avoid?
B.How much sleep do we need?
C.Which is better, being an owl or a lark?
D.Why do we need sleep?
E.What makes people owls or larks?
F.What helps us fall asleep?
Sleep helps brain to________.[1分]
Parents with very young children tend to________..[1分]
A good lifestyle means one can________.[1分]
It is good advice for most people to________.[1分]
A.sleep enough to bring most refreshment
B.keep away from coffee in the evening
C.stay up till the early hours of the morning
D.get up quite early
E.store memories in the brain
F.rebuild memories stored during the day
第一篇 Attitudes to AIDS now
Most people say that the USA is making progress in fighting AIDS.but they don't know there's no cure and strongly disagree that "the AIDS epidemic is over."a new survey finds.
The findings,released Thursday by the Kaiser Family Foundation,reassure activists who have worried that public concern about AIDS might disappear in light of recent news about advances in treatment and declines in deaths.
"While people are very optimistic about the advances.they're still realistic about the fact that there is no cure",says Sophia Chang,director of HIV programs at the foundation.
The Kaiser survey,like a recent USA TODAY Gallup Poll,does find that the number of people ranking AIDS as the country's top health problem has fallen.In the Kaiser poll,38% say it's the top concern,down from 44% in a 1996 poll;in the Gallup Poll,29% say AIDS is No.1,down from 41%in 1992 and 67%in 1987.
Other findings from Kalser,which polled more than 1,200 adults in September and 0ctober and asked additional questions of another 1.000 adults in November:
52% say the country is making progress against AIDS, up from 32%in 1995.
51% say the government spends too little on AIDS.
86% correctly say AIDS drugs can now lengthen lives;an equal number correctly say that the drugs are not cures.
67% incorrectly say that AIDS deaths increased or stayed the same in the past year;24% know deaths fell.
Daniel Zingale,director of AIDS Action Council,says,"I'm encouraged that the American people are getting the message that the AIDS epidemic isn't over.I hope the decision-makers in Washington are getting the same message… We have seen signs of complacency.''
What do activists worry about?[3分]
Recent news about AIDS is not true.
People may stop worrying about AIDS.
Deaths caused by AIDS may not decline.
Advances in AIDS treatment are too slow
According to the passage,people's attitude toward the cure of AIDS is[3分]
The Gallup Poll shows that the number of people[3分]
who suffer from the worst disease—AIDS has fallen.
who think AIDS threatens the countryside has fallen.
who worry about AIDS and health problems has fallen.
who think AIDS is the country's top health killer has fallen.
According to the Kaiser Poll,which of the following is NOT correct?[3分]
The country is making progress against AIDS.
AIDS drugs still cannot save people's lives.
AIDS drugs can now make people live longer.
More and more people die of AIDS now.
The word "message'' in the last paragraph means[3分]
第二篇 Mental Retardation(智力迟钝)
Mental retardation is a condition in which people have lower than normal intelligence and are unable to function at the level expected for their age｡People with mental retardation are usually born with it｡or it develops early in their life.They may also have some difficulty with daily living skills such as learning to read and write and caring for them selves.
Doctors and other professionals determine that a person has mental retardation based on their intelligence and how well they can do everyday activities.
Intelligence is the ability to learn and understand.Levels of intelligence are measured by special tests called intelligence tests.The score a person gets on one of these tests gives a numerical(数字的)measure of a person’s intelligence.This is called an intelligence quotient(智商)Or IQ.
An average score on an IQ test is about 90 to 110.A person with mental retardation will usually score below 75 on an IQ test.
The IQ test alone does not determine whether someone is mentally retarded.A person must also have trouble with everyday activities such as geeing dressed,eating,washing,or learning basic reading,writing,and arithmetic skills.
Mental retardation is not a disease itself.1t cannot be cured and it’s not contagious(传染的).This condition can be caused by several things that injure the brain or don’t allow the brain to develop normally.Many times we don’t know why a person has mental retardation.
Sometimes it may be caused by genes.Genes are chemical units found in every cell They carry the instructions telling , cells what to do.Sometimes｡children receive abnormal genes from their parents.
A defective gene may also develop spontaneously.Neither parent would have passed on the gene,but the gene changes before the baby develops.
Some other problems that can cause mental retardation also happen before a child is born.It is important for the brain to develop properly if a child is to have normal intelligence.“Planning a pregnancy is the most important decision most of us will make in our lifetime.A healthy lifestyle and good medical care should begin before a woman becomes pregnant and continue throughout the pregnancy,”says Jodi Rucquoi,a genetic counselor from Connecticut.If a woman abuses alcohol or drugs or doesn’t eat well,there is a risk to the developing baby.Also,a premature birth or problems during childbirth can sometimes harm the baby’s developing brain.while premature babies are generally fine,there is a greater chance that they may have mental retardation.
1n some cases.a young child can develop mental retardation after being sick with a serious infection or other illness.or after suffering a bad head injury.
A child can be taken as mentally retarded.f he or she.[3分]
has lower than normal intelligence.
has low intelligence and low daily living skills.
has normal intelligence but difficulties in learning.
A person of high intelligence will probably score.[3分]
Which Of the following is NOT true of mental retardation?[3分]
Its victims are usually born with it.
Its causes are not fully identified yet.
It can spread among family members.
Which is NOT a possible cause of mental retardation?[3分]
Abnormal genes from the parents.
A well-•planned pregnancy.
Problems during childbirth.
.The word “While” in Line 4 from the bottom can best be replaced by.[3分]
第三篇 Cell Phones: Hang Up or Keep Talking?
Millions of people are using cell phones today. In many places it is actually considered unusual not to use one. In many countries, cell phones are very popular with young people. They find that the phones are more than a means of communication—having a mobile phone shows that they are cool and connected.www.studyez.com
The explosions around the world in mobile phone use make some health professionals worried. Some doctors are concerned that in the future many people may suffer health problems from the use of mobile phones. In England, these has been a serious debates about this issue. Mobile phone companies are worried about the negative publicity of such ideas. They say that there is no proof that mobile phones are bad for your health.
On the other hand, why do some medical studies show changes in the brain cells of some people who use mobile phones? Signs of change in the tissues of the brain and head can be detected with modern scanning(扫描)equipment. In one case, a traveling salesman had to retire at a young age because of serious memory loss. He couldn’t remember even simple tasks. He would often forget the name of his own son. This man used to talk on his mobile phone for about six hours a day, every day of his working week, for a couple of years. His family doctor blamed his mobile phone use, but his employer’s doctor didn’t agree.
What is it that make mobile phones potentially harmful? The answer is radiation. High-tech machines can detect very small amount of radiation from mobile phones. Mobile phone companies agree that there is some radiation, but they say the amount is too small to worry about.
As the discussion about their safety continues, it appears that it’s best to use mobile phones less often. Use your regular phone if you want to talk for a long time. Use your mobile phone only when you really need it. Mobile phones can be very useful and convenient, especially in emergencies. In the future, mobile phones may have a warning label that says they are bad for your health. So for now, it’s wise not to use your mobile phone too often.
People buy cell phones for the following reasons EXCEPT that[3分]
The word“detected”in paragraph 3 could be best replaced by[3分]
The salesman retired young because[3分]
he couldn’t remember simple tasks.
he disliked using mobile phones.
he was tired of talking on his mobile phone.
his employer’s doctor persuaded him to.
On the safety issue of mobile phones,the manufacturing companies[3分]
hold that the amount of radiation is too small to worry about.
deny the existence of mobile phone radiation.
develop new technology to reduce mobile phone radiation.
try to prove that mobile phones are not harmful to health.
The writer’s purpose of writing this article is to advise people[3分]
to use mobile phones less often.
to update regular phones.
to stop using mobile phones.
How One Simple Movement Can Let Slip the Secrets of the Mind
Body language is the quiet,secret and most powerful language of all! It is said that our body movements communicate about 50 per cent of what we really mean while words themselves only express 7 per cent.So,while your mouth is closed,just what is your body saying…
Alms. _1_ If you keep your arms to the sides of your body or behind your back,this suggests you are not afraid of taking on whatever comes your way. _2_ If someone upsets you,just cross your arms to show you’re unhappy!
Head.When you want to appear confident,keep your head level.If you are monitor in class,you cart also take on this position when you want your words to be taken seriously. _3_
Legs.Your legs tend to move around a lot more than normal when you are nervous or telling lies.If you are at interviews,try to keep them still!
Posture.A good posture makes you feel beRer about yourself. _4_ This makes breathing more difficult,which in turn can make you feel nervous or uncomfortable.
Mouth.When you are thinking,you often purse your lips.You might also use this position to hoId back all angry comment you don’t wish to show. _5_
A.If you are feeling down, you normally don’t sit straight, with your shoulders inwards.
B.If you are pleased, you usually open your eyes wide and people can notice this.
C.Outgoing people generally use their arms with big movements, while quieter people keep them close to their bodies.
D.How you hold your arms shows how open and receptive you are to people you meet.
E.However, it will probably still be noticed, and people will know you’ re not pleased.
F.However, to be friendly in listening or speaking, you must move your head a little to one side.
A health Profile
A health profile is a portrait of all of the factors that influence your health. To draw your health profile, you will need to know what diseases51your family, what health hazards you may be exposed to52work, how your53 diet compares to the recommended standards, how much time per week you spend exercising and what type of exercise you54in, how stressful your work and family environments are, what kinds of illnesses you get55, and whether or not you have any one of a number of addictions. 56this portrait, your should have a checkup to determine how your blood, heart, and lungs are functioning. This checkup will57as a baseline, to which you can then compare later tests.Once this profile is thoroughly drawn. you can begin to think about58health priorities based on your particular portrait. For example, 59you drink two martinis every evening, have a highstress job, are overweight, smoke a pack of cigarettes a day, and use marijuana occasionally60weekends, you should quit smoking first, followed by losing the excess weight, reducing the stress of your job, 61your marihuana habit, and then finally giving some62to those martinis if you want to prevent first cancer, and then heart disease. Even for the youthful working person who has never been sick a day in his life, who is63excellent health, a good look at all health habits and at work and home environments may64changes that will65him in the future.