Lack of space forbids further treatment of the topic here.[1分]
His knowledge of French is fair.[1分]
The new service helped boost pre-tax profits by 10%.[1分]
He made a number of rude remarks about the food.[1分]
Take some spare clothes in case you get wet.[1分]
Afterwards there was just a feeling of let-down.[1分]
The book raised a storm of controversy.[1分]
The worst agonies of the war were now beginning.[1分]
My principal concern is to get the job done fast.[1分]
They are trying to identify what is wrong with the present system.[1分]
Some comments are just inviting trouble.[1分]
I’m sure I’ll be able to amuse myself for a few hours.[1分]
Several windows had been smashed.[1分]
The AIDs convention will be held in Glasgow.[1分]
His heart gave a sudden leap when he saw her.[1分]
Some Schooling on Backpacks
According to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. 5.900 kids were treated at hospital emergency rooms, clinics, and doctors’offices last year for sprians(扭伤)and strains caused by backpacks. Such injunes are so widespread that more than 70 percent of physicians as a potential clinical problem for children.
How do you avoid such problems? Choose bags that have wide, padded straps(有垫的背带)and a belt. That will help transfer some of the weight from the back and shoulders to the hips. You should also tighten both straps firmly, so the pack rests about 2 inches above your waist. Also, remember to pack your bag with the heaviest items closest to your back and to bend both knees when you pick it up.
I low much should you stuff into your pack? That depends on your size and strength, but a general rule is not to exceed 20 percent of your body weight. So if a child weights 100 pounds, the backpack and its load should not be more than 20 pounds. One hint: Make frequent trips to your locker(储物柜)to exchange books between classes.
Backpacks with wheels let you pull the weight along the ground,but they have problems too. Many are larger than the average shoulder bag, so students are tempted to carry more than they would in a conventional pack.
Roller bags often don’t fit into a locker. They can also lead to tripping and falls in crowded halls. Whatever you use. 10 or 15 minutes of stretching and back strengthening is a good idea.
About six thousand American kids were injured by carrying backpacks last year.[1分]
70 percent of UK physicians have treated children with sprains and strains.[1分]
Backpacks with wide, padded straps and a belt can help to avoid problems of sprains and strains.[1分]
A 100-pound child should carry a backpack of more than 20 pounds.[1分]
Children should put all the books in their lockers.[1分]
Roller bags tend to be heavier than ordinary backpacks.[1分]
A 10-15 minutes’exercise will help you bear a heavier backpack.[1分]
阅读下面这篇短文，短文后有2项测试，任务：(1)1-4题 要求从所给的4个选项中为段每段选择1个正确的小标题;(2)第5-8题 要求从所给的5个选项中选择4个正确选项，分别完成每个句子。
1 . Our eyes are under a great deal of strain these days as computer work, television viewing, night driving, and even sunshine are making exceptional demands . Sunlight, especially in the summer, is now regarded as one cause of cataracts(白内障)》
2 . The thinning of the ozone (臭氧) layer means more short-wave ultraviolet (UV) rays (紫外线) are reaching the earth, and these are the biggest risk factor for clouding the lens of the eye. Ultraviolet rays increase the risk of changes to the cornea (角膜) causing clouded vision and eventually cataracts. The rays can be shielded only by anti-UV lenses However, our eyes are not sufficiently protected by fashion sunglasses.
3 . “Poor night vision and eye fatigue are noticeably more common, and there has been a big increase in minor eye complaints in the over-40s,” says Dr . Mireille Bonnet, who more than 100,000 times a day and that everyone should learn to exercise their eye muscles and allow them to rest .
4 . It was traditionally thought that near- or far- sightedness were inherited conditions and could not be influenced by environmental factors. but new research is challenging this assumption .
5.Recent studies suggest that up to 80 percent of schoolchildren in the United States and western Europe are nearsighted. Years of focusing on close, two- dimensional work causes most children to become at least slightly nearsighted by the age of 10, say the researchers.
6.Problems with night vision, which affect around 25 percent of people, are also on the increase because of computer use . Using computer screens means the eye must operate in electromagnetic fields (电磁场) that make it work harder. It is estimated that 25 to 30 percent of people have eye conditions, such as difficulty with night vision, which result from staring at a screen .
A.The development of poor night vision
B.The greatest threat to the eyes
C.The function of sunglasses
D.The reason for children’s nearsightedness
E.The effects of computer on the eyes
F.The ways to reduce eye complaints
Paragraph 2 ________ [1分]
Paragraph 3 ________ [1分]
Paragraph 4 ________ [1分]
Paragraph 5 ________ [1分]
Sunlight in the summer is believed to be one cause of ______. [1分]
We can wear antr-UV glasses to protect ______ [1分]
We used to believe that near- or far – sightedness were inherited from ______ [1分]
Over 25% of people are estimated to have difficulty with night vision due to ______ [1分]
第一篇：The Bilingual Brain
When Karl Kim immigrated to the United States from Korea s a teenager, he had a hard time learning English. Now he speaks it fluently, and he had a unique opportunity to see how our brains adapt to a second language. As a graduate student, Kim worked in the lab of Joy Hirsch, a neuroscientist in New York. Their work led to an important discovery. They found evidence that children and adults don't use the same parts of the brain when they learn a second language.
The researchers used an instrument called an MRI( magnetic resonance imaging) scanner to study the brains of two groups of bilingual people. One group consisted of those who had learned a second language as children.. The other consisted of people who, like Kim, learned their second language later in life. People from both groups were placed inside the MRI scanner. This allowed Kim and Hirsch to see which parts of the brain were getting more blood and were more active. They asked people from both groups to think about what they had done the day before, first in one language and then the other. They couldn't speak out loud because any movement would disrupt the scanning.
Kim and Hirsch looked specifically at two language centers in the brain - Broca's area~ , which is believed to control speech production, and Wernicke's area, which is thought to process
meaning. Kim and Hirsch found that both groups of people used the same part of Wernicke's area no matter what language they were speaking. But their use of Broca's area was different.
People who learned a second language as children used the same region in Broca's area for both their first and second languages. People who learned a second language later in life used a different part of Broca's area for their second language. How does Hirsch explain this difference? Hirsch believes that when language is first being programmed in young children, their brains may mix the sounds and structures of all languages in the same area. Once that programming is complete, the processing of a new language must be taken over by a different part of the brain. .
A second possibility is simply that we may acquire languages differently as children than we do as adults. Hirsch thinks that mothers teach a baby to speak by using different methods involving touch, sound, and sight. And that is very different from learning a language in a high school or college class.
Kad Kim’s study showed that[3分]
people learn English and Korean in different ways .
children and adults use the different parts of the brain to learn a second language.
it is not possible for an adult to speak a second language fluently.
people’s brain will not change when they learn a second language
How did kim and Hirsch study the brains of two groups of bilingual people?[3分]
They interviewed them in English and Korean.
They asked them to speak the same language.
They used an MRI scanner to observe their brain.
They asked them to talk about what they had done the day before.
Which aspect of the two language centers in the brain does Paragraph 3 discuss?[3分]
Kim and Hirsch find that children[3分]
use the same region in Broca’s area to learn their first and second language.
learn a second language slower than adults.
are better at acquiring the sound system of a second language than adults.
use special parts of the brain to program the structures of their first language.
It can be inferred from the last paragraph that[3分]
students do better in high school than in college.
bilingual children will learn better in college classes.
mothers are good language teachers
it takes more time for adults to learn a second language.
第二篇： Approaches to Understanding Intelligences
It pays to be smart, but we are not all smart in the same way .You may be a talented musician, but you might not be a good reader . Each of us is different .
Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities .Psychologists have two different views on intelligence .Some believe there is one general intelligence .Others believe there are many different intelligences .
Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests .These psychologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests .They do well on tests using words ,numbers or pictures. They do well on individual or group tests ,and written or oral tests .Those who do poorly on one test ,do the same on all tests .
Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence .The brain of intelligence people use less energy during problem solving .The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction .Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain .
Howard Gardner , a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education ,has four children .He believes that all children are different and shouldn’t be tested by one intelligence test .Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists , he doesn’t think it tells much about the talents of a person outside of formal schooling .He think that the human mind has different intelligences .These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life .Each of us has different abilities within these intelligences .Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelligences .
Gardner says that his theory is based on biology .For example ,when one part of the Brain is injured ,other parts of the brain still work .People who cannot talk because of Brain damage can still sing .So ,there is not just one intelligence to lose .Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence; linguistic, mathematical, spatial, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的),and naturalistic .
What is the main idea of this passage ?[3分]
The importance of intelligence .
The development of intelligence tests .
. How to become intelligent .
How to understand intelligence
Which of the following statements is true concerning general intelligence ?[3分]
Most intelligent people do well on some intelligence tests .
Intelligent people do not do well on group tests .
Intelligent people do better on written tests than on oral tests .
People doing well on one type of intelligence test do well on other tests .
Gardner believes that ________ .[3分]
children should take one intelligence test .
there is no general intelligence .
children have different intelligences .
According to Gardner, schools should ________ .[3分]
promote development of all intelligences .
train students who do poorly on tests .
focus on finding the most intelligent students .
Gardner thinks that his theory has a ________ .[3分]
intrapersonal foundation .
第三篇： Some Sleep Drugs Do More Than Make You Sleep
The United States Food and Drug Administration1 has ordered companies to place strong new warnings on thirteen drugs that treat sleep disorders. It also ordered the makers of the sleeping pills to provide information for patients explaining how to safely use the drugs.
Last Wednesday, the FDA announced that some of these drugs can have unexpected and dangerous effects. These include the risk of life-threatening allergic reactions. They also include rare incidents of strange behavior. These include people cooking food, eating and even driving while asleep. The patients later had no memory of doing these activities while asleep.
Last year, a member of the United States Congress2 said he had a sleep-driving incident. Patrick Kennedy, a representative from Rhode Island3，crashed his car into a security barrier near the building where lawmakers meet. The accident happened in the middle of the night and no one was hurt. Mr. Kennedy said he had earlier taken a sleep medicine. He said he was also being treated with a stomach sickness drug that could cause sleepiness.
The FDA did not say in its announcement how many cases of sleep-driving it had documented. However, the New York Times4 reported last year about people who said they had strange sleep events after taking the drug Ambien. Some reported sleep-driving and sleep-walking. Others said they found evidence after waking in the morning that they had cooked food or eaten in their sleep. But they had no memory of carrying out the activities.
An FDA official says that these serious side effects of sleep disorder drugs appear to be rare. But, he also says there are probably more cases than are reported.5 He says the agency believes the risk of such behaviors could be reduced if people take the drugs as directed and do not drink alcohol while taking the drugs. The Food and Drug Administration has advised drug companies to carry out studies to investigate the problem.
The FDA announced that[3分]
thirteen drug companies were closed last Wednesday.
only thirteen drugs could treat sleeping disordera.
some sleep drugs could lead to serious side effects.
some makers of sleeping pills provided false information to their patients.
The FDA warned that some sleeping pills[3分]
can help people to learn to cook
prevent people from driving while asleep.
present life-threatening risk to patients
have severe effect on a patient’s long-term memory
What happened to Patrick Kennedy last year?[3分]
He crashed his car into a security barrier.
He was killed during a car accident.
His car broke down on the way home .
He was treated for stomachache.
After taking the drug Ambien, some people[3分]
suffer from eating problems.
fall asleep while walking.
The risk of strange behaviors resulting from taking sleeping pills could be reduced it[3分]
the FDA takes more strict regulations.
drug companies listen to patients’ advice.
the New York Times releases more reports.
people don’t drink alcohol while taking these pills.
Do You Have a Sense of Humor?
Humor and laughter are good for us . These is increasing evidence that they can heal us physically, mentally, emotionally , and spiritually . In fact every system of the body responds to laughter in some positive, healing way . So how can we get more laughter into our lives ? ______ (46) Psychologist and author, Steve Wilson, has some answers.
Many people believe that we are born with a sense of humor. They think, “either you’ve got it, or you don’t “ Dr . Wilson points out that this is false ______ (47) The parts of the brain and central nervous system that control laughing and smiling are mature at birth ______ (48) (After all, when a baby laughs , we don’t rush over and say .”That! kid has a great sense of humor!”) A sense of humor is something that you can develop over a lifetime .
Sometimes people think that they don’t have a good sense of humor because they are not good juke tellers . Dr . Wilson reminds us that telling jokes is only one of many ways to express humor . ______ (49) Then we will make others laugh , too .
A person who has a true sense of humor is willing and able to see the funny side of everyday life . One of the best definitions of a sense of humor is “ the ability to see the nonserious element in a situation”. Consider this sign from a story window .Any faulty merchandise will be cheerfully replaced with merchandise of equal quality . The store manager probably placed the sign in the window to impress customers with the store’s excellent service ______ (50) As Dr . Wilson says, “a good sense of humor means that you don’t have to be funny , you just have to see what’s funny”.
A.What is true , however, is that we are born with the capacity to laugh and smile.
B.However, that does not mean that infants have a sense of humor.
C.He advises us to lose our inhibitions (抑制) and try to laugh at ourselves.
D.Is it possible to develop a sense of humor?
E.Everyone experiences this emotion.
F.He had a serious purpose, but if you have s sense of humor, you will probably find the sign funny!
Million of kids and teenagers from every part of the world wet the bed every single night, it’s so common that there are probably other kids in your class who do it. Most kids don’t ________ (51) their friends, so it’s easy to feel kind of alone, like you might be the only one on the whole planet who wets the bed. But you are not ________ (52).
The fancy ______ (53) for bedwetting is nocturnal enuresis (夜间遗尿). Enuresis runs in families. This means that if you urinate (排尿)， or pee, which you are ______ (54), these’s a good ______ (55) that a close relative also did it when he or she was a kid. Just like you may have ______ (56) your mom’s blue eyes or your uncle’s long lags , you probably inherited bedwetting too.
The most important thing to remember is that no one ______ (57) the bed on purpose. It doesn’t mean that you’re ______ (58) or a slob (懒汉). It’s something you can’t help ______ (59).For some reason, kids who wet the bed are not able to feel that their bladder (膀胱) is full and don’t ______ (60) up to pee in the toilet.
Sometimes a kid who wets the bed will have a realistic ______ (61) that he is in the bathroom peeing --- only to wake up later and discover he’s all wet . Many kids who wet the bed are very ______ (62) sleepers .Trying to wake up someone who wets the bed is often like trying to wake a log --- they just stay asleep.
Some kids who wet the bed do it every single night . Others wet some nights and are ______ (63) on others. A lot of kids say that they seem to be drier when they sleep at a friend’s or a relative’s house . That’s because kids who are anxious ______ (64) wetting the bed may-not sleep much or only very light. So the brain may be thinking.
“Hey, you !Don’t wet someone else’s bed!” This can help you ______ (65) dry even if you’re not aware of it .