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2013年职称英语考试卫生类A级真题
试卷编号:211875
录入者 :七月
试卷总分:100
出卷时间:
答题时间:100分钟
 
 
第1部分:词汇选项(第1~15题,每题1分,共15分)下面每个句子中均有1个词或者短语划有底横线,请为每处划线部分确定1个意义最为接近的选项。
1.
Respect for life is a cardinal principle of the law.[1分]
fundamental
moral
regular
hard
2.
The proposal was endorsed by the majority of members.[1分]
rejected
approved
submitted
considered
3.
Many experts remain skeptical about his claims.[1分]
untouched
certain
silent
doubtful
4.
This species has nearly died out because its habitat is being destroyed.[1分]
turned dead
passed by
carried away
become extinct
5.
The methods of communication used during the war were primitive.[1分]
reliable
effective
simple
alternative
6.
Three world-class tennis players came to contend for this title.[1分]
argue
claim
wish
compete
7.
Come out, or I'll bust the door down.[1分]
shut
beat
set
break
8.
The rules are too rigid to allow for human error.[1分]
general
complex
inflexible
direct
9.
The tower remains intact ever after two hundred years.[1分]
unknown
undamaged
unusual
unstable
10.
They didn't seem to appreciate the magnitude of the problem.[1分]
existence
cause
importance
situation
11.
The contract between the two companies will expire soon.[1分]
shorten
start
end
resume
12.
The drinking water has become contaminated with lead.[1分]
polluted
treated
tested
corrupted
13.
She shed a few tears at her daughter's wedding.[1分]
produced
wiped
injected
removed
14.
Rumors began to circulate about his financial problems.[1分]
send
hear
confirm
spread
15.
The police will need to keep a wary eye on this area of town.[1分]
cautious
naked
blind
private
第2部分:阅读判断(第16~22题,每题1分,共7分) 下面的短文后列出了7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断;如果该句提供的是正确信息,请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及,请选择C。
根据下列材料,回答16-22题
In Year Face
Why is this man so angry? We don't know the reason, but we can see the emotion in his face. Whatever culture you come from, you can understand the feeling that he is expressing. Forty years ago, psychologist Paul Ekman of the University of California, San Francisco, became interested in how people's faces show their feelings. He took photographs of Americans expressing various emotions. Then he showed them to the Fore people, who live in the jungle in New GuineA.Most of the Fore had never seen foreign faces, but they easily understood Americans' expressions of anger, happiness, sadness, disgust, fear, and surprise.
Then Ekman did the same experiment in reverse. He showed pictures of Fore faces to Americans, and the results were similar. Americans had no problems reading the emotions on the Fore people's faces.  Ekman's research gave powerful support to the theory that facial expressions for basic emotions are the same everywhere. He did more research in Japan, Brazil, and Argentina, and got the same results.
According to Ekman, these six emotions are universal because they are built into our brains. They developed to help us deal with things quickly that might hurt us. Some emotional triggers are universal as well. When something suddenly comes into sight, people feel fear, because it might be dangerous. But most emotional triggers are learneD.For example, two people might smell newly cut grass. One person spent wonderful-summers in the country as a child, so the smell makes him happy. The other person remembers working very hard on a farm and being hungry, so he feels sad.
Once we make an emotional association in our brain, it is difficult, and sometimes impossible, to change it. "Emotion is the least changeable part of the brain. " says Ekman. But we can "learn to manage our emotions better. For instance, we can be more aware of things that make us angry, and we can think before we react.
There are many differences between cultures, in their languages and customs. But a smile is exactly the same everywhere.
16.
Paul Ekman studies people's faces in different cultures.[1分]
Right
Wrong
Not mentioned
17.
Ekman did research in several countries and got different results.[1分]
Right
Wrong
Not mentioned
18.
Americans get angry more often than the Fore people from New Guinea.[1分]
Right
Wrong
Not mentioned
19.
Ekman thinks that some basic emotions are the same everywhere.[1分]
Right
Wrong
Not mentioned
20.
Two people might feel different emotions about the same thing.[1分]
Right
Wrong
Not mentioned
21.
Fear is the most difficult emotion to change.[1分]
Right
Wrong
Not mentioned
22.
People of different cultures smile when they understand each other.[1分]
Right
Wrong
Not mentioned
第3部分:概括大意和完成句子(第23~30题,每题1分,共8分) 下面的短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23~26题要求从所给的6个选项中为指定段落每段选择个小标题;(2)第27~30题要求从所给的6个选项中为每个句子确定一个最佳选项。
根据材料,回答23-30题
Organic Food: Why?
1.Europe is now the biggest market for organic food in the world, expanding by 25 percent a year over the past 10 years. So what is the attraction of organic food for some people? The really important thing is that organic sounds more "natural" eating organic is a way of defining oneself as natural, good, caring, different from the junk-food-eating masses.
2.Unlike conventional farming, the organic approach means farming with natural rather than man-made, fertilizers and pesticides. Techniques such as crop rotation (轮种) improve soil quality and help organic farmers compensate for the absence of man-made chemicals. As a method of food production organic is, however, inefficient in its use of labor and land; there are severe limits to how much food can be produceD.Also, the environmental benefits of not using artificial fertilizers are tiny compared with the amount of carbon dioxide emitted (排放) by transporting food.
3.Organic farming is often claimed to be safer than conventional fanning. Yet studies into organic fanning worldwide continue to reject this claim. An extensive review by the UK Food Standards Agency found that there was no statistically significant difference between organic and conventional crops.  Even where results indicated there was evidence of a difference, the reviewers found no sign that these differences would have any noticeable effect on health.
4.The simplistic claim that organic food is more nutritious than conventional food was always likely to be misleading. Food is a natural product, and the health value of different foods will vary for a number of reasons including freshness, the way the food is cooked, the type of soil it is grown in the amount of sunlight and rain crops have received, and so on. Likewise, the flavor of a carrot has less to do with whether it was fertilized with manure (粪便) or something out of a plastic sack than with the variety of carrot and how long ago it was dug up.
5.Then notion that organic food is safer than "normal" food is also contradicted by the fact that many of our most common foods are full of natural toxins (毒素). As one research expert says: "People think that the more natural something is, the better it is for them. That is simply not the case. In fact, it is the opposite that is true: the closer a plant is to its natural state, the more likely it is that it will poison you. Naturally, many plants do not want to be eaten, so we have spent 10000 years developing agriculture and breeding out harmful traits from crops. "
23.
Paragraph 1__________.[1分]
Main reason for the popularity of organic food
Description of organic farming
Factors that affect food health value
Testing the taste of organic food
Necessity to remove hidden dangers from food
Research into whether organic food is better
24.
Paragraph 2__________.[1分]
Main reason for the popularity of organic food
Description of organic farming
Factors that affect food health value
Testing the taste of organic food
Necessity to remove hidden dangers from food
Research into whether organic food is better
25.
Paragraph 3__________.[1分]
Main reason for the popularity of organic food
Description of organic farming
Factors that affect food health value
Testing the taste of organic food
Necessity to remove hidden dangers from food
Research into whether organic food is better
26.
Paragraph 4__________.[1分]
Main reason for the popularity of organic food
Description of organic farming
Factors that affect food health value
Testing the taste of organic food
Necessity to remove hidden dangers from food
Research into whether organic food is better
27.
Techniques of organic farming help__________.[1分]
show that organic crops are safer than conventional ones
be specially trained
improve soil quality
poison you
be eaten
affect their nutritional content
28.
There is no convincing evidence to__________.[1分]
show that organic crops are safer than conventional ones
be specially trained
improve soil quality
poison you
be eaten
affect their nutritional content
29.
The weather conditions during the growth of crops__________.[1分]
show that organic crops are safer than conventional ones
be specially trained
improve soil quality
poison you
be eaten
affect their nutritional content
30.
The closer a plant is to its natural state; the less suitable it is to__________.[1分]
show that organic crops are safer than conventional ones
be specially trained
improve soil quality
poison you
be eaten
affect their nutritional content
第4部分:阅读理解(第31~45题,每题3分,共45分) 下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题。请根据短文内容,为每题确定1个最佳选项。
根据下列材料,回答31-45题
Why Don't Babies Talk Like Adults?
Over the past half-century, scientists have settled on two reasonable theories related to babytalk. One states that a young child's brain needs time to master language, in the same way that it does to master other abilities such as physical movement. The second theory states that a child's vocabulary level is the key factor. According to this theory, some key steps have to occur in a logical sequence before sentence formation occurs.  Children's mathematical knowledge develops in the same way.
In 2007, researchers at Harvard University, who were studying the two theories, found a clever way to test them. More than 20000 internationally adopted children enter the US each year. Many of them no longer hear their birth language after they arrive, and they must learn English more or less the same way infants do -- that is, by listening and by trial and error. International adoptees don't take classes or use a dictionary when they are learning their new tongue and most of them don't have a well-developed first language. All of these factors make them an ideal population in which to test these competing hypotheses about how language is learned.
Neuroscientists Jesse Snedeker, Joy Geren and Carissa Shafto studied the language development of 27 children adopted from China between the ages of two and five years. These children began learning English at an older age than US natives and had more mature brains with which to tackle the task. Even so, just as with American-born infants, their first English sentences consisted of single words and were largely bereft (缺乏的) of function words, word endings and verbs. The adoptees then went through the same stages as typical American-born children, though at a faster clip. The adoptees and native children started combining words in sentences when their vocabulary reached the same sizes, further suggesting that what matters is not how old you are or how mature your brain is, but the number of words you know.
This finding -- that having more mature brains did not help the adoptees avoid the toddler-talk stage -- suggests that babies speak in babytalk not because they have baby brains, but because they have only just started learning and need time to gain enough vocabulary to be able to expand their conversations. Before long, the one-word stage will give way to the two-word stage and so on. Learning how to chat like an adult is a gradual process.
But this potential answer also raises an even older and more difficult question. Adult immigrants, who learn a second language rarely, achieve the same proficiency in a foreign language as the average child raised as a native speaker. Researchers have long suspected there is a “critical period” for language development,after which it cannot proceed with full success to fluency.Yet we still do not understand this critical period or know why it ends.
31.
What is the writer’s main purpose in Paragraph 2 ?[3分]
To reject the view that adopted children need two languages.
To argue that culture affects the way children learn a language.
To give reasons why adopted children were used in the study.
To justify a particular approach to language learning.
32.
Snedeker,Geren and Shafto based their study on children who__________.[3分]
were finding it difficult to learn English
were learning English at a later age than US children
had come from a number of language backgrounds
had taken English lessons in China
33.
What aspect of the adopted children’s language development differed from that of US—born children?[3分]
The rate at which they acquired language.
Their first words.
The way they learnt English.
The point at which they started producing sentences.
34.
What does the Harvard finding show?[3分]
Not all toddlers use babytalk.
Some children need more conversation than others.
Language learning takes place in ordered steps.
Not all brains work in the same way.
35.
When the writer says “critical period”,he means a period when__________.[3分]
studies produce useful results
adults need to be taught like children
1anguage learning takes place effectively
immigrants want to learn another language
根据下列材料,回答36-50题
DNA Fingerprinting
DNA is the genetic material found within the cell nucleus of all living things.In mammals the strands of DNA are grouped into structures called chromosomes.With the exception of identical siblings(as in identical twins),the complete DNA of each individual is unique.
DNA fingerprinting is sometimes called DNA typing.It is a method of identification that compares bits of DNA.A DAN fingerprint is constructed by first drawing out a DNA sample from body tissue or fluid such as hair,blood,or saliva.The sample is then segmented using enzymes,and the segments are arranged by size.The segments are marked with probes and exposed on X—ray film,where they form a pattern of black bars—the DNA fingerprint.If the DNA fingerprints produced from two different samples match,the two samples probably came from the same person.
DNA fingerprinting was first developed as all identification technique in 1985.Originally used to detect the presence of genetic diseases,it soon came to be used in criminal investigations and legal affairs.The first criminal conviction based on DNA evidence in the United States occurred in l988.In criminal investigations,DNA fingerprints derived from evidence collected at the crime scene are compared to the DNA fingerprints of suspects.Generally,coups have accepted the reliability of DNA testing and admitted DNA test results into evidence.However,DNA fingerprinting is controversial in a number of areas:the accuracy of the results,the cost oftestin9,and the possible misuse of the technique.
The accuracy of DNA fingerprinting has been challenged for several reasons.First,because DNA segments rather than complete DNA strands are “fingerprinted”;a DNA fingerprint may not be unique;large—scale research to confirm the uniqueness of DNA fingerprinting test results has not been conducted.In addition,DNA fingerprinting is often done in private laboratories that may not follow uniform testing standards and quality controls.Also,since human beings must interpret the test,human error could lead to false results.
DNA fingerprinting is expensive.Suspects who are unable to provide their own DNA to experts may not be able to successfully defend themselves against charges based on DNA evidence.
Widespread use of DNA testing for identification purposes may lead to the establishment of a DNA fingerprint database.
36.
If two sisters are identical twins.their complete DNAs are _________.[3分]
the same
unique
different
similar
37.
DNA fingerprinting is a technique of _________.[3分]
grouping DNA strands into structures
segmenting DNA with probes
constructing body tissues by enzymes
identifying a person by comparing DNAs
38.
DNA fingerprinting was first used in _________.[3分]
criminal investigation
animal reproduction
private laboratories
genetic disease detection
39.
People question the reliability of DNA fingerprinting for _________.[3分]
the subjective interpretation of test results
its complex procedure
its large scale research
its uniform testing standards
40.
It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that DNA fingerprinting _________.[3分]
is costly to the police
could be a social issue
1s the only way to prove innocence
has been a profitable business
根据下列材料,回答41-55题
On the Trial of the Honey Badger
On a recent field trip to the Kalahari Desert,a team of researchers learn a lot more about honey badgers.The team employed a local wildlife expea Kitso Khama to help them locate and follow the badgers across the desert.Their main aim was to study the badgers,movements and behavior as discreetly(谨慎地)as possible without frightening them away or causing them to change their natural behavior.They also planned to trap a few and study them close up before releasing them in view of the animal’s reputation;this was something that even Khama was reluctant to do.
“The problem with honey badgers is they are naturally curious animals,especially when they see something new,”he says.“That,combined with their unpredictable nature.can be a dangerous mixture.If they sense you have food,for example,they won’t be shy about coming right up to you for something to eat.They’re actually quite sociable creatures around humans。but as soon as they feel they might be in danger,they can become extremely vicious(凶恶的).Fortunately this is rare.but it does happen.”
The research confirmed many things that were already known.As expected,honey badgers ate any creatures they could catch and kill.Even poisonous snakes,feared and avoided by most other animals,were not safe from them.The researchers were surprised,however.by the animal’s fondness for local melons,probably because of their high water content.Preciously researchers thought that the animal got all of its liquid requirements from its prey(猎物).The team also learnt that,contrary to previous research findings,the badgers occasionally formed loose family groups.They were also able to confirm certain results from previous research.including the fact that female badgers never socialized with each other.
Following some of the male badgers was a challenge,since they can cover large distances in a short space of time.Some hunting territories cover more than 500 square kilometers.Although they seem happy to share these territories with other males,there are occasional fights over an Important food source,and male badgers Call be as aggressive towards each other as they are towards other species.
As the badgers became accustomed to the presence of people,it gave the team the chance to get up close to them without being the subject of the animal’s curiosity——or sudden aggression. The badgers' eating patterns, which had been disrupted, to normal. It also allowed the team to observe more closely some of the other creatures that form working associations with the honey badger, as these seemed to badgers' relaxed attitude when near humans.
41.
Why did the wild life experts visit the Kalahari Desert?[3分]
To find where honey badgers live.
To catch some honey badgers for food.
To find out why honey badgers have a bad reputation.
To observe how honey badgers behave.
42.
What does Kitso Khama say about honey badgers?[3分]
They are always looking for food.
They do not enjoy human company.
It is common for them to attack people.
They show interest in things they are not familiar with.
43.
What did the team find out about honey badgers?[3分]
There were some creatures they did not eat.
They were afraid of poisonous creatures.
Female badgers did not mix with male badgers.
They may get some of the water they needed from fruit.
44.
Which of the following is a typical feature of male badgers?[3分]
They don't run very quickly.
They defend their territory from other badgers.
They hunt over a very large area.
They are more aggressive than females.
45.
What happened when honey badgers got used to humans around them?[3分]
They lost interest in people.
They became less aggressive towards other creatures.
They started eating more.
Other animals started working with them.
第5部分:补全短文(第46~50题,每题2分,共10分) 下面的短文有5处空白,短文后有6个句子,其中5个取自短文,请根据短文内容将其分别放回原有位置,以恢复文章面貌。
根据下列材料,回答46-50题
Toads are Arthritis and in Pain
Arthritis is an illness that can cause pain and swelling in your bones. Toads, a big problem in the north of Australia, are suffering from painful arthritis in their legs and backbone, a new study has shown. The toads that jump the fastest are more likely to be larger and to have longer legs. (46).
The large yellow toads, native to South and Central America, were introduced into the north-eastern Australian state of Queensland in 1935 in an attempt to stop beetles and other insects from destroying sugarcane crops. Now up to 200 million of the poisonous toads exist in the country, and they are rapidly spreading through the state of Northern Territory at a rate of up to 60 km a year. The toads can now be found across more than one million square kilometers.(47) A Venezuelan poison virus was tried in the 1990s but had to be abandoned after it was found to also kill native frog species.
The toads have severely affected ecosystems in AustraliA.Animals, and sometimes pets, that eat the toads die immediately from their poison, and the toads themselves eat anything they can fit inside their mouth. (48)
A co-author of the new study, Rick Shine, a professor at the University of Sydney, says that little attention has been given to the problems that toads face. Rick and his colleagues studied nearly 500 toads from Queensland and the Northern Territory and found that those in the latter state were very different. They were active, sprinting down roads and breeding quickly. According to the results of the study, the fastest toads travel nearly one kilometer a night.(49) But speed and strength come at a price -- arthritis of the legs and backbone due to constant pressure placed on them.
In laboratory tests, the researchers found that after about 15 minutes of hopping, arthritic toads would travel less distance with each hop (跳跃). (50) These toads are so programmed to move, apparently, that even when in pain the toads travelled as fast and as far as the healthy ones, continuing their relentless march across the landscape.
46.
____________[2分]
But this advantage also has a big drawback -- up to 10% of the biggest toads suffer from arthritis.
The task now facing the country is how to remove the toads.
But arthritis didn't slow down toads outside the laboratory.
Toads with longer legs move faster and travel longer distances while the others are being left behind.
Toads are not built to be road runners -- they are built to sit around ponds and wet areas.
Furthermore, they soon take over the natural habitats of Australia's native species.
47.
____________[2分]
But this advantage also has a big drawback -- up to 10% of the biggest toads suffer from arthritis.
The task now facing the country is how to remove the toads.
But arthritis didn't slow down toads outside the laboratory.
Toads with longer legs move faster and travel longer distances while the others are being left behind.
Toads are not built to be road runners -- they are built to sit around ponds and wet areas.
Furthermore, they soon take over the natural habitats of Australia's native species.
48.
____________[2分]
But this advantage also has a big drawback -- up to 10% of the biggest toads suffer from arthritis.
The task now facing the country is how to remove the toads.
But arthritis didn't slow down toads outside the laboratory.
Toads with longer legs move faster and travel longer distances while the others are being left behind.
Toads are not built to be road runners -- they are built to sit around ponds and wet areas.
Furthermore, they soon take over the natural habitats of Australia's native species.
49.
____________[2分]
But this advantage also has a big drawback -- up to 10% of the biggest toads suffer from arthritis.
The task now facing the country is how to remove the toads.
But arthritis didn't slow down toads outside the laboratory.
Toads with longer legs move faster and travel longer distances while the others are being left behind.
Toads are not built to be road runners -- they are built to sit around ponds and wet areas.
Furthermore, they soon take over the natural habitats of Australia's native species.
50.
____________[2分]
But this advantage also has a big drawback -- up to 10% of the biggest toads suffer from arthritis.
The task now facing the country is how to remove the toads.
But arthritis didn't slow down toads outside the laboratory.
Toads with longer legs move faster and travel longer distances while the others are being left behind.
Toads are not built to be road runners -- they are built to sit around ponds and wet areas.
Furthermore, they soon take over the natural habitats of Australia's native species.
第6部分:完形填空(第52~65题,每题1分,共15分) 下面的短文有15处空白,请根据短文内容为每处空白确定1个最佳选项。
根据下列材料,回答51-65题
Scientists Develop Ways of Detecting Heart Attack
German researchers have come up with a new generation of defibrillators and early-warningsoftware aimed at offering heart patients greater (51) from sudden death from cardiac arrest.
In Germany alone around 100000 people die annually (52) a result of cardiac arrest and many of these cases are caused by disruption to the heart's rhythm. Those most at (53) are patients who have already suffered a heart attack, and for years the use of defibrillators has proved useful in (54) life-threatening disruption to heart rhythms and correcting them automatically by intervening within seconds. These devices (55) on a range of functions, such as that of pacemaker (起搏器).
Heart specialists at Freiburg's University Clinic have now achieved a breakthrough with an implanted defibrillator (56) of generating a six-channel electrocardiogram (ECG) within the body. This integrated system allows (57) diagnosis of acute blood-flow problems and a pending heart attack. It will be implanted in (58) for the first time this year. Meanwhile, researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Mathematics in Kaiserslautem have developed new computer software that (59) the evaluation of ECG data more precisely.
The overwhelming majority of patients at risk will not have an implanted defibrillator and must for this (60) undergo regular ECGs. "Many of the current programs only get into (61) a linear correlation of the datA.We are, however, making use in a non-linear process (62) reveals the chaotic patterns of heart beats as an open and complex system," Hagen Knaf says, "In this way changes in the heart (63) over time can be monitored and individual variations in patients taken into account. " An old study of ECG data, based upon 600 patients who had (64) a subsequent heart attack, enabled the researchers to compare risks and to show that the new software evaluates the (65) considerably better.
51.
 [1分]
service
discount
protection
advice
52.
 [1分]
for
as
with
in
53.
 [1分]
last
all
once
risk
54.
 [1分]
leading
causing
diagnosing
repeating
55.
 [1分]
put
go
take
keep
56.
 [1分]
worthy
full
proud
capable
57.
 [1分]
final
differential
usual
early
58.
 [1分]
doctors
researchers
patients
nurses
59.
 [1分]
carries
has
requires
makes
60.
 [1分]
reason
purpose
treatment
chance
61.
 [1分]
account
trouble
confusion
effort
62.
 [1分]
what
that
since
it
63.
 [1分]
beats
failures
attacks
shapes
64.
 [1分]
suffered
launched
avoided
started
65.
 [1分]
option
method
proposal
data

≡ 本试卷共计65题,此处为结束标志。
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