At midnight,we were aroused by a knock at the door.[1分]
She was awarded a prize for the film.[1分]
Smoking will be banned in all public places here.[1分]
That guy is intelligeng but a bit dull.[1分]
She is a highly successful teacher.[1分]
We should not sacrifice environmental protections to foster economic growth.[1分]
There is a growing gap between the rich and the poor.[1分]
I am very grateful to you for your assistance.[1分]
You will be meeting her presently.[1分]
Attitudes to mental illness have shifted in recent years.[1分]
I have been trying to guit smoking.[1分]
Relief workers were shocked by what they saw.[1分]
The weather is a constant subject of conversation in Britain.[1分]
This is not typical of English,but is a feature of the Chinese language.[1分]
It is virtually impossible to persuade him to apply for the job.[1分]
Are You Getting Enough Sleep?
What happens if you don’t get enough sleep? Randy Gardner, a high school student in the United States, wanted to find out. He designed an experiment on the effects of sleeplessness for a school science project. With doctors watching him carefully, Gardner stayed awake for 264 hours and 12 minutes. That’s eleven days and nights without sleep.
What effect did sleeplessness have on Gardner? After 24 hours without sleep, Gardner started having trouble reading and watching television. The words and pictures were too blurry (模糊). By the third day, he was having trouble doing things with his hands. By the fourth day, Gardner was hallucinating(产生幻觉). For example, when he saw a feet sign, he thought it was a person. He also imagines he was a famous football player. After the next few days, Gardner’s speech became so slurred(不清楚)that people couldn’t understand him. He also had trouble remembering things. By the eleventh day, Gardner couldn’t pass a counting test. In the middle of the test he simply stopped. He couldn’t remember what he was doing.
Then Gardner finally went to bed, he slept for 14 hours and 45 minutes. The second day he slept twelve hours, the third night he slept for ten and one-half hours, and by the fourth night, he had returned to his normal sleep schedule.
Though Gardner recovered quickly, scientists believe that going without sleep gerous. They say that people should not repeat Randy’s experiment. Tests on Gardner have shown how serious sleeplessness can be. After a few weeks without-started losing their fur(皮毛). And even though the rats ate more food than weight. Eventually the rats died.
During your lifetime, you will probably spend 25 years or more sleeping. But why purpose of sleep? Surprisingly, scientists don’t know for sure. Some sleep in order to replenish(补充)brain cells. Other scientists think body to grow and to relieve stress. Whatever the reason, we know enough sleep.
Randy Gardner studied the effects of over over-sleeping.[1分]
During the experiment, Gardner slept for two hours every night.[1分]
During the experiment, Gardner had trouble speaking clearly.[1分]
It took four days for Gardner to recover from the experiment.[1分]
Going without sleep is not dangerous for white rats.[1分]
Scientists are not sure why we need sleep.[1分]
People sleep less than they used to.[1分]
Exercising Your Memory
1 Aging does not mean a dramatic decline in memory power, unless you help it happen by letting your mind go.
2 That's not to say that memory doesn't change throughout life. Researchers divide memory into categories based on the length of time when memories are stored. One system divides it up as short-term (less than one minute; remembering a telephone number while you dial, for instance), long-term (over a period of years) and very long-term memory (over a lifetime).
3 Short-term memory isn't mastered until about age 7, but after that you never 10se it. Long-term memory, however, involves more effort and skill and changes more through life. It's not until the early teens (十几岁) that most people develop a mature long-term memory.
4 First, we must get information into our heads through learning. Learning strategies can get rusty (生锈) without constant use. High school and college students, who are forced to repeatedly exercise their long-term memory abilities (at least long-term enough to get them through a final exam), usually do well on memory tests. The longer you stay in school, the more chance you get to polish your learning skills. It's no wonder that more highly educated people have more effective memory skills throughout life.
5 Although older people in general learn somewhat more slowly than they did when younger, a dramatic difference exists between those who stay intellectually active m reading, discussing, taking classes, thinking —— and those who do not. Giving the brain daily workout (锻炼) is just as important as exercising your muscles. Brainwork keeps your learning strategies in shape, and this helps your memory to function at full capacity.
6 The next part of a healthy long-term memory is retention (记忆力), the ability to store what you have learned. Memory researchers still do not know whether memories are lost ——whether they still exist in the brain but our mental searching cannot turn them up, or have disappeared entirely as our brain ages.
7 The third necessity for memory is recall, the ability to bring to mind the memories we have stored. Again, while aging has widely different effects on the recall abilities of different people, research indicates that the older we get, the longer it takes to recall facts But slower recall is still recall, in fact, aging does not seem to have any effect on forgetting at all, which takes place at the same rate in younger and older people.
A.Importance of staying intellectually active
B.Effects of aging on a person's recall ability
C.Short-term memory versus long-term memory
D.Retention as the second necessity for memory
E.Link between learning strategies and effective memory skills
F.Significance of exercising your muscles
Paragraph 4 _________.[1分]
Paragraph 5 _________.[1分]
Paragraph 6 _________.[1分]
A.for younger and older people
B.to the proper function of your memory
C.is called long-term memory
D.the capacity to store what you have learned
E.belongs to very long-term memory
F.the ability to remain mentally healthy
Retention refers to _________.[1分]
The rate of forgetting is the same _________.[1分]
Remembering something all your life _________.[1分]
Exercising your brain every day is beneficial _________.[1分]
Who Want to Live Forever?
If your doctor could give you a drug that would let you live a healthy life for twice as long ，would you take it?
The good news is that we may be drawing near to that date，Scientists have already extended the lives of flies ，worms and mice in laboratories. Many now think that using genetic treatments we will soon be able to extend human life to at least 140 years. This seems a great idea. Think of how much more time we could spend chasing our dreams，spending time with our loved ones，watching our families grow and have families of their own.
"Longer life would give us a chance to recover from our mistakes and promote long term thinking," says Dr Gregory Stock of the University Of California School Of Public Health. "It would also raise productivity by adding to the year we can work."
Longer lives don't just affect the people who live them. They also affect society as a whole. "We have war，poverty，all sorts of issues around，and I don't think any of them would be at all helped by having people live longer," says US bioethicist Daniel Callahan."The question is 'What will we get as a society? 'I suspect it won't be a better society."
It would certainly be a very different society. People are already finding it more difficult to stay married. Divorce rates are rising. What would happen to marriage in a society where people lived for 140 years? And what would happen to family life if nine or 10 generations of the same family were all alive at the same time?
Research into ageing may enable women to remain fertile for longer. And that raises the prospect of having 100-year-old parents，or brothers and sisters born 50 years apart. We think of an elder sibling as someone who can protect us and offer help and advice. That would be hard to do if that sibling came from a completely different generation.
Working life would also be affected，especially if the retirement age was lifted. More people would stay in work for longer. That would give us the benefits of age-skill，wisdom and good judgment.
On the other hand，more people working for longer would create greater competition for jobs. It would make it more difficult for younger people to find a job. Top posts would be dominated by the same few individuals，making career progress more difficult. And how easily would a 25-year-old employee be able to communicate with a 125-year-old boss?
Young people would be a smaller part of a society in which people lived to 140. It may be that such a society would place less importance on guiding and educating young people，and more on making life comfortable for the old.
And society would feel very different if more of its members were older. There would be more wisdom，but less energy. Young people like to move about. Old people like to sit still. Young people tend to act without thinking. Old people tend to think without acting. Young people are curious and like to experience different things. Old people are less enthusiastic about change. In fact ，they are less enthusiastic about everything.
The effect of anti-ageing technology is deeper than we might think. But as the science advances，we need to think about these changes now. " If this could ever happen，then we'd better ask what kind of society we want to get，" says Daniel Callahan. "We had better not go anywhere near it until we have figure those problems out."
mice / mais / n. 老鼠(复数)
sibling / 'sibli? / n. 兄弟姐妹
bioethicist // n. 生物伦理学家
1.brothers and sisters born 50 years apart 出生年份相隔50年的兄弟姐妹
2.We had better not go anywhere near it 我们最好离它远点，这里的it指代前面讲的 anti-ageing technology.
Which of the following is NOT mentioned as one of the things that living longer might enable an individual to do?[3分]
Spending more time with his family.
Which of the following is implied in the sixth paragraph?[3分]
Marriages in the US today are quite unstable.
More and more people in the US today want to get married.
Living longer would make it easier for people to maintain their marital ties.
If people live longer ，they would stay in marriage longer.
All of the following are possible effects living longer might have on working life EXCEPT[3分]
Communication between employers and employees would be more difficult.
More money would be used by employees in payment of their employees.
The job market would be more competitive.
It would be more difficult for young people to be promoted to top positions.
An important feature of a society in which people live a long life is that[3分]
it places more emphasis on educating the young.
it is both wise and energetic.
it lacks the curiosity to experiment what is new.
Which of the following best describes Callahan 's attitude to anti-ageing technology ?[3分]
Evidence of Ancient Hunters
Russian and Norwegian scientists have reported finding stone objects and animal bones in the far north of European Russia. The scientists say the objects provide the first evidence that ancient hunters lived in the area more than 30 thousand years ago. They say this is at least 15 thousand years earlier than experts had thought.
The Russian and Norwegian team worked at a camp along the Usa River and the Arctic Circle. The scientists say they found several ancient stone tools. They also found 123 bones from animals such as horses, reindeer(驯鹿)and wolves.
The scientists say their most important discovery was a tusk from an ancient elephant called a mammoth(猛犸). The huge, curved tooth was more than l meter long. The tusk is covered with small cuts. The scientists believe humans made the marks with sharp-edged stone tools.
The scientists used a process known as radiocarbon(放射性碳)dating to measure the age of the tusk. Radiocarbon dating shows the level of a radioactive form of carbon in a substance. The tests showed the tusk is about 36 thousand years old.
The scientists say they are not sure what kind of humans left the stone objects and bones along the river. They said the people were either early humans called Neanderthals(穴居人,尼安德特人) or modern humans. Modern humans spread through Europe and Asia 30 thousand years ago. The scientists say the ancient people needed a high level of social development to survive in the extremely cold environment.
The objects were discovered about 300 kilometers northeast of another area where scientists say humans once lived. That area has objects more closely linked to modern humans. Those objects are believed to be about 28 thousand years old.
Nature magazine also published a report by John Gowlett of the University of Liverpool in England. He said the discovery shows the ability of early humans to do the unexpected. He also said the discovery should renew debate about the effects of the climate on the movements of early human population.
Before people found stone objects and animal bones in the north of European Russia, some experts thought human beings lived in that area about[3分]
The following statements are true concerning the significance of the finding EXCEPT that[3分]
it brings forwards the time in which ancient hunters lived in that area
it provides the evidence of a high level of ancient human society
it showed the unexpected ability of the early humans
it indicates the effect of climate on the movement of early human population
Which is the most important discovery among the findings[3分]
mammoth tusk covered with small cuts
How old is the tusk? About years old[3分]
What did the ancient people need to survive in the extremely cold environment[3分]
the ability to do the unexpected
a high level of social development
A.proverb allegedly (据说) from ancient China was widely spread in the West：“If you want to be happy for a few hours，go to get drunk;if you want the happiness to last three years，get married：if you want a lifetime happiness，take up gardening.”The reason for the last option is this：Gardening is not only useful;it helps you to identify yourself with nature，and thus brings you new joy each day besides improving your health.
A.research of a US university that I've read gives a definition of happiness as what makes a person feel comfortably pleased. To put it specifically, happiness is an active state of mind where one thinks one's life is meaningful, satisfactory and comfortable. This should be something lasting rather than transitory.
Lots of people regard it the happiest to be at leisure. But according to the study, it is not a person with plenty of leisure but one at work that feels happy, especially those busy with work having little time for leisure. Happiness does not spell gains one is after but a desire to harvest what one is seeking for. People often do not cherish what they already have but yearn for what they cannot get. That is somewhat like a man indulging in dreams of numerous lovers while reluctant to settle down with the woman beside him.
Happiness is a game balancing between two ends -- what one has and what one wishes for, i.e. one's dream and the possibility to realize it. The study comes to this conclusion: A happy man is one who aims high but never forgets his actual situation; one who meets challenges that tap his ability and potentiality; one who is proud of his achievements and the recognition given to him. He has self-respect and self-confidence; treasures his own identity and loves freedom. He is sociable and enjoys wide-range communication with others; he is helpful and ready to accept assistance. He knows he is able to endure sufferings and frustrations; he is sensible enough to get fun from daily chores. He is a man capable of love and passion.
Gardening can bring lifelong happiness because[3分]
it is a profitable business.
it can improve a gardener's ability to remake nature.
a gardener can enjoy a very happy relationship in marriage.
nature is an unexhausted source of joy
The research of the US university found that most people feel happy when they[3分]
take the job of gardening.
Why does the writer mention "a man indulging in dreams of numerous lovers" (Lines 5 --6, Para. 3)?[3分]
To demonstrate the problem in marriage in modern society.
To illustrate a radical way to achieve happiness.
To criticize those who do not value what they already have.
To indicate that happiness covers something besides the desire to gain
What kind of person is more likely to be unhappy according to the study?[3分]
The one who has self-respect and confidence.
The one who is ambitious without consideration of his actual situation.
The one who can take pleasure in communicating with others.
The one who are ready to render help and accept help from others.
What is happiness?[3分]
A transitory state of mind.
Getting everything what one desires.
An all-working and no-leisure life.
A desire based on our actual situation.
Several types of financial risk are encountered in international marketing; the major problems include commercial, political, and foreign exchange risk.
Commercial risks are handled essentially as normal credit risks encountered in day-to-day business. They include solvency, default, or refusal to pay bills. The major risk,__1__ which can only be dealt with through consistently effective management and marketing. One unique risk encountered by the international marketer involves financial adjustments. Such risk is encountered when a controversy arises about the quality of goods delivered, a dispute over contract terms, or__2__. One company, for example, shipped several hundred tons of dehydrated potatoes to a distributor in Germany. The distributor tested the shipment and declared it to be below acceptable taste and texture standards. The alternatives for the exporter were reducing the price, reselling the potatoes, or shipping them home again, each involving considerable cost.
Political risk relates to the problems of war or revolution, currency inconvertibility, expropriation or expulsion, and restriction or cancellation of import licenses. Political risk is an environmental concern for all businesses. Management information systems and effective decision-making processes are the best defenses against political risk. As many companies have discovered, sometimes there is no way to avoid political risk,__3__.
Exchange-rate fluctuations inevitably cause problems, but for many years, most firms could take protective action to minimize their unfavorable effects. Floating exchange rates of the world's major currencies have forced all marketers __4__. International Business Machine Corporation, for example, reported that exchange losses resulted in a dramatic 21.6 percent drop in their earnings in the third quarter of 1981. __5__, devaluations of major currencies were infrequent and usually could be anticipate a d, but exchange-rate fluctuations in the float system are daily affairs.
A.to be especially aware of exchange-rate fluctuations and the need to compensate for them in their financial planning
B.any other disagreement over which payment is withheld
C.however, is competition
D.so marketers must be prepared to assume them or give up doing business in a particular market
E.Before rates were permitted to float
F.After serious consideration
Car Thieves could Be Stopped Remotely
Speeding off in a stolen car, the thief thinks he has got a great catch. But he is in a nasty surprise. The car is fitted with a remote immobilizer and a radio signal from a control center miles away will ensure that once the thief switches the engine 1 , he will not be able to start it again.
For now, such devices 2 only available for fleets of trucks and specialist vehicles used on construction sites. But remote immobilization technology could soon start to trickle down to ordinary cars, and 3 be available to ordinary cars in the UK 4 two months.
The idea goes like this. A control box fitted to the carincorporates 5 miniature cellphone, a microprocessor and memory, and a GPS satellite positioning receiver. 6 the car is stolen, a coded cellphone signal will tell the unit to block the vehicle’s engine management system and prevent the engine 7 restarted.
There are even plans for immobilizers 8 shut down vehicles on the move, though there are fears over the safety implications of such a system.
In the UK. an array of technical fixes is already making 9 harder for car thieves. “The pattern of vehicles crime has changed,” says Martyn Randall of Thatcham, a security research organization based in Berkshire that is funded in part 10 the motor insurance industry.
He says it would only take him a few minutes to 11 a novice how to steal a car, using a bare minimum of tools. But only if the car is more than 10 years old.
Modern cars are a far tougher proposition, as their engine management computer will not 12 them to start unless they receive a unique ID code beamed out by the ignition key. In the UK, technologies like this 13 achieve a 31 per cent drop in vehicle-related crime since 1997.
But determined criminals are still managing to find other ways to steal cars. Often by getting hold of the owner’s keys in a burglary. In 2000, 12 per cent of vehicles stolen in the UK were taken using the owner’s keys double the previous year’s figure.
Remote-controlled immobilization system would 14 a major new obstacle in the criminal’s way by making such thefts pointless. A group that includes Thatcham, the police, insurance companies and security technology firms have developed standards for a system that could go on the market sooner than the 15 expects.