Her speciality is heart surgery[1分]
France has kept intimate links with its former African territories[1分]
You should have blended the butter with the sugar thoroughly,[1分]
he industrial revolution modified the whole structure of English society.[1分]
Tickets are limited and will be allocated to those who apply first.[1分]
The change in that village was miraculous.[1分]
Customers often defer payment for as long as possible.[1分]
Canada will prohibit smoking in all offices later this year.[1分]
She read a poem which depicts the splendor of the sunset.[1分]
From my standpoint, this thing is just ridiculous[1分]
The latest census is encouraging[1分]
The curious looks from the strangers around her made her feel uneasy.[1分]
Reading the job ad, he wondered whether he was eligible to apply for it.[1分]
He was elevated to the post of prime minister.[1分]
Osteoporosis and Men
Mention the word osteoporosis in the manly world of testosterone, professional basketball and the XFL, and you 're likely to get a wave of the hand and a dismissive "That 's a woman 's disease." Not so. More than 2 million American men have been found to have the thinning bones and skeletal weakness of osteoporosis, and an additional 3 million are at an increased risk of developing them.
It's true that osteoporosis strikes women with much greater frequency than men - in some studies as much as four to six times as often. But that's no reason to brush it off as "their" disease. It's a mere stroke of gender luck that men's bones tend to grow larger, stronger and denser. Also paying dividends are those spots that boys (and, increasingly, girls) play as children - running up and down basketball courts, soccer and baseball fields. As it happens, physical activity is one of the more important ways to increase bone density and protect bone health.
But even the most active men cannot ignore certain facts of life. All of us build up our bones during the first three decades of life, typically reaching peak bone mass in the early 30s. Around the age of 35, we begin gradually to lose some of this bone mass. Women ultimately give up between 30%. Though mass loss in men is lower, it still makes us vulnerable to back pains and bone fractures. In fact, this year alone American men will suffer as many as half a million osteoporosis-related breaks, mostly in the spine, hip and wrist. These are not only painful; thousands die each year from fracture-related complications.
For many of us, however, there's still time. Of all the side effects of aging, osteoporosis is one of the more preventable, through diet, exercise and changes in lifestyle. The two key nutritional substances for bone health are calcium, which makes bones stronger, and vitamin D, which helps the body absorb the calcium.
Exercising is also important, with emphasis on weight-bearing activities in which bones and muscles work against gravity. Lifting weights and working out on resistance machines can help preserve bone density.
Be careful about what's in your medicine cabinet. Prolonged use of some medications, such as steroids, can weaken your bones. Smoking and drinking are both bad for bones, as is prolonged weightlessness, for anybody who plans to work on the space station.
Men are justified in thinking that osteoporosis is a woman's disease.[1分]
Most women also think that osteoporosis is a woman's disease.[1分]
The kind of sport that boys often play as children is good for the build-up of their bones.[1分]
You are prone to bone breaks if you suffer from osteoporosis.[1分]
In general, men and women reach peak bone mass at the age of 35.[1分]
Exercising is an important way to protect bone health.[1分]
Weight loss is also bad for your bones.[1分]
English and English Community
1.There is no doubt that English is a useful language.The people who speak English today make up the largest speech community in the world with the exception of speakers of Chinese.
2.A speech community is similar to other kinds of communities.The people who make up the community share a common language.Often they live side by side, as they do in a neighborhood (街坊)，a village，or a city.More often they form a whole country.National boundaries，however，are not always the same as the boundaries of a speech community.A speech community is any group of people who speak the same language no matter where they happen to live.
3.We may say that anyone who speaks English belongs to the English speech community.For convenience(方便)，we may divide the speakers into two groups: one in which the speakers use English as their native language, the other in which the speakers 1earn English as a second language for the purpose of education，commerce，and so on.
4.Learning a second language extends one's vision and expands the mind.The history and literature of a second language record the real and fictional(虚构的)lives of people and their culture;a knowledge of them adds to our ability to understand and to feel as they feel.Learning English as a second language provides another means of communication through which the window of the entire English speech community becomes a part of our heritage.
A.Threat Posed by English
B.Definition of a Speech Community
C.Benefits of Learning a Second Language
D.Advantages of Learning Chinese
E.Two Groups of the English Speech Community
F.A Widely Used Language
Paragraph 1___________ .[1分]
Paragraph 2___________ .[1分]
Paragraph 3___________ .[1分]
Paragraph 4___________ .[1分]
A.a second language
B.the same language
C.the same speech community
D.any other language
F.a part of one's heritage
Overall there are more speakers of Chinese than of ___________[1分]
The boundaries of a speech community may be different from ___________ .[1分]
People who live in different places may belong to ___________ .[1分]
Many people learn English as ___________ .[1分]
A.New Cause of Suffering
A.conference on obesity(肥胖症)was recently held in Vienna. Two thousand experts from more than fifty countries attended the conference. According to statistics, 1.2 billion people worldwide are overweight, and 250 million are too fat. Obesity is rapidly becoming a new cause of suffering.
Professor Friedrich hopichler of Salzberg said: "we are living in the new age but with the metabolism(新陈代谢)of a stone-age man .I have just been to the United States. It is really terrible. A pizza(比萨饼) shop is appearing on every corner. We have been occupied by fast food and Coca-Cola-ization."
Many of the experts stressed that obesity was a potential killer. Hopichler said: "eighty per cent of all diabetics(糖尿病人)are too fat, also fifty per cent of all patients with high blood pressure and fifty per cent with fatty tissue complaints. Ten per cent more weight means thirteen pet cent more risk of heart disease. Reducing one's weight by ten per cent leads to thirteen per cent lower blood pressure."
Another expert Hermann Toplak said that the state health services should improve their financing of preventive programs. "the health insurance pays for surgery(such as reducing the size of the stomach)when the body-mass index(身体质量指数)is more than 40. That is equivalent to a weight of 116 kilograms for a height of 1.60 meters. One should start earlier."
Toplak said tat prevention should begin in school. "Child obesity has a close relation with the time which children spend in front of TV sets."
How many people are suffering from obesity in the world?[3分]
the united states is cited as a country where[3分]
obesity is not a problem at all.
you can find many new things.
terrible things happen all the time.
it is easy to buy fast food.
according to the article, obesity is associated with all the following EXCEPT[3分]
Hermann Toplak suggested that more money should be spent on[3分]
in Toplak's opinion, the more time a child spends watching TV[3分]
the better he will do in his studies
the more likely he will get too fat
the less likely he will get too fat
the more friends he will have at school
It has been shown that children who smoke have certain characteristics. Compared with non-smokers they are more rebellious, their work deteriorates as they move up school, they are more likely to leave school early, and are more often delinquent and sexually precocious. Many of these features can be summarized as anticipation of adulthood.
There are a number of factors which determine the onset of smoking, and these are largely psychological and social. They include availability of cigarettes, curiosity, rebelliousness, appearing tough, anticipation of adulthood, social confidence, the example of parents and teachers, and smoking by friends and older brothers and sisters.
It should be much easier to prevent children from starting to smoke than to persuade adults to give up the habit once established, but in fact this has proved very difficult. The example set by people in authority, especially parents, health care workers, and teachers, is of prime importance. School rules should forbid smoking by children on the premises. This rule has been introduced at Summerhill School where I spent my schooldays.
There is, however, a risk of children smoking just to rebel against the rules, and even in those schools which have tried to enforce no smoking by corporal punishment there is as much smoking as in other schools. Nevertheless, banning smoking is probably on balance beneficial. Teachers too should not smoke on school premises, at least not in front of children.
In this passage the author puts an emphasis on[3分]
the consequence of smoking among children.
the difficulty in prohibiting children from smoking.
the causes of smoking among children.
the solution to ban smoking among children
Which of the following is a common characteristic of young smokers[3分]
Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage[3分]
Some children start to smoke out of curiosity and vanity.
Many children start to smoke because they want to appear mature.
In order to have fewer children smokers, parents, teachers and health care workers should set examples.
It is not as difficult to prevent children from starting to smoke as to dissuade adults from smoking..
The writer concludes that school rules to forbid smoking[3分]
hould be introduced, for it really works at the school.
should not be introduced, for it may cause disturbance.
should be introduced though it may not work effectively.
needn' t be introduced as long as teachers don' t smoke.
The author's attitude towards his writing is[3分]
Demand on Treatment Emphasized
AIDS programs in developing countries put too little emphasis on treatment.the World Health Organization(WHO) said Tuesday，asking for more small community—based clinics to be opened to treat HIV-infected people.
An estimated 36 million to 46 million people are living with AIDS，two—thirds of them in Africa，but only 440,000 people in developing countries were receiving treatment by the end of 2003，the UN health agency said in its annual report.
“Without treatment，all of them will die a premature and in most cases painful death,”the WHO said in the 169-page World Health Report.
WHO Director General Lee Jong-wook said community-based treatment should be added to disease prevention and care for sufferers in AIDS programs.
“Future generations will judge our time in large part by our response to the AIDS disease，”Lee said.
“By tackling it decisively we will also be building health systems that can meet the health needs of today and tomorrow.This is a historic opportunity we cannot afford to miss，”he added.
Anti retroviral drugs enable people hit by AIDS to live longer.The annual cost of treatment，which was about $10,000 when the drugs were first developed，has dropped to about $150.
Treatment programs also help AIDS prevention efforts，the report said，citing great demands for testing and counseling where treatment has been made available.
Good counseling in turn leads to more effective prevention in those who are uninfected，and significantly reduces the potential for HIV carriers to pass on the infection，the report said.
Since its discovery in the 1980s，more than 20 million have died of AIDS，mostly in poor countries
Which is true of many AIDS sufferers in developing countries[3分]
They put too little emphasis on treatment.
They refuse to be treated.
They are not receiving any treatment.
They live longer than those in developed countries
The WHO publishes its World Health Report[3分]
According to Lee，our response to the AIDS disease is[3分]
a matter of little significance.
a matter of great significance.
AIDS treatment programs may also result in[3分]
more effective prevention.
greater emphasis on treatment
How many people have died of AIDS so far[3分]
From early times man has used garlic (大蒜). The Bible speaks of it. The Israelites (古以色列人) were once far from home. They cried out to Moses, their leader, for the foods they loved: leeks (韭菜), onions, and garlic. The Romans, like the Israelites, loved to eat garlic. And they hung bags of garlic around their necks. _____(1) They also thought it would keep them from getting sick.
A.similar idea is still held. Many people take garlic thinking it will prevent or cure disease. Most doctors say it does no such thing. _____(2) Its smell may force people to stay far apart. At least then they can't pass germs on to each other. _____(3) What if you're in a play, for instance? Actors have been known to forget their lines because they couldn't stand the garlic smell on a fellow actor's breath. Some have even made up new lines and actions that kept them far away from the one who had eaten garlic.
Through the years man has tried to cope with the smell of garlic. _____(4) We now know why. It's been found that the oils of the garlic do not stick to the teeth, Garlic tongue, or gums (齿龈). They go into the lungs instead. From there they are breathed out. They pass out through the skin too.
Strange as it seems, food may have a great deal of garlic in it without smelling or tasting strong. It all depends on how it is cooked. French cooks make a good soup with whole cloves (瓣) of garlic. They use more than thirty cloves in one bowl of soup. But they take care not to crush them. And they cook them whole. _____(5) And as the cloves cook they change in some strange way. The soup turns out to be delicious. It's not strong at all.
A.But no medicine, mouthwash, chewing gum, or toothpaste seems to help much
B.As a result, the strong oils stay in the cloves.
C.They say it may help in one way, though.
D.Many people eat garlic.
E.But keeping your distance can be hard at times.
F.They hoped it would keep away the evil eye.
Street sellers, particularly in developing countries, supply large amounts of food _____(1) people on low incomes. This sector (部门) also employs some 6-25% of the work force, mainly women, in developing countries, and provides markets for agricultural and other produce. In many countries, _____(2), the authorities are not willing to recognize it as a formal sector of the food _____(3) system; they may ignore it in food control programs or even try to put an end to _____(4).
There are two possible contaminants (污染物): pathogenic (病原) micro-organisms (微生物) _____(5) harmful chemicals. As _____(6) as micro-organisms are concerned, there is apparently no convincing evidence that street foods are more involved in the transmission of infection than foods obtained in, e.g. hotels. Studies in Egypt and elsewhere have found street foods to compare not unfavorably with hotel _____(7) in respect of contamination with micro-organisms - some street foods were found to be contaminated with pathogens (病原菌), but so were foods from four, and five-star _____(8) in the same area.
Harmful chemicals have been found in street foods, and food exposed for sale on roadsides, may become _____(9) by lead from vehicle exhausts.
Health dangers may arise from: purchase of raw materials of _____(10) quality; improper storage, processing, and cooking, leading _____(11) reuse of water; limited piped drinking-water; lack of refrigeration (冷藏); unsatisfactory waste-disposal facilities; and personal cleanliness.
The authorities should _____(12) into account the potentials of different categories of food for transmitting disease, and should set appropriate standards of control for the different categories - sellers of bottled drinks require less control than those of food. Dry foods, dried grains, and sugared foods are _____(13) likely to transmit disease than cooked rice, low-acid milk, egg, and meat products. _____(14), foods which are thoroughly cooked and eaten at _____(15) are safer than precooked food kept at high temperatures for several hours.