The dentist has decided to extract her bad tooth.[1分]
The economy continued to exhibit signs of decline in September.[1分]
This table is strong and durable.[1分]
He endured great pain before he finally expired.[1分]
The girl is gazing at herself in the mirror.[1分]
The price of vegetables fluctuates according to the weather.[1分]
Did you do that to irritate her?[1分]
Mary looked pale and weary.[1分]
The water in this part of the river has been contaminated by sewage (污水).[1分]
Her treatment of the subject is exhaustive.[1分]
These are their motives for doing it.[1分]
The river widens considerably as it begins to turn west.[1分]
Henry cannot resist the lure of drugs.[1分]
These programs are of immense value to old people.[1分]
A great deal has been done to remedy the situation.[1分]
Sleep Problems Plague the Older Set
Older Americans often have difficulty getting a good night’S rest.It's a huge quality—of-life problem，experts say，because contrary to popular belief，seniors require about the same amount of sleep as younger adults.
“Sleep problems and sleep disorders are not an inherent(固有的)pa rt of aging，”said Dr.Harrison G.Bloom，an associate clinical professor of geriatrics(老年病学)and medicine at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City.“It’S pretty much of a myth that older people need less sleep than younger people.”
Yet.in a study published recently in The American Journal of Medicine，researchers found that more than half of older Americans have problems getting the sleep they need.
older people tend to have“sleep fragmentation，”meaning they wake up more often during the night，said study author Dr.Julie Gammck，an assistant professor of medicine in the Division of Geriatric Medicine at St.Louis University.
They also seem to get less“REM”sleep，the type of sleep during which rapid eye movement occurs，Bloom added.
It’s unclear what role these naturally occurring changes in sleep patterns have on person’s quality of life，Bloom said.“What is important，though，is that older people often have actual sleep disorders and problems with sleep，”he said.
And，experts say，there is usually more than one cause.
“Sleep trouble in older adults is typically associated with acute and chronic illnesses，including specific sleep disorders like sleep apnea(呼吸暂停)and restless leg syndrome that appear with greater frequency in older populations，”said Michael V.Vitiello , a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences and associate director of the University of Washington’S Northwest Geriatric Education Center.
Taking multiple medications，as many older people do，can also lead t0 fatigue a“ hypersomnia ，”or being tired all the time，Bloom added.
Another big problem，he noted，IS depression and anxiety.“Those are very commonly associated with sleep problems.”
Despite the prevalence(流行)of sleep difficulties in older adults，many patients Aren’t getting the help they need。As a result，problems like insomnia(失眠)，restless leg syndrome and sleep apnea are underdiagnosed and undertreated，Bloom said.
Sleep problems can seriously affect one’s quality of life[1分]
it is true that older people need less sleep than younger people[1分]
Younger people in America seldom complain of sleep disorders.[1分]
The number of older Americans with sleep problems is not small.[1分]
“SIeep fragmentation” refers to a marked lack of “REM” sleep[1分]
The causes of sleep problems in older people remain unidentified.[1分]
Actions will soon be taken in America to better help people with sleep problems[1分]
1 Parkinson’s disease affects the way you move. It happens when there is a problem with certain nerve cells in the brain. Normally, these nerve cells make an important chemical called dopamine. Dopamine sends signals to the part of your brain that controls movement. It lets your muscles move smoothly and do what you want them to do. When you have Parkinson’s, these nerve cells break down. Then you no longer have enough dopamine, and you have trouble moving the way you want to.
2 No one knows for sure what makes these nerve cells break down. But scientists are doing a lot of research to look for the answer. They are studying many possible causes, including agin g and poisons in the environment. Abnormal genes seem to lead to Parkinson’s disease in some people. But so far, there is not enough proof to show that it is always inherited.
3 ’rremor may be the first symptom you notice. It is one of the most common signs of the disease, although not everyone has it. More importantly, not everyone with a tremor has Parkinson’s disease. Tremor often starts in just one arm or leg or only on one side of the body. It may be worse when you are awake but not moving the affected arm or leg. It may get better when you move the limb or you are asleep. In time, Parkinson’s affects muscles all through your body, so it can lead to problems like trouble swallowing or constipation. In the later stages of the disease, a person with Parkinson’s may have a fixed or blank expression, trouble speaking, and other problems. Some people also have a decrease in mental skills ( dementia).
4 At this time, there is no cure for Parkinson’s disease. But there are several types of medicines that can control the symptoms and make the disease easier to live with. You may not even need treatment if your symptoms are mild. Your doctor may wait to prescribe medicines unntil your symptoms start to get in the way of your daily life. Your doctor will adjust your medicines as your symptoms get worse. You may need to take several medicines to get the best results.
A.Tips for Patients with the Disease
B.Common Treatment for the Disease
C.Means of Diagnosis of the Disease
D.Typical Symptoms of the Disease
E.Possible Causes of the Disease
F.Definition of Parkinson’s Disease
Paragraph I_____________ .[1分]
Paragraph 2 _____________.[1分]
Paragraph 3_____________ .[1分]
Paragraph 4 _____________.[1分]
A.if there isn’t enough dopamine m your body
B.what affects muscles all through your body
C.which cannot be cured yet
D.if you have a fixed or blank expression
E.which may be the first symptom you notice
F.what causes Parkinson’s disease
You’II find it hard to move the way you want to_____________ .[1分]
A lot of research is being done to find out_____________.[1分]
One of the most common signs of Parkinson’s is tremor_____________.[1分]
A person with Parkinson’s has to learn to live with the disease,_____________.[1分]
Martin Luther King Jr.
By the time the Montgomery Improvement Association chose the 26-year-old Martin Luther King Jr. as its leader, the hours-old bus boycott by the black citizens of Montgomery, Alabama, was already an overwhelming success. King would later write that his unanticipated call to leadership "happened so quickly that I did not have time to think in through." "It is probable that if I had, I would have declined the nomination."
Although press reports at the time focused on his inspiring oratory, King was actually a reluctant leader of a movement initiated by others.(The boycott began on Dec. 5 1955.) His subsequent writings and private correspondence reveal man whose inner doubts sharply contrast with his public persona. In the early days of his involvement, King was troubled by telephone threats, discord within the black community and Montgomery's "get tough" policy, to which king attributed his jailing on a minor traffic violation. One night, as he considered ways to "move out of the picture without appearing a coward," he began to pray aloud and, at that moment, "experienced the presence of the God as I had never experienced Him before."
He would later admit that when the boycott began, he was not yet firmly committed to Gandhian principles. Although he had been exposed to those teachings in college, he had remained skeptical. "I thought the only way we could solve our problem of segregation was an armed revolt," he recalled. "I felt that the Christian ethic of love was confined to individual relationships."
Only after his home was bombed in late January did king reconsider his views on violence. (At the time, he was seeking a gun permit and was protected by armed bodyguards.) Competing with each other to influence King were two ardent pacifists: Bayard Rustin, a black activist with the War Resisters League, and the Rev. Glenn E. Smiley, a white staff member of the Fellowship of Reconciliation. Rustin was shocked to discover a gun in King's house, while Smiley informed fellow pacifists that King's home was "an arsenal."
What did King think of his nomination as leader of the Montgomery Boycott?[3分]
He had to think about it carefully.
He would refuse to accept it.
He was prepared to accept it.
Why was King unwilling to lead the movement at first?[3分]
Because he doubted if the boycott would be successful.
Because he was troubled with a traffic accident at that time.
Because he thought he was too young to be a leader.
Because he himself didn't start the boycott.
Which of the following is Not mentioned as something that happened at the beginning of the black people's movement?[3分]
King was put into prison.
Black people disagreed with each other.
King's armed revolt proposal was turned down.
Black people found it hard to accept the policy pursued in Montgomery.
Which of the following was the immediate cause that made King change his view on violence?[3分]
The education he received in college.
The influence of two active non-violence advocates.
The verdict of the Supreme Court.
In Paragraph 4, the last sentence "King's home was 'an arsenal'" means[3分]
King's home was a place where people got together.
King's home was a place where people tested bombs.
King's home was a place where weapons were stored.
King's home was a place where bombs exploded.
A.Phone That Knows You're Busy
It's a modem problem: you're too busy to be disturbed by incessant (连续不断的) phone calls so you turn your cell phone off.But if you don't remember to turn it back on when you're less busy. You could miss some important calls if only the phone knew when it was wise to interrupt you, you wouldn't have to turn it off at all. Instead, it could let calls through when you are not too busy.
A.bunch of behavior sensors (传感器) and a clever piece of software could do just that, by analyzing your behavior to determine if it's a good time to interrupt you. If built into a phone, the system may decide you're too busy and ask the caller to leave a message or ring back later.
James Fogarty and Scott Hudson at Camegie Mellon University in Pennsylvania based their system oil tiny microphones, cameras and touch sensors that reveal body language and activity. First they had to study different behaviors to find out which ones strongly predict whether your mind is interrupted.
The potential "busyness" signals they focused on included whether the office doors were left open or closed, the time of day, if other people were with the person in question, how close they were to each other, and whether or not the computer was in use.
The sensors monitored these and many other factors while four subjects were at work. At random intervals, the subjects rated how interruptible they were on a scale ranging from "highly interruptible" to "highly not-interruptible". Their ratings were then correlated with the various behaviors . "It is a shotgun (随意的) approach: we used all the indicators we could think of and then let statistics find out which were important, " says Hudson.
The model showed that using the keyboard, and talking on a landline or to someone else in the office correlated most strongly with how interruptible the subjects judged themselves to be. Interestingly, the computer was actually better than people at predicting when someone was too busy to be interrupted.The computer got it right 82 per cent of the time, humans 77 per cent. Fogarty speculates that this might be because people doing the interrupting are inevitably biased towards delivering their message, whereas computers don't care.
The first application for Hudson and Fogarty's system is likely to be in an instant messaging system, followed by office phones and cellphones. "There is no technological roadblock (障碍) to it being deployed in a couple of years, " says Hudson.
A big problem facing people today is that________.[3分]
they must tolerate phone disturbances or miss important calls.
they must turn off their phones to keep their homes quiet.
they have to switch from a desktop phone to a cell phone.
they are too busy to make phone calls.
The behavior sensor and software system built in a phone________.[3分]
could help store messages
could send messages instantly
could tell when it is wise to interrupt you
could identify important phone calls
Scientists at Carnegie Menon University tried to find out________.[3分]
why office doors were often left open
when it was a good time to turn off the computer
what questions office workers were bothered with
which behaviors could tell whether a person was busy
During the experiment, the subjects were asked________.[3分]
to control the sensors and the camera
to rate the degrees to which they could be interrupted
to compare their behaviors with others'
to analyze all the indicators of interruption
The computer performed better than people in the study because________.[3分]
the computer worked harder
the computer was not busy
people tended to be biased
people were not good at statistics
Effects of Environmental Pollution
If pollution continues to increase at the present rate, formation of aerosols (浮质) in the atmosphere will cause the onset (开始) of an ice age in about fifty years' time. This conclusion, reached by Dr. S.I. Rasool and Dr. S.H. Schneider of the United States Goddard Space Flight Centre, answers the apparently conflicting questions of whether an increase in the carbon dioxide (二氧化碳) content of the atmosphere will cause the Earth to warm up or increasing the aerosol content will cause it to cool down. The Americans have shown conclusively that the aerosol question is dominant.
Two specters haunting conservationists have been the prospect that environmental pollution might lead to the planet's becoming unbearably hot or cold.One of these ghosts has now been laid.Because it seems that even an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to eight times its present value will produce an increase in temperature of only 2 ℃, which would take place over several thousand years. But the other problem now looms larger than ever.
Aerosols are collections of small liquid or solid particles dispersed in air or some other medium. The particles are all so tiny that each is composed of only a few hundred atoms. Because of this they can float in the air for a very long time. Perhaps the most commonly experienced aerosol is industrial smog (烟雾) of the kind that plagued London in the 1950s and is an even greater problem in Los Angeles today. These collections of aerosols reflect the Sun's heat and thereby cause the Earth to cool.
Dr. Rasool and Dr. Schneider have calculated the exact effect of a dust aerosol layer just above the Earth's surface in the temperature of the planet. As the layer builds up, the present delicate balance between the amount of heat absorbed from the Sun and the amount radiated from the Earth is disturbed.The aerosol layer not only reflects much of the Sun's light but also transmits the infrared (红外线的 ) radiation from below. So, while the heat input to the surface drops, the loss of heat remains high until the planet cools to a new balanced state.
Within fifty years, if no steps are taken to stop the spread of aerosols in the atmosphere, a cooling of the Earth by as much as 3.5~C seems inevitable.If that lasts for only a few years it would start another ice age, and because the growing ice caps at each pole would themselves reflect much of the Sun's radiation it would probably continue to develop even if the aerosol layer were destroyed.
The only bright spot in this gloomy forecast lies in the hope expressed by Dr. Rasool and Dr. Schneider that nuclear power may replace fossil fuels in time to prevent the aerosol content of the atmosphere from becoming critical.
The author's main purpose in writing the article is to warn of________.[3分]
The word "specters" in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to________.[3分]
We learn from the third paragraph that________.[3分]
London was plagued with rats in the 1950s
London is covered with smog today
London was polluted by smog in the 1950s
Los Angeles is as heavily polluted today as London was in the 1950s
What will happen if the dust aerosol layer develops?[3分]
The Earth will get extremely hot.
The balance between the amount of heat absorbed from the Sun and the amount lost could hardly be maintained.
The light of the Sun could no longer reach the surface of the Earth.
Infrared radiation could no longer be transmitted from the Earth to outer space.
The only way to stop the spread of aerosols in the atmosphere, according to Dr. Rasool and Dr. Schneider, is to use________.[3分]
The Dollar in World Markets
According to a leading German banker, the U.S. dollar is "the most frequently discussed economic phenomenon of our times." He adds, "…the dollars exchange rate is at present the most important price in the world economy…". Because the dollar acts as a world currency, ___(1)___. The central banks of many countries hold huge reserves of dollars, and over half of all world trade is priced in terms of dollars. Any shift in the dollars exchange rate will benefit some and hurt others. Some people suggest, therefore, ____(2)___.
The dollars exchange rate has been too volatile and unpredictable. Several years age the dollar was rapidly declining in value. This made it ___(3)___. The rise in the price of foreign goods made it possible for U.S. businesses to raise the price of competing foods produced here, thus worsening inflation. Foreigners who dealt in dollars or who held dollars as reserves were hurt. People in the United States who had borrowed foreign currencies found that they had to pay back more than they borrowed ___(4)___. The United States lost face in the eyes of the rest of the world.
The dollar went soaring upward, and the situation was reversed. United States exporters found it hard to sell abroad because foreigners would have to pay more for U.S. dollars. People in the United States now bought the relatively cheaper foreign goods, and U.S. manufacturers complained that they could not compete. Job losses were often blamed on the "overvalued" dollar. Poor nations ___(5)___ found it difficult to repay both the loans and the interest because they had to use more and more of their own currencies to obtain dollars. The solution to this problem is to end the system of floating exchange rates and return to fixed rates. We might even return to the gold standard.
Fixed exchange rates did not work in the past. Currency values should be determined by market conditions. A drop in the exchange value of a nations currency means that it is importing too much, that it is too inefficient to compete in world markets, that it is permitting a high rate of inflation which makes its goods too expensive, that it is going too deeply in debt, or that others have lost confidence in the nations stability. A nation should bring its exchange rate back up by addressing these problems, not by interfering with the money market.
A.that had borrowed dollars
B.that the dollars value should be more tightly controlled
C.because the declining dollar would buy fewer units of the foreign money
D.its value affects many nations
E.difficult for Americans to purchase foreign goods and services
F.that have a lot of U.S. dollars
Highways in the United States
The United States is well-known for its network of major highways designed to help a driver get from one place to another in the shortest possible time. __1__ these wide modern roads are generally __2__ and well maintained， with few sharp curves and __3__ straight sections， a direct route is not always the most __4__ one. Large highways often pass __5__ scenic areas and interesting small towns. Furthermore， these highways generally __6__ large urban centers which means that they become crowded with __7__ traffic during rush hours， __8__ the “fast， direct” way becomes a very slow route. However， there is almost always another route to __9__ if you are not in a hurry. Not for from the relatively new “superhighways”， there are often older， __10__ heavily traveled roads which go through the countryside. __11__ are good lane roads; others are uneven roads curving __12__ the country. These secondary routes may go up steep slopes， along hilly cliffs or down frightening hillsides to towns __13__ in deep valleys. Though these are less __14__ routes， longer and slower， they generally go to places __15__ the air is clean and the scenery is beautiful， and the driver may have a chance to get a fresh， clean view of the world.