She was close to success.[1分]
The two girls look alike.[1分]
The boy is intelligent.[1分]
Everybody was glad to see Mary back.[1分]
What is your goal life?[1分]
Jack was dismissed.[1分]
John is crazy about pop music[1分]
It is the movement, not the color, of objects that excites the bull[1分]
It is highly unlikely that she will arrive today.[1分]
I am feeling a lot more healthy than I was[1分]
Since ancient times people have found various ways to preserve meat[1分]
We packed up the things we had accumulated (积累) over the last three years and left.[1分]
The expedition reached the summit at 10:30 that morning[1分]
There is always excitement at the Olympic Games when an athlete breaks a previous record of performance.[1分]
The president proposed that we should bring the meeting to a close.[1分]
They Say Ireland's the Best
Ireland is the best place in the world to live for 2005, according to a life quality ranking that appeared in Britain’s Economist magazine last week.
The ambitious attempt to compare happiness levels around the world is based on the principle that wealth is not the only measure of human satisfaction and well-being.
The index of 111 countries uses data on incomes, health, unemployment, climate, political stability, job security, gender equality as well as what the magazine calls "freedom, family and community life".
Despite the bad weather, troubled health service, traffic congestion (拥挤), gender inequality, and the high cost of living, Ireland scored an impressive 8.33 points out of 10.
That put it well ahead of second-place Switzerland, which managed 8.07. Zimbabwe, troubled by political insecurity and hunger, is rated the gloomiest (最差的), picking up only 3.89 points.
"Although rising incomes and increased individual choices are highly valued," the report said, "some of the factors associated with modernization such as the breakdown (崩溃) in traditional institutions and family values in part take away from a positive impact."
"Ireland wins because it successfully combines the most desirable elements of the new with the preservation of certain warm elements of the old, such as stable family and community life."
The magazine admitted measuring quality of life is not a straightforward thing to do，and that its findings would have their critics.
No. 2 on the list is Switzerland. The other nations in the top 10 are Norway, Luxembourg, Sweden, Australia, Iceland, Italy, Denmark and Spain.
The UK is positioned at No. 29, a much lower position chiefly because of the social and family breakdown recorded in official statistics. The US, which has the second highest per capita GDP (人均国内生产总值) after Luxembourg, took the 13th place in the survey. China was in the lower half of the league at 60th.For 2,005.
Years, Ireland has been the best place for humans to live in.[1分]
Job security is the least important measure of life quality.[1分]
Costs Of Living in Ireland is pretty high.[1分]
Family life in Zimbabwe is not stable.[1分]
Ireland is positioned at No. 1 because it combines the most desirable elements of the new with some good elements of the old.[1分]
To measure life quality is easy.[1分]
The United States of America is among the top 10 countries.[1分]
Nice Name But She's So Deadly
1.More than a million people in the United States were told to leave their homes over the weekend as Hurricane (飓风) Dennis headed to the Gulf coast, after killing at least 15 people in the Caribbean Sea.
2.If you read the news often enough=, you may notice that all hurricanes are given names. Why is that? Remember, there can be more than one hurricane operating at one time. Without naming them, we could get confused about which storm we're talking about.
3.For hundreds of years, hurricanes in the Caribbean were named after the particular religious day on which they occurred. One Australian meteorologist (气象学家) began giving women's names to tropical storms at the end of the 19th century. In 1953, the US National Weather Service, which is responsible for tracking hurricanes and issuing warnings, began using female names for storms. By i979, both women and men's names were being used. One name for each letter of the alphabet (字母表) is selected, except for Q, U and Z.
4.So who decides which names are used' each year? The World Meteorological Organization uses six lists in rotation, so each list is reused every six years.
5.Here's a list of the 2005 Atlantic hurricanes, according to the US National Hurricane Centre: Arlene, Bret, Cindy, Dennis, Emily, Franklin, Gert, Harvey, Irene, Jose, Katrina, Lee, Maria, Nate, Ophelia, Philippe, Rita, Stan, Tammy, Vince, Wilma.
A.Reason for naming hurricanes
B.Warning of an approaching hurricane
D.History of naming hurricanes
E.Organization responsible for naming hurricanes
F.Ways to track hurricanes
A.to track hurricanes and issue warnings
B.to avoid confusion
C.to stay at home
D.to be given to tropical storms
E.to make predictions
F.to kill at least 15 people
Over a million people were warned not__________.[1分]
The responsibility of the US National Weather Service is__________.[1分]
Hurricanes are given names__________.[1分]
At the end of the 19th century, women's names started__________.[1分]
A.Society Without a Formal Authority
In the seventeenth century, European soldiers who came across some Indian groups in the western Great Lakes found that several native tribes (部落) were living in the area without a formal leadership system. They appeared to be "quite friendly with each other without a formal authority!"
Not only did the Indians appear to lack a formal system of authority, but they also deeply hated any efforts to control their actions. All members of the tribes knew what was required of them by lifelong (一生的) familiarity with the tasks of the area. These tasks tended to be simple, since the Indians' rate of social change was slow. Thus, although subgroups such as soldiers had recognized leaders, no real authority was required. Rather than giving direct orders (which were considered rough), members of the tribes would arouse others to action by examples.
It would be difficult, if not impossible, to carry out such a system in our own society. Most of us have grown up under one authority or another for as long as we can remember. Our parents, our teachers, our bosses, our government all have the recognized right under certain conditions to tell us what to do. The authority is so much a part of our culture that it is hard for us to imagine a workable society without it. We have been used to relying on authority to get things done and would probably be uncomfortable with the Indian methods of examples on a large scale.
Of course, the major reason why the Indian system would not be suitable for us is that our society is too large. The number of tasks that various members of our society have to perform often under tight time and resource limitations could not be treated by the Indian system, in modern societies, the formal authority system is necessary to achieve any social objectives.
Which of the following statements about the European soldiers is correct?[3分]
They treated the Indian groups well.
They came across some Indian groups.
They found the Indian groups friendly to them.
Members of the tribes got others to do things[3分]
According to the author, it is hard for a society to work without[3分]
After reading the passage, you may conclude that[3分]
the Indian system is also suitable for some small towns.
the Indians tended to follow orders.
our system is much better than the Indians'.
the Indian system would be very difficult to implement in our society
It can be inferred from the passage that many tasks in our society have to be carried out[3分]
under severe weather conditions
We all know that the normal human daily cycle of activity is of some 7-8 hours' sleep allernating with some 16-17 hours' wakefulness and that, broadly speaking, the sleep normally coincides with the hours of darkness. Our present concern is with how easily and to what extent this cycle can be modified.
The question is no more academic one. The case, for example, with which people can change from working in the day to working at night is a question of growing importance in industry where automation calls insistently for round-the-clock working of machines. It normally takes from five days to one week for a person to adapt to a reversed routine of sleep and wakefulness, sleeping during the day and working at night. Unfortunately it is often the case in industry that shifts are changed every week; a person may work from 12 midnight to 8 a. m. one week , 8 a. m. to 4 p. m. the next, and 4 p. m. to 12 midnight the third and so on. This means that no sooner has he got used to one routine than he has to change to another, so that much of his time is spent neither working nor sleeping very efficiently.
One answer would seem to be longer periods on each shift, a month, or even three months. Recent research by Bonier of the Netherlands, however, has shows that people on such systems will revert to their normal habits of sleep and wakefulness during the weekend and that this is quite enough to destroy any adaptation to night work built up during the week.
The only real solution appears to be to hand over the night shift to a corps of permanent night workers whose nocturnal wakefulness may persist through all weekend and holidays. An interesting study of the domestic life and health of night-shift workers was carried out by Brown. She found a high incidence of disturbed sleep, digestive disorder and domestic disruption among those on alternating day and night shifts, but no abnormal occurrence of these symptoms among those on permanent night work.
The question raised in paragraph 1 is "no more academic one"[3分]
because Bonjer's findings are different from Browns.
because sleep normally coincides with the hours of darkness.
because some people can change their sleeping habits easily.
because shift work in industry requires people to change their sleeping habits.
According to the passage, the main problem about night work is that[3分]
people hate the inconvenience of working on night shifts.
your life is disturbed by changing from day to night routines and back.
not all industries work at the same hours.
it is difficult to find a corps of good night workers.
According to the passage, the best solution on the problem seems to be[3分]
not to change shifts from one week to the next.
to make periods on each shift longer.
to employ people who will always work at night.
to find ways of selecting people who adapt quickly.
In the second paragraph, “the third" means[3分]
In the last sentence of the second paragraph, "another" means[3分]
1.2 million road deaths worldwide occur each year,plus a further 50 million injuries.To reduce car crash rate,much research now is focused on safety and new fuels-though some electric vehicle and biofuel research aims at going faster.
Travelling at speed has always been dangerous.One advanced area of research in motoring safety is the use of digital in-car assistants.They can ensure you don’t miss important road signs or fall asleep.Most crashes result from human and not mechanical faults.
Some safety developments aim to improve your vision.Radar can spot obstacles in fog,while other technology“sees through”big vehicles blocking your view.
And improvements to seat belts,pedal(脚踏)controls and tyres are making driving smoother and safer.The colour of a car has been found to be linked with safety,as have,less surprisingly,size and shape.
But whatever is in the fuel tank,you don’t want a thief in the driving seat and there have been many innovations(创新).Satellite tracking and remote communications can also come into play if you crash,automatically calling for help.
Accidents cause many traffic jams,but there are more subtle interplays between vehicles that can cause jams even on a clear but busy road.Such jams can be analyzed using statistical tools.Robotic drivers could be programmed to make traffic flow smoothly and will perhaps one day be everyons’s personal chauffeur(司机),but their latest efforts suggest that won’t be soon.
To reduce car crash rate,many scientists are working hard to[3分]
design fully automatic cars.
develop faster electric vehicles.
analyze road deaths occurring worldwide each year.
improve the safety of cars and develop new fuels.
According to the second paragraph,most road accidents happen due to[3分]
Which of the following safety developments is NOT mentioned in the passage?[3分]
Windscreens that can help drivers to improve their vision.
Radars that can help drivers to see obstacles in fog.
Devices that can help drivers to see through big vehicles.
Improvements in seat belts,pedal controls and tyres.
Satellite tracking and remote communication systems cna be used to[3分]
remove the obstacles on the road.
call for help when one’s car crashes.
help drivers get out of a traffic jam.
Which of the following statements is true of robotic drivers?[3分]
It will take some time before robotic drivers are available.
Robotic drivers are not allowed to driveon busy roads.
Robotic drivers can never replace human drivers.
Robotic drivers are too expensive to use.
Mind Those Manners on the Subway
So, there you are, just sitting there in the subway car, enjoying that book you just bought_______(46) Or, the person sitting next to you takes out a nail clipper (指甲刀) and begins cutting his or her nails.
Annoying? Many of us have to spend some time every day on public transportation_______(47) So, to make the trip more pleasant, we suggest the following:
Let passengers get off the bus or subway car before you can get on_______(48)
Stand away from the doors when they are closing
Don't talk loudly on a bus or subway. Chatting loudly with your friends can be annoying to others. _______(49)
Don't think your bags and suitcases (手提箱) deserve a seat of their own.
Use a tissue whenever you cough or sneeze (打喷嚏). An uncovered sneeze can spread germs (细菌), especially in crowded places.
Don't cut your nails or pick your nose on public transportation.
Don't read over other people's shoulder_______(50) It can make people uncomfortable. They might think you're too stingy (小气的) even to buy a newspaper. Or they might think you're judging their behavior
A.Don't eat food in your car.
B.Don't shout into your mobile phone on a bus or subway.
C.We all know that some behaviors are simply unacceptable.
D.Many people do this on subways, but it's really annoying
E.Getting off and on in an orderly manner can save time for all.
F.Suddenly, you feel someone leaning over your shoulder reading along with you
A.Country's Standard of Living
The "standard of living" of any country means the average person's share of the goods and services the country produces. A country's standard of living，(51)， depends on its capacity to produce wealth. "Wealth"(52) this sense is not money， for we do riot live on money (53) on things that money can buy： "goods" such as food and clothing， and "services" such as transport and entertainment.
A.country's capacity to produce wealth depends upon many factors， most of(54) have an effect on one another. Wealth depends(55) a great extent upon a country's natural resources. Some regions of the world are well supplied with coal and minerals， and have fertile (肥沃的) soil and a favorable climate; other regions possess none of them.
Next to natural resources(56) the ability to turn them to use. China is perhaps as well-off(57) the USA in natural resources， but suffered for many years from civil and external wars， and(58) this and other reasons was(59) to develop her resources. Sound and stable political conditions， and(60) from foreign invasions， enable a country to develop its natural resources peacefully and steadily， and to produce more wealth than another country equally well favoured by nature but less well ordered.
A.country's standard of living does not only depend upon the wealth that is produced and consumed (61) its own borders， but also upon what is directly produced through international trade. (62)， Britain's wealth in foodstuffs and other agricultural products would be much less if she had to depend only on(63) grown at home. Trade makes it possible for her surplus (过剩的) manufactured goods to be traded abroad for the agricultural products that would(64) be lacking. A country's wealth is，therefore， much(65) by its manufacturing capacity provided (如果) that other countries can be found ready to accept its manufactures.