Philip Roth was hailed as a major new author in 1960.[1分]
He was one of the principal organizers of the association.[1分]
It is postulated that population trends have an effect on economic fluctuations.[1分]
This kind of animals are on the verge of extinction, because so many are being killed for their fur.[1分]
The train came to an abrupt stop, making us wonder where we were.[1分]
During the Second World War, all important resources in the U. S. were allocated by the federal government.[1分]
The little boy was so fascinated by the mighty river that he would spend hours sitting on its bank and gazing at the passing boats and rafts.[1分]
The stories of Sarah Orne Jewett are considered by many to be more authentically regional than those of Bret Harte.[1分]
The number of the United States citizens who are eligible to vote continues to increase.[1分]
Formulated in 1823, the Monroe Doctrine asserted that the Americas were no longer open to European colonization,[1分]
Smoking is not permitted in the office,[1分]
The chairman proposed that we should stop the meeting.[1分]
I feel regret about what's happened.[1分]
She has proved that she can be railed on in a crisis.[1分]
John removed his overcoat.[1分]
Will We Take Vacation in Spaces?
When Mike Kelly first set out to build his own private space-ferry service, he figured his bread-and-butter business would be lofting satellites into high-Earth orbit. Now he thinks he may have figured wrong. "People were always asking me when they could go," says Kelly, who runs Kelly Space %26amp; Technology out of San Bernardino, California. "I realized that real market is in space tourism."
According to preliminary market surveys, there are 10,000 would be space tourists willing to spend $1 million each to visit the final frontier. Space Adventure in Arlington, Virginia, has taken more than 130 deposits for a two-hour, $98,000 space tour tentatively (and somewhat dubiously) set to occur by 2005. Gene Meyers of the Space Island Group says: "Space is the next exotic vacation spot."
This may all sound great, but there are a few hurdles. Putting a simple satellite into orbit -with no oxygen, life support or return trip necessary-already costs an astronomical $22,000/kg. And that doesn't include the cost of insuring rich and possibly litigious passenger. John Pike of the Federation of American Scientists acerbically suggests that the entire group of entrepreneurs trying to corner the space-tourism market have between them "just enough money to blow up one rocket." The U.S. space agency has plenty of money but zero interest in making space less expensive for the little guys. So the little guys are racing to do what the government has failed to do: design a reusable launch system that's inexpensive, safe and reliable. Kelly Space's prototype looks like a plane that has sprouted rocket engines. Rotary Rocket in Redwood City, California, has a booster with rotors make a helicopter-style return to Earth; Kistler Aerospace in Kirkland, Washington, is piecing together its versions from old Soviet engines, shuttle-style thermal protection tiles and an elaborate parachute system. The first passenger countdowns are still years away, but bureaucrats at the Federal Aviation Administration in Washington are already informally discussing flight regulations. After all, you can't be too prepared for a trip to that galaxy far, far away.
For those who are intent on joining the 100-mile high club, Hilton and Budget are plotting to build space hotels. Before the Russian space Mir came down, some people were talking about using it as a low-rent space motel to reduce the cost. If a space hotel is finally built in space, and if you're thinking of staying in it, you may want to check the Michelin ratings before booking yourself a suite.
Mike Kelly planned to turn his business of making bread and butter into a business that is engaged in space tourism.[1分]
Kelly hoped to develop space tourism, which he thought would be a good market.[1分]
Space Adventure in Arlington has taken 130 deposits totaling $98,000 for a two hour space tour.[1分]
It sounds great that soon there will be space residence, although it is still a tentative plan.[1分]
Some of the hurdles space tourism faces include a lack of oxygen and life support equipment.[1分]
Little guys, who do not have plenty of money but have great interest in space tourism, are trying to make the space travel less expensive but more reliable.[1分]
We can infer from the context that the Michelin ratings can help people to find prices of hotels.[1分]
阅读下面这篇短文，短文后有2项测试任务：(1)第1-4题 要求从所给的6个选项中为第2-5段每段选择1个正确的小标题;(2)第5-8题 要求从所给的6个选项中选择4个正确选项，分别完成每个句子。
Even Intelligent People Can Fail
1 The striking thing about the innovators who succeeded in making our modern world is how often they failed. Turn on a light, take a photograph, watch TV, search the Web, jet across the Pacific Ocean, talk on a cell-phone (手机). The innovators who left us these things had to find the way to success through a maze (错综复杂) of wrong turns.
2 We have just celebrated the 125th anniversary of American innovator Thomas Edison's success in heating a thin line to white-hot heat for 14 hours in his lab in New Jersey, US. He did that on October 22, 1879, and followed up a month later by keeping a thread of common cardboard alight (点亮着的) in an airless space for 45 hours. Three years later he went on to light up half a square mile of downtown Manhattan, even though only one of the six power plants in his design worked when he turned it on, on September 4, 1882.
3 "Many of life's failures," the supreme innovator said, "are people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up." Before that magical moment in October 1879, Edison had worked out no fewer than 3,000 theories about electric light, but in only two cases did his experiments work.
4 No one likes failure, but the smart innovators learn from it. Mark Gumz, the head of the camera maker Olympus America Inc, attributes some of the company's successes in technology to understanding failure. His popular phrase is: "You only fail when you quit."
5 Over two centuries, the most common quality of the innovators has been persistence. That is another way of saying they had the emotional ability to keep up what they were doing. Walt Disney, the founder of Disneyland, was so broke after a succession of financial failures that he was left shoeless in his office because he could not afford the US$1.50 to get his shoes from the repair shop. Pioneering car maker Henry Ford failed with one company and was forced out of another before he developed the Model T car.
6 Failure is harder to bear in today's open, accelerated world. Hardly any innovation works the first time. But an impatient society and the media want instant success. When American music and movie master David Geffen had a difficult time, a critic said nastily that the only difference between Geffen Records (Geffen's company) and the Titanic (the ship that went down) was that the Titanic had better music. Actually, it wasn't. After four years of losses, Geffen had so many hits (成功的作品) he could afford a ship as big as the Titanic all to himself.
A.Importance of learning from failure
B.Quality shared by most innovators
D.Edison's comment on failure
E.Contributions made by innovators
F.Miseries endured by innovators
A.he developed 3,000 theories
B.he couldn't afford to buy
A.pair of shoes
C.he found himself an unsuccessful man
E.an innovation should work immediately
F.failure is the mother of success
People often didn't realize how close they were to success when________.[1分]
Before Henry Ford eventually developed the Model T car,________.[1分]
Walt Disney was once so poor that_________.[1分]
The media demand that_________.[1分]
Technology Transfer in Germany
When it comes to translating basic research into industrial success, few nations can match Germany. Since the 1940s, the nation's vast industrial base has been fed constant stream of new ideas and expertise from science. And though German prosperity (繁荣) has faltered (衰退) over the past decade because of the huge cost of unifying east and west as well as the global economic decline, it still has an enviable record for turning ideas into profit.
Much of the reason for that success is the Fraunhofer Society, a network of research institutes that exists solely to solve industrial problems and create sought-after technologies. But today the Fraunhofer institutes have competition. Universities are taking an ever larger role in technology transfer, and technology parks are springing up all over. These efforts are being complemented by the federal programmes for pumping money into start-up companies.
Such a strategy may sound like a recipe for economic success, but it is not without its critics. These people worry that favouring applied research will mean neglecting basic science, eventually starving industry of fresh ideas. If every scientist starts thinking like an entrepreneur(企业家), the argument goes, then the traditional principles of university research being curiosity-driven, free and widely available will suffer. Others claim that many of the programmes to promote technology transfer are a waste of money because half the small businesses that are promoted are bound to go bankrupt within a few years.
While this debate continues, new ideas flow at a steady rate from Germany's research networks, which bear famous names such as Helmholtz, Max Planck and Leibniz. Yet it is the fourth network, the Fraunhofer Society, that plays the greatest role in technology transfer.
Founded in 1949, the Fraunhofer Society is now Europe's largest organisation for applied technology, and has 59 institutes employing 12,000 people. It continues to grow. Last year, it swallowed up the Heinrich Hertz Institute for Communication Technology in Berlin. Today, there are even Fraunhofers in the US and Asia.
What factor can be attributed to German prosperity?[3分]
Which of the following is NOT true of traditional university research?[3分]
The Fraunhofer Society is the largest organisation for applied technology in[3分]
When was the Fraunhofer Society founded?[3分]
The word "expertise" in line 3 could be best replaced by[3分]
My Fast Job
I was six when I joined my father and two elder brothers at sunrise in the hayfields of Eufaula, Oklahoma. By the time I was eight I was helping Dad fix up low-income rental properties. He gave me a penny for every nail I pulled out of old boards.
I got my first real job, at JM's Restaurant in town, when I was 12. My main responsibilities were clearing tables and washing dishes, but sometimes I helped cook.
Every day after school I would head to JM's and work until ten. Saturdays I worked from two until eleven. At that age it was unlucky going to work and watching my friends run off to swim or play. I didn't necessarily like work, but I loved what working allowed me to have. Because of my job I was always the one buying when my friends and I went to the local bar Tastee Freez. This made me proud.
Word that I was honest and hardworking got around town. A local clothing store extended credit to me although I was only in the seventh grade. I immediately charged a $ 68 sports coat and a $ 22 pair of trousers. I was making only 65 cents an hour, and I was already $ 90 in debt! So I learned early the danger of easy credit. I paid it off as soon as I could.
My first job taught me discipline, responsibility and brought me a level of personal satisfaction few of my friends had experienced. As my father, who worked three jobs, once told me, "If you understand sacrifice and commitment, there are not many things in life you can't have." How right he was!
When the author was a child, he was made to help his father work because___________[3分]
the restaurant was short of hands.
his family belonged to the low-income group.
he wanted to earn some money.
he was stronger than his two brothers.
At the age of 12, the author got a job at a restaurant and often worked till late at night because___________[3分]
he felt rewarded by doing that work.
The word "Word" in the sentence "Word that I was honest and-hard-working got around town in the fourth paragraph means___________[3分]
When the author was in the seventh grade, he was in debt because___________[3分]
he did not work any more.
he bought clothes on credit.
he was charged too much for the sports coat.
he made little money at that time.
What does the author want to tell the reader by this text?[3分]
If you know sacrifice and responsibility, you can have many things in life.
Children from poor families usually have
Children should be made to work and earn some money by themselves.
You will learn discipline and responsibility by working early in life.
attitudes to aids now
most people say that the usa is making progress in fighting aids, but they don’t know there’s no cure and strongly disagree that "the aids epidemic is over," a new survey finds.
the findings, released thursday by the kaiser family foundation, reassure activists who have worried that public concern about aids might disappear in light of recent news about advances in treatment and declines in deaths.
"while people are very optimistic about the advances, they’re still realistic about the fact that there is no cure" says sophia chang, director of hiv programs at the foundation.
the kaiser survey, like a recent usa today gallup poll, does find that the number of people ranking aids as the country’s top health problem has fallen. in the kaiser poll, 38% say it’s the top concern, down from 44% in a 1996 poll; in the gallup poll, 29% say aids in no.1, down from 41% in 1992 and 67% in 1987.
other findings from kaiser, which polled more than 1,200 adults in september and october and asked additional questions of another 1,000 adults in november:
52% say the country is making progress against aids, up from 32% in 1995.
52% say the government spends too little on aids.
86% correctly say aids drugs can now lengthen lives; an equal number correctly say that the drugs are not cures.
67% incorrectly say that aids deaths increased or stayed the same in the past year; 24% know deaths fell.
daniel zingale, director of aids action council, says, "i’m encouraged that the american people are getting the message that the aids epidemic isn’t over. i hope the decision-makers in washington are getting the same message… we have seen signs of complacency.
what do activists worry about?[3分]
recent news about aids is not true.
people may stop worrying about aids.
deaths caused by aids may not decline.
advances in aids treatment are too slow.
according to the passage, people’s attitude toward the cure of aids is[3分]
the gallup poll shows that the number of people[3分]
who suffer from the worst disease--- aids has fallen.
who think aids threatens the countryside has fallen.
who worry about aids and health problems has fallen.
who think aids is the country’s top health killer has fallen.
according to the kaiser poll, which of the following is not correct?[3分]
the country is making progress against aids.
aids drugs still cannot save people’s lives.
aids drugs can now make people live longer.
more and more people die of aids now.
the work "massage" in the last paragraph means[3分]
Read With Greater Speed
Do you have difficulty reading in class? If so, a special reading program that helps match sounds with letters could speed up your brain.
At least one out of every five elementary school students in the US has trouble learning to read, even when the students are good at other subjects. (46)
Researchers from Yale University, US, studied a group of children from New York and Connecticut State. As part of the study, 37 struggling readers received special tutoring.
Every day, instructors worked with them on recognizing how written letters represent units of sound called phonemes (音素). (47)
By the end of the school year, these children could read faster than before. They also made fewer mistakes, and understood more of what they read than they could earlier in the year.
As part of their study, the researchers used a special machine to take action photos of the students' brains.
(48) This is the same part of the brain that becomes active when good readers read. This activated brain area appears to include a structure that helps people recognize familiar written words quickly. In lower level readers, this structure remains inactive.
A.year later, the brain structure was still working hard in the students who had gore through the special tutoring, and they continued to do well in reading tests 。(49)
However, some researchers still doubt the study. (50)
A Many adults are interested in matching sounds with letters
B The students also practiced reading aloud and spelling
C The biggest challenge for many of these kids, scientists say, is matching sounds with letters.
D Another group in the study who went through a more traditional reading program didn't show the same progress.
E The pictures showed an increase in activity in the back of the brain on the left side.
F They believe that reading without making any noise or linking words to sounds is more efficient.
Where Did All the Ships Go?
The Bermuda Triangle (三角区) is one(1) the greatest mysteries of the sea. In this triangular area between Florida, Puerto Rico and Bermuda in Atlantic, ships and airplanes(2)to disappear more often than in (3) parts of the ocean. And they do so(4) leaving any sign of an accident or any dead bodies.
It is (5) that Christopher Columbus was the first person to record strange happenings in the area. His compass stopped working, a flame came down from the sky, and a wave 100 to 200-feet-high carried his ship about a mile away.
The most famous disappearance in the Bermuda Triangle was the US Naval (海军的) Air Flight 19. (6) December 5, 1945, five bomber planes carrying 14 men(7) on a training mission from the Florida coast. Later that day, all communications with Flight 19 were lost. They just disappeared without a trace.
The next morning, 242 planes and 19 ships took part in the largest air-sea search in history. But they found nothing.
Some people blame the disappearances(8) supernatural (超自然的)forces. It is suggested the(9) ships and planes were either transported to other times and places, kidnapped (绑架) by aliens'(外星人的) (10) attacked by sea creatures.
There are(11) natural explanations, though. The US Navy says that the Bermuda Triangle is one of two places on earth(12) a magnetic compass (指南针) points towards true north (13) magnetic north. (14), planes and ships can lose their way if they don't make adjustments.
The area also has changing weather and is known(15) its high waves Storms can turn up suddenly and destroy a plane or ship. Fast currents could then sweep away any trace of an accident.