I have been trying to quit smoking.[1分]
Relief workers were shocked by what they saw.[1分]
The weather is a constant subject of conversation in Britain.[1分]
This is not typical of English, but is a feature of the Chinese language.[1分]
It is virtually impossible to persuade him to apply for the job,[1分]
These are defensive behavior patterns which derive from our fears.[1分]
Only a small minority of the mentally ill are liable to harm themselves or others,[1分]
They have the capability to destroy the enemy in a few days.[1分]
We have never seen such gorgeous hills.[1分]
The leaves have been swept into huge heaps.[1分]
The news will horrify everyone.[1分]
The article sketched the major events of the decade.[1分]
I won't tolerate that kind of behavior.[1分]
Their style of playing football is utterly different.[1分]
Her sister urged her to apply for the job.[1分]
The United States is a sports-loving nation. Sports in America take a variety of forms: organized competitive struggles, which draw huge crowds to cheer their favorite team to victory; athletic games,played for recreation anywhere sufficient space is found; and hunting and fishing. Most sports are seasonal, so that what is happening in sports depends upon the time of year. Some sports are called spectator sports, as the number of spectators greatly exceeds the number playing in the game.
Baseball is the most popular sport in the US. It is played throughout the spring and summer, and professional baseball teams play well into the fall. Although no other game is exactly like baseball, perhaps the one most nearly like it is the English game of cricket.
Football is the most popular sport in the fall. The game originated as a college sport more than 75 years ago. It is still played by almost every college and university in the country, and the football stadiums of some of the largest universities seat as many as 80, 000 people. The game is not the same as European football or soccer. In American football there are 11 players on each team, and they are dressed in padded uniforms and helmets because the game is rough and injuries are likely to occur.
Basketball is the winter sport in American schools and colleges. Like football, basketball originated in the US and is not popular in other countries. Many Americans prefer it to football because it is played indoors throughout the winter and because it is a faster game. It is a very popular game with high schools, and in more than 20 states, state-wide high school matches are held yearly.
Other spectator sports include wrestling, boxing, and horse racing. Although horse-racing fans call themselves sportsmen, the accuracy of the term is questionable, as only the jockeys who ride the horses in the races can be considered athletes. The so-called sportsmen are the spectators, who do "not assemble" primarily to see the horses race, but to bet upon the outcome of each race. Gambling is the attraction of horse racing.
Hunting and fishing are mainly favored by men, young and old, in the US.[1分]
Professional baseball teams can continue to play for a long period of time in the fall after the regular baseball seasons of spring and summer.[1分]
Baseball shares many features with the English game of cricket.[1分]
Football can be classified as a spectator sport.[1分]
Many Americans like basketball better than football because the latter is so harsh that players have to wear special uniforms.[1分]
Basketball in American is so popular with universities that nationwide university matches are held yearly.[1分]
Horse-racing fans cannot be considered sportsmen because they are spectators whose primary interest is gambling.[1分]
Washoe Learned American Sign Language
1 An animal that influenced scientific thought has died. A chimpanzee named Washoe and horn in Africa died of natural causes late last month at the age of 42 at a research center in the American state of Washington. Washoe had become known in the scientific community and around the world for her ability to use American Sign Language. She was said to be the first non-human to learn a human language. Her skills also led to debate about primates and their ability to understand language.
2 Research scientists Allen and Beatrix Gardner began teaching Washoe sign language in 1966. In 1969, the Oardners described Washoe's progress in a scientific report. The people who experimented with Washoe said she grew to understand about 250 words. For example, Washoe made signs to communicate when it was time to eat. She could request foods like apples and bananas. She also asked questions like, "Who is coming to play?" One the news about Washoe spread, many language scientists began studies of their own into this new and exciting area of research. The whole direction of primate research changed.
3 However, critics argued Washoe only learned to repeat sign language movements from watching her teachers. They said she had never developed true language skills. Even now there are some researchers who suggest that primates learn sign language only by memory, and perform the signs only for prizes. Yet Washoe's keepers disagree. Roger Fours is a former student of the Gardners. He took Washoe to a research center in Ellensburg, Washington. There, Washoe taught sign language to three younger chimpanzees, which are still alive.
4 Scientists like private researcher Jane Goodall believe Washoe provided new information about the mental workings of chimpanzees. Today, there are not as many scientists studying language skills with chimps. Part of the reason is that this kind of research takes a very long time.
5 Debate continues about chimps' understanding of human communication. Yet, one thing is sure-Washoe changed popular ideas about the possibilities of animal intelligence.
A.Reason Why Not Many Scientists Carry out This Rcsearch Nowdays
B.Report about Washoe`s Progress in Learning Sign Language
C.Gencral Information about Washoe
D.The Gardeners` Contributions Recognized
E.Dabate on Chimps` Intelligence
F.Washoe`s Love for Three Young Chimps
A.if the Gardeners` argument was sound
B.becaues she was cleverer than other chimps
C.when she wanted to cat
D.whilc she was at a research center in Ellensburg
E.because she could use sign language to ask for fruits
F.while Washoe was lcarning sign language
Washoe could make signs to communicate__________[1分]
Some scientists doubted__________[1分]
Washoe taught three younger chimps sign language__________[1分]
The experimenters thought Washoe was intelligent__________[1分]
第一篇 The National Park Service
America's national parks are like old friends. You may not see them for years at a time, but just knowing they're out there makes you feel better. Hearing the names of these famous old friends-Yosemite, Yellowstone, Grand Canyon - revives memories of visits past and promotes dreams of those still to come.
From Acadia to Zion, 369 national parks are part of a continually evolving system. Ancient fossil beds, Revolutionary War battlefields, magnificent mountain ranges, and monuments to heroic men and women who molded this country are all a part of our National Park System (NPS). The care and preservation for future generations of these special places is entrusted to the National Park Service. Uniformed Rangers, the most visible representatives of the Service, not only offer park visitors a friendly wave, a helpful answer, or a thought-provoking history lesson, but also are skilled rescuers, firefighters, and dedicated resource protection professionals. The National Park Service ranks also include architects, historians, archaeologists, biologists, and a host of other experts who preserve and protect everything from George Washington's teeth to Thomas Edison's wax recordings.
Modern society has brought the National Park Service both massive chalienges and enormous opportunities. Satellite and computer technologies are expanding the educational possibilities of a national park beyond it's physical boundaries. Cities struggling to revive their urban cores are turning to the Park Service for expert assistance to preserve their cultural heritage, create pocket parks and green spaces, and re-energize local economies. Growing communities thirsty for recreational outlets are also working with the NPS to turn abandoned railroad tracks into bike and biking trails, as well as giving unused federal property new life as recreation centers.
To help meet these challenges and take advantage of these opportunities, the National Park Service has formed partnerships - some dating back 100 years, some only months old - with other agencies, state and local governments, corporations, American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives, Park Friends groups, cooperating associations, private organizations, community groups and individuals who share the National Park ethic.
National Park Week 1996 is a celebration of these partnerships.
Why are America's national parks like old friends?[3分]
Because they are always out there.
Because they are very old.
Because they make people feel better.
Because they are very famous.
Which of the following statements is true about uniformed rangers?[3分]
They take tourists to national parks.
They always act as tourist guides.
They help set up new national parks.
They protect the National Park System.
The National Park Service does all of the following EXCEPT[3分]
offering help to visitors.
keeping people better informed of the National Park System.
helping preserve the cultural heritage.
What is this passage about?[3分]
It is about the American National Parks.
It is about the National Park Service.
It is about the National Park Service partnerships.
It is about the care and preservation of the National Parks in America.
What will the paragraph following this passage most probably discuss?[3分]
The pocket parks in America.
The preparations made for the celebration of National Park Week 1996.
The work that has been done by the partners.
The preservation of national resources in America.
第二篇 A Letter from Alan
I have learnt of a plan to build three hundred houses on the land called Parson's Place by the football ground. Few people know about this new plan to increase the size of our town. For me, Parson's Place is special because it is a beautiful natural area where local people can relax -the small wood has many unusual trees and the stream is popular with fishermen and bird-watchers. It's very quiet because
there are few houses or roads nearby. I think that losing this area will be terrible because we have no other similar facilities in the neighbourhood.
I am also against this plan because it will cause traffic problems. How will the people from the new houses travel to work? The motorway and the railway station are on the other side of town. Therefore, these people will have to drive through the town centre every time they go anywhere.
The roads will always be full of traffic,there will be nowhere to park and the tourists who come to see our lovely old buildings will leave. Shops and hotels will lose business. If the town really needs more homes, the empty ground beside the railway station is a more suitable place.
No doubt the builders will make a lot of money by selling these houses. But,in my opinion,the average person will quickly be made poorer by this plan. As well as this,we will lose a very special place and our town will be much less pleasant.
I am going to the local government offices on Monday morning to protest about this plan and I hope that your readers will join me there. We must make them stop this plan before it is too late.
Why has Alan written this letter'?[3分]
To perersuade the government to build new houses.
To protest about a new motorway near the town.
To encourage more people in the town to use Parson's Place.
To inform other people about the builders' plans.
Why is Persian's Place particularly important,in Alan's opinion?[3分]
Because it is near the football ground.
Because lots of people live near it.
Because it is a place near the town where people can enjoy nature.
Because local people can get there easily by car from the town.
What will cause traffic jams?[3分]
A building on Parson's Place.
Building near the railway station.
Tourists in the narrow streets.
People going to the shops and hotels.
Alan says that ordinary people who live in the town will probably soon[3分]
open new shops and hotels
choose to live near the station
Which of these posters has Alan made?[3分]
Say No to Houses on Parson's Place
Use the Train Not the Road
第三篇 The Changing Middle Class
The United States perceives itself to be a middle-class nation, However, middle class is not a real designation,nor does it carry privileges. It is more of a perception, which probably was as true as it ever could be right after World War II. The economy was growing,more and more people owned their own homes,workers had solid contracts with the companies that employed them, and nearly everyone whowanted a higher education could have one. Successful people enjoyed upward social mobility. They may have started out poor,but they could become rich. Successful people also found that they had greater geographic mobility. In other words,they found themselves moving to and living in a variety of places.
The middle class collectively holds several values and principles. One strong value is the need to earn enough money to feel that one can determine one's own economic fate. In addition,middle class morality embraces principles of individual responsibility, importance of family, obligations to others,and believing in something outside oneself.
But in the 1990s those in the middle class found that there was a price for success. A U. S. News & World Report survey in 1994 indicated that 75 percent of Americans believed that middle class families could no longer make ends meet. Both spouses now worked,as did some of the children; long commutes became routine; the need for child care put strains on the family; and public schools were not as good as they once were. Members of the middle class were no longer financing their lifestyles through earnings but were using credit to stay afloat. The understanding of just what middle class meant was changing.
The information in this passage deals with[3分]
a social and economic group
A common middle class value is that[3分]
people should always have fun
children should be seen and not heard
debt is nothing to worry about
the family is very important
In the years after World War II,the middle class could be defined as[3分]
hard working and suspicious
prosperous and optimistic
The phrase "In other words" in the first paragraph means that the following statement is[3分]
an exception to the previous idea
a denial of the previous idea
a restatement of the previous idea
The word collectively means[3分]
The first four minutes
When do people decide whether or not they want to become friends? During their first four minutes together, according to a book by Dr. Leonard Zunin. In his book, "Contact: The first four minutes," he offers this advice to anyone interested in starting new friendships: __46__. A lot of people's whole lives would change if they did just that.
You may have noticed that average person does not give his undivided attention to someone he as just met.__47__. If anyone has ever done this to you, you probably did not like him very much.
When we are introduced to new people, the author suggests, we should try to appear friendly and self-confident. In general, he says, "People like people who like themselves."On the other hand, we should not make the other person think we are too sure of ourselves. It is important to appear interested and sympathetic, realizing that the other person has his won needs, fears, and hopes.
Hearing such advice, one might say, "But I'm not a friendly, self-confident person. That's not my nature. It would be dishonest for me to at that way."__48__. We can become accustomed to any changes we choose to make in our personality. "It is like getting used to a new car. It may be unfamiliar at first, but it goes much better than the old one."But isn't it dishonest to give the appearance of friendly self-confidence when we don't actually feel that way? Perhaps, but according to Dr. Zunin, "total honest" is not always good for social relationships, especially during the first few minutes of contact. There is a time for everything, and a certain amount of play-acting may be best for the first few minutes of contact with a stranger. That is not the time to complain about one's health or to mention faults one finds in other people. It is not the time to tell the whole truth about one's opinions and impressions.
__49__. For a husband and wife or a parent and child, problems often arise during their first four minutes together after they have been apart. Dr. Zunin suggests that these first few minutes together be treated with care. If there are unpleasant matters to be discussed, they should be dealt with later.
The author says that interpersonal relations should be taught as a required course in every school, along with reading, writing, and mathematics. __50__ that is at least as important as how much we know.
A.In reply, Dr. Zunin would claim that a little practice can help us feel comfortable about changing our social habits.
B.Much of what has been said about strangers also applies to relationships with family members and friends.
C.In his opinion, success in life depends mainly on how we get along with other people.
D.Every time you meet someone in a social situation, give him your undivided attention for four minutes.
E.He keeps looking over the other person's shoulder, as if hoping to find someone more interesting in another part of the room.
F.He is eager to make friends with everyone.
The first four minutes
Highways in the United States
The United States is well-known for its network of major highways designed to help a driver get from one place to another in the shortest possible time. __51__ these wide modern roads are generally __52__ and well maintained, with few sharp curves and __53__ straight sections, a direct route is not always the most __54__ one. Large highways often pass __55__ scenic areas and interesting small towns. Furthermore, these highways generally __56__ large urban centers which means that they become crowded with __57__ traffic during rush hours, __58__ the "fast, direct" way becomes a very slow route. However, there is almost always another route to __59__ if you are not in a hurry. Not for from the relatively new "superhighways", there are often older, __60__ heavily traveled roads which go through the countryside. __61__ are good lane roads; others are uneven roads curving __62__ the country. These secondary routes may go up steep slopes, along hilly cliffs or down frightening hillsides to towns __63__ in deep valleys. Though these are less __64__ routes, longer and slower, they generally go to places __65__ the air is clean and the scenery is beautiful, and the driver may have a chance to get a fresh, clean view of the world.