录入者 ：For You
Techniques to employ the energy of the sun are being developed.[1分]
Since the Great Depression, the United States government has protected farmers from damaging drops in grain prices.[1分]
Medicine depends on other fields for basic information, particularly some of their specialized branches.[1分]
An important part of the national government is the Foreign Service, a branch of the Department of the State.[1分]
We were astonished to hear that their football team had won the champion.[1分]
There is an abundant supply of cheap labor in this country.[1分]
All living organisms, regardless of their unique identity, have certain logical, chemical, and physical characteristics in common.[1分]
The most crucial problem any economic system faces is how to use its scarce resources.[1分]
Human facial expressions differ from those of animals in the degree to which they can be deliberately controlled and modified.[1分]
The Constitutions, vague nature has given it the flexibility to be adapted when circumstances change.[1分]
The expedition reached the summit at 10:30 that morning.[1分]
The latest census is encouraging.[1分]
Academic records from other institutions often become part of a university's official file and can neither be returned to a student nor duplicated.[1分]
While serving in the Senate in the early 1970s, Barbara Jordan supported legislation to ban discrimination and to deal with environment problems.[1分]
Gambling is lawful in Nevada.[1分]
A Dog's Dilemma
Finding a babysitter while you go out to work is, for example, an inconvenience. For the African wild dog, one of the continent's most endangered carnivores, it's a matter of life and death. New research shows that once packs fall below a certain size, there are not enough animals to both hunt food and stay at home protecting the young.
The African wild dog has declined drastically over the past century. Habitual loss, persecution and unexplained outbreaks of disease have all been blamed. Only 3, 000 to 5, 000 animals remain, and the species is expected to go extinct within decades if the trend continues.
Other large carnivores such as the spotted hyena face similar pressures, yet are not declining. Now Franck Courchamp of Cambridge University has found a reason why. The dog's weakness lies in its social organisation.
Within each pack of up to 20 adults and pups, only the dominant male and female breed. The remaining animals help raise the pups, cooperating to hunt prey and defend the kill from other carnivores.
Because pups can't keep up on a hunt, large packs leave an adult behind to protect them from predators, which include lions and hyenas. But leaving a babysitter also carries costs. A smaller hunting party is less able to tackle large prey and to defend the kill. There is also one less stomach in which to carry food hack to the den, and one more mouth to feed when they get there.
Courchamp investigated this awkward trade-off by modelling how the costs of a babysitter change with decreasing pack size. This showed that packs of more than five adults should be able to feed all the pups and still spare a babysitter. But with smaller packs, either the hunting or the babysitting suffers, or the animals have to compensate by increasing the number of hunting excursions- which itself carries a cost to the pack.
Field observations in Zimbabwe supported the model. Packs of five animals or fewer left pups unguarded more frequently than larger packs did. There was also evidence that when they did leave a babysitter, they were forced to hunt more often.
A pack which drops below a critical size becomes caught in a vicious circle, says Courchamp, who is now at Paris-Sud University. "Poor reproduction and low survival further reduces pack size, culminating in failure of the whole pack. " And deaths caused by human activity, says Courchamp, may be what reduces pack numbers to below the sustainable threshold. Mammal ecologist Chris Carbone at London's Institute of Zoology agrees. Maintaining the integrity of wild dog packs will be vital in pre serving the species, he says.
The African wild dog has been endangered.[1分]
The spotted hyena is on the verge of extinction.[1分]
The remaining lions will die out within decades.[1分]
The dominant female is always left behind to protect the young.[1分]
There is a tension between babysitting and hunting.[1分]
The size of a pack must be big enough for it to survive.[1分]
Steps will be taken to protect the African wild dog.[1分]
1 Every year millions of women are screened with X-rays to pick up signs of breast cancer. If this happens early enough, the disease can often be treated successfully. According to a survey published last year, 21 countries have screening programmes. Nine of them, including Australia, Canada, the US and Spain, screen women under 50.
2 But the medical benefits of screening these younger women are controversial, partly because the radiation brings a small risk of inducing cancer. Also, younger women must be given higher doses of X rays because their breast tissue is denser.
3 Researchers at the Polytechnic University of Valencia analysed the effect of screening more than 160,000 women at 11 local clinics. After estimating the women's cumulative dose of radiation, they used two models to calculate the number of extra cancers this would cause.
4 The mathematical model recommended by Britain's National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) predicted that the screening programme would cause 36 cancers per 100,000 women, 18 of them fatal. The model preferred by the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation led to a lower figure of 20 cancers.
5 The researchers argue that the level of radiation-induced cancers is "not very significant" compared to the far larger number of cancers that are discovered and treated. The Valencia programme,they say, detects between 300 and 450 cases of breast cancer in every 100,000 women screened.
6 But they point out that the risk of women contracting cancer from radiation could be reduced by between 40 and 80 percent if screening began at 50 instead of 45, because they would be exposed to less radiation. The results of their study, they suggest, could help "optimize the technique" for breast cancer screening.
7 "There is a trade-off between the diagnostic benefits of breast screening and its risks," admits Michael Clark of the NRPB. But he warns that the study should be interpreted with caution. "On the basis of the current data, for every 10 cancers successfully detected and prevented there is a risk of causing one later in life. That's why radiation exposure should be minimized in any screening programme.”
A. Risk of Screening to Younger Women
B. Investigating the Effect of Screening
C. Effects Predicted by Two Different Models
D. Treatment of Cancers
E. Minimizing of Radiation Exposure
F. Factors That Trigger Cancers
A. be costly
C. save a life
D. still open to debate
E. reduce the risk of radiation triggering a cancer
F. reduced to the minimum
Early discovery of breast cancer may __________[1分]
Advantages of screening women under 50 are__________[1分]
Delaying the age at which screening starts may__________[1分]
Radiation exposure should be__________[1分]
第一篇 Narrow Escape
We had left the hut too late that morning. When we stepped outside, the sky beyond the mountains to our east was already livid with colour. It meant the day would be a hot one, and the warmth would loosen rocks that were gripped by ice.
As soon as we stepped out on to the face, it became obvious this was going to be an awkward route. The main problem was talus, the debris that collects on mountainsides. Talus is despised by mountaineers for two reasons. First, because it can easily be pushed off on to you by people climbing above. And second, because it makes every step you take insecure.
For about 30 minutes we moved steadily up the face. The rock was in poor condition, shattered horizontally and mazed with cracks. When I tried to haul myself up on a block of it, it would pull out towards me, like a drawer opening. My hands became progressively wetter and colder. Then came a shout. "Cailloux! Cailloux!" I heard yelled from above, in a female voice. The words echoed down towards us. I looked up to see where they had come from.
There were just two rocks at first, leaping and bounding down the face towards us, once cannoning off each other in mid-air. And then the air above suddenly seemed alive with falling rocks, humming through the air and filling it with noise. Crack, went each one as it leapt off the rock face, then hum-hum-hum as it moved through the air, then crack again. The pause between the cracks lengthened each time, as the rocks gained momentum and jumped further and further. I continued to gaze up at the rocks as they fell and skipped towards me. A boy who had been a few years above me at school had taught me never to look up during a rock fall. "Why'? Because a rock in your face is far less pleasant than a rock on your helmet," he told us. "Face in, always face in. "
I heard Toby, my partner on the mountain that day, shouting at me. I looked across, the was safe beneath an overhanging canopy of rock. I could not understand him. Then 1 felt a thump, and was tugged backwards and round, as though somebody had clamped a heavy hand on my shoulder and turned me to face them. A rock had hit the lid of my rucksack.
I looked up again. A rock was heading down straight towards me. Instinctively, I leant backwards and arched my back out from the rock to try to protect my chest. What about my fingers, though, I thought ：they'll be crushed flat if it hits them, and I'll never get down. Then I heard a crack directly in front of me, and a tug at my trousers, and a yell from Toby. "Are you all right? That went straight through you. "The rock had pitched in front of me, and passed through the hoop of my body, between my legs, missing me but snatching at my clothing as it went.
Toby and I had spent the evening talking through the events of the morning. what if the big final stone hadn't leapt sideways, what if I'd been knocked off, would you have held me, would I have pulled you off? A more experienced mountaineer would probably have thought nothing of it. I knew I would not forget it.
Why was it "too late" by the time they left the hut in the morning?[3分]
It would be uncomfortable climbing in hot weather.
The livid color of the sky would hurt their eyes.
Rocks loosened by melting ice could be dangerous.
They wouldn't be able to walk on the melting ice.
The first reason given to explain why mountaineers hate talus is__________[3分]
that climbers above you might cause it to fall on you
that it allows people climbing above you to push off
that it makes people climbing above you feel insecure
that it can cause other people to push you off the mountain
What is likely to be the meaning of "Cailloux"'?[3分]
Rocks arc flying through the air.
There are loose rocks on the ground ahead.
There are rocks everywhere.
What is sarcastic in the words of the boy in paragraph four?[3分]
He didn't keep his "face in".
Not every climber wears a helmet.
It is very difficult not to look up during a rockfall.
Being hit by a rock isn't "pleasant" at all.
In what sense was Toby "safe"?[3分]
The overhanging rock would protect him from falling rocks.
He felt a hand on his shoulder.
His rucksack was protected.
He had hidden under a canopy.
第二篇 Going Her Own Way
When she was twelve, Maria made her first important decision about the course of her life. She decided that she wanted to continue her education, Most girls from middle-class families chose to stay home after primary school, though some attended private Catholic "finishing" schools. There they learned a little about music, art, needlework, and how to make polite conversation. This was not the sort of education that interested Maria ——or her mother. By this time,she had begun to take her studies more seriously. She read constantly and brought her books everywhere. One time she even brought her math book to the theater and tried to study in the dark.
Maria knew that she wanted to go on learning in a serious way. That meant attending the public high school, something that very few girls did. In Italy at the time, there were two types of high schools: the "classical" schools and the "technical" scbools. In the classical schools, the students followed a very traditional program of studies,with courses in Latin and Greek language and literature, and Italian literature and history. The few girls who continued studying after primary school usually chose these schools.
Maria,however,wanted to attend a technical school. The technical schools were more modem than the classical schools and they offered courses in modern languages, mathematics, science, and accounting. Most people including Maria's father believed that girls would never be able to understand these subjects. Furthermore,they did not think it was proper for girls to study them.
Maria did not care if it was proper or not. Math and science were the subjects that interested her most. But before she could sign up for the technical school, she had to win her father's approval. She finally did,with her moher's help,though for many years after,there was tension in the family. Maria's father continued to oppose her plans, while her mother helped her.
In 1883 ,at age thirteen, Maria entered the "Regia Scuola Tecnica Michelangelo Buonarroti" in Rome. Her experience at this school is difficult for us to imagine. Though the courses included modern subjects,the teaching methods were very traditional, Learning consisted of memorizing long lists of facts and repeating them back to the teacher. Students were not supposed to ask questions or think for themselves in any way. Teachers were very demanding,discipline in the classroom was strict ,and punishment was severe for those who failed to achieve or were disobedient.
Maria wanted to attend__________[3分]
private "finishing" school
school with Latin and Greek
In those days, most Italian girls__________[3分]
went to classical schools
went to "finishing" schools
did not go to high school
went to technical schools
You can infer from this passage that__________[3分]
girls usually attended private primary schools
only boys usually attended technical schools
girls did not like going to school
only girls attended classical schools
Maria's father probably__________[3分]
had very modern views about women
had very traditional views about women
had no opinion about women
thought women could not learn Latin
High school teachers in Italy in those days were__________[3分]
It is not unusual for a pet to be sent by air cargo from Colombia to New York, but last December's shipment of a 4-year-old sheep dog caught a New York Kennedy Airport Customs inspector's eye. The dog looked to be on its last legs, and there was an unusual lump on the side of its body. An X-ray and emergency surgery revealed the presence of 10 condoms tightly packed with five pounds of cocaine that had been surgically implanted in the dog's abdomen-yet another first for Customs in the war on drugs.
When it comes to transporting drugs, the methods used are only as limited as a smuggler's imagination. Kilo bricks of cocaine are routinely concealed beneath false bottoms of containers that hold poisonous snakes. "You've got snakes that are 12 feet long," says a United States Fish and Wildlife Service agent--and sometimes the drug is in the snake. "Who's going to pull it out and feel it?"
In 1994, United States Customs seized 204,391 pounds of cocaine, 559,286 pounds of marijuana and 2, 577 pounds of heroin. Just how much actually flows into the country is anyone's guess. Some customs officials estimate that only 10 percent of the drugs coming into the country are ever seized. In Miami, the District Attorney won't even prosecute small fry. "It's got to be over five kilos of cocaine, above a kilo of heroin and more than 5,000 pounds of marijuana or it's not something that we're going to stop the presses on," says Tom Cash, a retired agent.
Given this deluge, one can only wonder if agents are ever confounded by some of the smuggling methods. "There are things we haven't seen before," says .John McGhee, a Miami Customs special agent, "but nothing really surprises us. "
The dog was different from others in that__________[3分]
it could stand only on its hind legs.
it had a very big abdomen
How many methods are used to transport drugs?[3分]
As many as a smuggler can think of.
Beyond the smuggler's imagination.
How many pounds of heroin were estimated to be smuggled into the United States in 1994？[3分]
Which of the following could best replace the expression "small fry" in the third paragraph?[3分]
What is this article about?[3分]
Drug transportation from Columbia to New York.
A new method for drug smuggling.
Varied drug transportation methods
Einstein Named "Person of the Century"
Albert Einstein, whose theories on space time and matter helped unravel the secrets of the atom and of the universe, was chosen as "Person of the Century" by Time magazine on Sunday.
A man whose very name is synonymous with scientific genius, Einstein has come to represent more than any other person the flowering of 20th century scientific thought that set the stage for the age of technology.
"The world has changed far more in the past 100 years than in any other century in history. The reason is not political or economic, but technological-technoiogies that flowed directly from advances in basic science. " wrote theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking in a Time essay explaining Einstein's significance. 46__________
Time chose as runner-up President Franklin Roosevelt to represent the triumph of freedom and democracy over fascism, and Mahatma Gandhi as an icon for a century when civil and human rights became crucial factors in global politics.
"What we saw Franklin Roosevelt embodying the great theme of freedom's fight against totalitari anism, Gandhi personifying the great theme of individuals struggling for their rights, and Einstein being both a great genius and a great symbol of a scientific revolution that brought with it amazing technological advances that helped expand the growth of freedom. " said Time Magazine Editor Walter Isaacson.
Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany in 1879. 47__________He was slow to learn to speak and did not do well in elementary school. He could not stomach organized learning and loathed taking exams.
In 1905, however, he was to publish a theory which stands as one of the most intricate examples of human imagination in history. 48__________Everything else -mass, weight, space, even time itself is a variable. And he offered the world his now-famous equation: energy equals mass times the speed of light squared——E=mc2. 49 __________There was less faith in absolutes, not only of time and space but also of truth and morality.
Einstein's famous equation was also the seed that led to the development of atomic energy and weapons. In1939, six years after he fled European fascism and settled at Princeton University, Einstein, an avowed pacifist, signed a letter to President Roosevelt urging the United States to develop an atomic bomb before Nazi Germany did. 50__________. Einstein did not work on the project. Einstein died in Princeton, New Jersey in 1955.
A."Indirectly, relativity paved the way for a new relativism in morality, art and politics. "Isaacson wrote in an essay explaining Time's choices.
B.How he thought of the relativity theory influenced the general public's view about Albert Einstein.
C."Clearly, no scientist better represents those advances than Albert Einstein."
D.Roosevelt heeded the advice and formed the "Manhattan Project" that secretly developed the first atomic weapon.
E.In his early years, Einstein did not show the promise of what he was to become.
F.In his "Special Theory of Relativity", Einstein described how the only constant in the universe is the speed of light.
Research has shown that over half the children in Britain who take their own lunches to school do not eat 51 in the middle of the day. In Britain schools have to 52 meals at lunchtime. Children can 53 to bring their own food or have lunch at the school canteen.
One shocking 54 of this research is. that school meals are much healthier than lunches prepared by parents. There are strict 55 for the preparation of school meals, which have to include
one____ 56______ of fruit and one of vegetables, as well as meat, a dairy item and starchy food like bread or pasta. Lunchboxes ____57______by researchers contained sweet drinks, crisps and chocolate bars. Children____58_____twice as much sugar as they should at lunchtime.
The research will trovide a better ____59______of why the percentage of overweight students in Britain has____60_____in the last decade. Unfortunately, the government cannot____61______parents, but it can remind them of the___62_____value, of milk, fruit and vegetables. Small changes in their children's diet can____63______
their future health. Children can easily develop bad eating____64______at this age, and parents are the only ones who can____65______it.