录入者 ：For You
John is collaborating with Mary in writing a book.[1分]
I can no longer tolerate his actions.[1分]
Mary lost control of her car and collided with a tree.[1分]
Mary was compelled to take in washing to help support her family.[1分]
The child couldn't comprehend the advanced textbook.[1分]
You must shine your shoes.[1分]
What were the effects of the decision she made?[1分]
First editions of certain popular books cannot be obtained for love or money.[1分]
In a bullfight, it is movement, not the color, of subjects that arouses the bull.[1分]
The workers finally called off the strike.[1分]
The firemen acted quickly because lives were at stake.[1分]
Helen will leave immediately.[1分]
We shall take the treasure away to a safe place.[1分]
An important part of the national government is the Foreign Service, a branch of their specialized branches.[1分]
A beautiful woman attended to me in that store yesterday.[1分]
The First Settlement in North America
It is very difficult to say just when colonization began. The first hundred years after Christopher Columbus journey of discovery in 1492 did not produce any settlement on the North America continent but rather some Spanish trading posts further south, a great interest in gold and adventure, and some colorful crimes in which the English had their part. John Cahot, originally from Genoa but a citizen of Venice, was established as a trader in Bristol, England, when he made a journey in 1497. But his ship,the Matthew, with its crew of eighteen, did no more than see an island prohably off the New England coast) and return home. He and his son made further voyages across the north Atlantic which enabled the English crown to claim a "legal" title to North America. But for a long time afterwards the Europeans interest in America was mainly confined to the Spanish activities further south.
The first beginning of permanent settlement in North America were nearly a hundred years after Columbus first voyage. The Englishman Sir Walter Raleigh claimed the whole of North America for England, calling it Virginia. In 1585 he sent a small group of people who landed in Roanoke Island,but they stayed only for a year and then went back to England with another expedition, led by Drake,in 1587. A second group who landed in 1587 had all disappeared when a further expedition arrived in 1590.
The first permanent settlement in North America was in 1607. English capitalists founded two Virginia companies, a southern one based in London and a northern one based in Bristol. It was decided to give the name New England to the northern area. The first settlers in Virginia were little more than wage slaves to the company. All were men and the experiment was not very successful. Many died. Those who survived lived in miserable conditions. By 1619 the colony had only a thousand people.
We know for sure that colonization began at the end of the 15th century,[1分]
Among the early settlers in South America in the 16th century were Spanish traders.[1分]
With John Cabots arrival at an island off the New England coast in 1497, the British Crown claimed to be the legal owner of North America.[1分]
There were eighteen people on board the Matthew during its voyage to North America in 1497.[1分]
The first attempt made by European people to settle down permanently in North America occurred in the 1580s.[1分]
The name Virginia was given to North America by Sir Walter Raleigh.[1分]
The name New England was given to the northern area of North America by the boss of one of the two Virginia companies.[1分]
How to Argue with Your Boss
1.Before you argue with your boss, check with the boss secretary to determine his mood. If he ate nails for breakfast, it is not a good idea to ask him for something. Even without the boss's secretary,there are keys to timing: don't approach the boss when he's on deadline; don't go in right before lunch, when he is apt to be distracted and rushed; don't go in just before or after he has taken a vacation.
2.If you're mad, that will only make your boss mad. Calm down first. And don't let a particular concern open the floodgates for all your accumulated frustration. The boss will feel that you think negatively about the company and it is hopeless trying to change your mind. Then, maybe he will dismiss you.
3.Terrible disputes can result when neither the employer nor the employee knows what is the problem the other wants to discuss. Sometimes the fight will go away when the issues are made clear. The empoyee has to get his point across clearly in order to make the boss understand it.
4.Your boss has enough on his mind without your adding more. If you can't put forward an immediate solution, at least suggest how to approach the problem. People who frequently present problems without solutions to their bosses may soon find they can't get past the secretary.
5.To deal effectively with a boss, it's important to consider his goals and pressures. If you can put yourself in the position of being a partner to the boss, then he will be naturally more inclined to work you to achieve your goals.
A.Keep Your Voice Low All the Time
B.Put Yourself in the Boss’s Position
C.Propose Your Solution
D.Don’t Go in When You are Angry
E.Make the Issue Clear
F.Never Give in
A.to give the boss your advice
B.how he is feeling
C.the boss may have
D.what you really want to talk to him about
E.without suggesting a way to solve it
F.how unhappy you are
If you want to ask the boss for anything, it is important to find out first__________[1分]
It is necessary to make clear to the boss__________[1分]
It is not wise to present the boss with a problem__________[1分]
You must be considerate and think of the troubles__________[1分]
第一篇Eiffel Is all Eyeful
Some 300 meters up, near the Eiffel Tower's wind whipped summit the world comes to scribble.Japanese,Brazilians, Americans they graffiti their names,loves and politics on the cold iron transforming the most French of monuments into symbol of a world on the move.
With Paris laid out in miniature below, it seems strange that visitors would rather waste time marking their presence than admiring the view. But the graffiti also raises a question: Why, nearly 114 years after it was completed,and decades after it ceased to be the world's tallest structure, is la Tour Eiffel still so popular?
The reasons are as complex as the iron work that graces a structure some 90 stories high. But part of the answer is, no doubt, its agelessness. Regularly maintained, it should never rust away. Graffiti is regularly painted over, hut the tower lives on.
"Eiffel represents Paris and Paris is France. It is very symbolic" , says ttugues Richard, a 31- year-old Frenchman who holds the record for cycling tip to the tower's second floor- 747 steps in 19 minutes and 4 seconds, without touching the floor with his feet. "It's iron lady, It inspires us ", he says.
But to what? After all, the tower doesn't have a purpose. It ceased to be the world' s tallest in 1930 when the Chrysler Building13 went up in New York. Yes,television and radio signals are beamed from the top, and Gustave Eiffel, a frenetic builder who died on December 27, aged 91, used its height for conducting research into weather, aerodynamics and radio communication.
But in essence the tower inspires simply by being there a blank canvas for visitors to make of it what they will. To the technically minded, it's an engineering triumph. For lovers, it's romantic.
"The tower will outlast all of us, and by a long way", says Isabelle Esnous, whose company manages Eiffel Tower.
Why does the author think the Eiffel Tower is transformed into symbol of a world on the move?[3分]
Tourists from all over the world come to the Eiffel Tower by car or by plane.
Tourists of all nationalities come to scribble on the cold iron of the tower.
The Eiffel Tower is the tallest building in the world.
The Eiffel Tower represents all the towers in the world.
What seems strange to the author?[3分]
Visitors prefer wasting time scribbling to enjoying the view.
Visitors spends much time watching other people scribbling.
Only Japanese,Brazilians and Americans like to mark their presence.
Scribbling spread from country to country.
Which statement is NOT true of Hugues Richard?[3分]
He climbed 747 steps up the tower in 19 minutes and 4 seconds.
He cycled up to the tower's second floor.
What did the builder use the Eiffel Tower for?[3分]
Sending radio and television signals all over the world.
Conducting research in various fields.
Giving people inspiration.
Demonstrating French culture.
Which of the following is nearest in meaning to "(The Eiffel Tower is like) a blank canvas forvisitors to make of it what they will"?[3分]
Visitors can do whatever they want on the tower.
Visitors can paint on the tower whatever they want.
Visitors can imagine freely what the tower represents.
Visitors can draw on a blank canvas provided by the Tower management company.
第二篇 Find Yourself Packing It On?Blame Friends
Obesity can spread from person to person, much like a virus, researchers are reporting today.When one person gains weight, close friends tend to gain weight, too.
Their study,published in The New England Journal of Medicine,involved a detailed analysis of a large social network of 12,067 people who had been closely followed for 32 years,from 1971 to 2003.
The investigators knew who was friends with whom as well as who was a spouse or sibling or neighbor,and they knew how much each person weighed at various times over three decades. That let them reconstruct what happened over the years as individuals became obese. Did their friends also he come obese? Did family members? Or neighbors?
The answer, the researchers report, was that people were most likely to become obese when a friend became obese. That increased a person's chances of becoming obese by 57 percent. There was no effect when a neighbor gained or lost weight, however, and family members had less influence than friends.
It did not even matter if the friend was hundreds of miles away, the influence remained. And the greatest influence of all was between close mutual friends. There, if one became obese,the other had a 171 percent increased chance of becoming obese, too.
The same effect seemed to occur for weight loss, the investigators say. But since most people were gaining,not losing,over the 32 years,the result was,on average,that people grew fatter.
Dr. Nicholas A. Christakis, a physician and professor of medical sociology at Harvard Medical School and a principal investigator in the new study,said one explanation was that friends affected each others' perception of fatness. When a close friend becomes obese,obesity may not look so bad.
"You change your idea of what is an acceptable body type by looking at the people around you,"Dr. Christakis said.
The investigators say their findings can help explain why Americans have become fatter in recent years-each person who became obese was likely to drag along some friends.
Their analysis was unique, Dr. Christakis said, because it moved beyond a simple analysis of one person and his or her social contacts and instead examined an entire social network at once,looking at how a person's friend's friends,or a spouse's sibling's friends,could have an influence on a person's weight.
The effects,he said,"highlight the importance of a spreading process,a kind of social contagion,that spreads through the network. "
Of course,the investigators say, social networks are not the only factors that affect body weight.
There is a strong genetic component at work,too.
Science has shown that individuals have genetically determined ranges of weights, spanning perhaps 80 or so pounds for each person. But that leaves a large role for the environment in determining whether a person's weight is near the top of his or her range or near the bottom. As people have gotten fatter,it appears that many are edging toward9 the top of their ranges. The question has been why.
If the new research is correct,it may say that something in the environment seeded what some call an obesity epidemic,making a few people gain weight. Then social networks let the obesity spread rapidly.
Who had the greatest influence on people who became obese'[3分]
Which of the following statement about a friend's influence is false according to the report?[3分]
Friends had more influence than family members on people who became obese.
Even if the friend lives far away, the influence still remained.
People were not likely to lose weight when they have skinny friends.
The greatest influence of all was between close mutual friends.
According to Dr. Nicholas A. Christakis, what is the explanation for friends being the greatest influence?[3分]
Friends usually spend a lot of time together.
Friends share similar eating habits.
Friends are more important than family members.
Friends affected each others' feelings of fatness.
Which factor of becoming obese is not mentioned in this report?[3分]
In what way is obesity contagious and epidemic?[3分]
Social networks let the obesity spread rapidly.
Individuals have genetically determined ranges of weights.
Obesity can easily spread from one to another without any physical contact.
Obesity can spread rapidly and extensively by infection and affecting many individuals in an area or a population at the same time.
第三篇 Spacing in Animals
Any observant person has noticed that a wild animal will allow a man or other potential enemy to approach only up to a given distance before it flees. "Flight distance" is the terms used for this interspecies spacing. As a general rule, there is a positive relationship between the size of an animal and its flight distance the larger the animal, the greater the distance it must keep between itself and the enemy. An antelope will flee when the enemy is as much as five hundred yards away. The wall lizard's flight distance, on the other hand is about six feet. Flight is the basic means of survival for mobile creatures.
Critical distance apparently is present wherever and whenever there is a flight reaction. "Critical distance" includes the narrow zone separating flight distance from attack distance. A lion in a zoo will flee from an approaching man until it meets a barrier that it cannot overcome. If the man continues the approach, he soon penetrates the lion's critical distance, at which point the cornered lion reverses direction and begins slowly to stalk the man.
Social animals need to stay in touch with each other. Loss of contact with the group can be fatal for a variety of reasons including exposure to enemies. Social distance is not simply the distance at which an animal will lose contact with his group--that is, the distance at which it can no longer see, hear, or smell the group-it is rather a psychological distance, one at which the animal apparently he gins to feel anxious when he exceeds its limits. We can think of it as a hidden band that contains the group.
Social distance varies from species to species. It is quite short apparently only a few yards among some animals, and quite long among others.
Social distance is not always rigidly fixed but is determined in part by the situation. When the young of apes and humans are mobile but not yet under control of the mother's voice, social distance may be the length of her reach. This is readily observed among the baboons in a zoo. When the baby approaches a certain point, the mother reaches out to seize the end of its tail and pull it back to her.
When added control is needed because of danger, social distance shrinks. To show this in man, one has only to watch a family with a number of small children holding hands as they cross a busy street.
Which of the following is the most appropriate definition of Flight Distance?[3分]
Distance between animals of the same species before fleeing.
Distance between large and small animals before fleeing.
Distance between an animal and its enemy before fleeing.
Distance between certain animal species before fleeing.
If an animal's critical distance is penetrated, it will[3分]
According to the passage, social distance refers to[3分]
Which of the following could best replace the word "band" in "We can think of it as a hidden band that contains the group" (in Paragraph 3)?[3分]
The example of the children holding hands when crossing the street in the last paragraph shows that[3分]
social distance is not always needed.
there is no social distance among small children.
humans are different from animals in social distance.
social distance is sometimes determined by outside factors.
Obesity Causes Global Warming
The list of ills attributable to obesity keeps growing: Last week,obese people were accused of causing global warming.
This conclusion comes from Sheldon Jacobson of the University of Illinois, US, and a doctoral student,Laura McLay. Their study calculates how much extra gasoline is needed to haul fat Americans around. The answer, they say, is a billion gallons of gas per year. 46__________
There has been calls for taxes on junk food in recent years. 47__________"We tax cigarettes partly because of their health cost", Schmidt said. "Similarly,leading a lazy lifestyle will end up costing taxpayers more.
US political scientist Eric Oliver said his first instinct was to laugh at these gas and fast food arguments. But such claims are getting attention.
At the US Obesity Society's annual meeting, one person correlated obesity with car accident deaths,and another correlated obesity with suicides. 48__________"The funny thing was that everyone took it seriously, "Oliver said.
In a 1960s study,children were shown drawings of children with disabilities and without them,and a drawing of an obese child. They were asked which they would want for a friend ? 49__________
Three researchers recently repeated the study using college students. Once again,almost no one,not even obese people,liked the obese person. "Obesity was stigmatized,"the researchers said.
But,researchers say,getting thin is not like quitting smoking. People struggle to stop smoking, and,in the end,many succeed. Obesity is different. But,not because obese people don't care. 50__________Genes also play a part.
A.A meager diet may keep you thin.
B.It means an extra 11 million tons of carbon dioxide.
C.The obese child was picked last.
D.US economist Martin Schmidt suggests a tax on fast food delivered to people's cars.
E.Science has shown that they have limited personal control over their weight.
F.No one asked whether there was really a cause-and-effect relationship.
Carefully conducted researches that have followed the children of working mothers have not been able to show any long-term problems,compared with children whose mothers stayed at home. My personal 51__________is that mothers should be allowed to work if they wish. Whether we like it or not ,there are a 52__________of mothers who just have to work. There are those who have invested such a big part of their lives in establishing a career that they cannot 53__________see it lost. Then there are many who must work out of pure economic 54__________.Many mothers are not 55__________out to be full-time parents. After a few months at home with a much loved infant, they feel trapped and isolated.
There are a number of options when it 56__________to choosing childcare. These range from child minders and nannies through to Granny or the kind lady 57__________the street. 58__________, however, many parents
don't have any choice; they have to accept anything they can get. Be prepared! No 59__________ how good the childcare may be, some children are going to protest wildly if they are left. This is a 60__________normal stage of child development. Babies separate well in the first six months, but soon after that they start to get a crush on Mum and close family 61__________. Make sure that in the first week you allow 62__________time to help your child settle in.
All children are different. Some are independent, while others are more 63__________to their mothers.
Remember that if you want to 64__________the best for your children, it's not the quantity of time you spend with them,it's the 65__________that matters.