录入者 ：For You
She exhibited great powers of endurance during the climb.[1分]
The eternal motion of the stars fascinated him.[1分]
She could not answer, it was an immense load off her heart.[1分]
The book made a great impact on its readers.[1分]
Accompanied by cheerful music, we began to dance.[1分]
He was not eligible for the examination because he was over age.[1分]
Her novel depicts an ambitious Chinese.[1分]
Don't irritate her, she's on a short fuse today.[1分]
It is absurd to go out in such terrible weather.[1分]
I notified him that that my address bad changed.[1分]
The manager allocate duties to the clerks.[1分]
The once barren hillsides are now good farmland.[1分]
It is postulated that a cure for the disease will have been found by the year 2000.[1分]
We must abide by the rules.[1分]
From my standpoint, you know, this thing is just funny.[1分]
The National Trust
The National Trust in Britain plays an increasingly important part in the preservation for public enjoyment of the best that is left unspoiled of the British countryside, Although the Trust has received practical and moral support from the Government, it is not a rich Government department. It is a voluntary association of people who care for the unspoiled countryside and historic buildings of Britain. It is charity which depends for its existence on voluntary support from members of the public. Its primary duty is to protect places of great natural beauty and places of historical interest.
The attention of the public was first drawn to the dangers threatening the great old houses and castles of Britain by the death of Lord Lothian, who left his great seventeenth-century house to the Trust together with the 4, 500-acre park and estate surrounding it. This gift attracted wide publicity and started the Trust's "Country House Scheme". Under this scheme, with the help of the Government and the general public, the Trust has been able to save and make accessible to the public about one hundred and fifty of these old houses. Last year about one and three quarters of a million people paid to visit these historic houses, usually at a very small charge.
In addition to country houses and open spaces the Trust now owns some examples of ancient wind and water mills, nature reserves, five hundred and forty farms and nearly two thousand five hundred cottages or small village houses, as well as some complete villages. In these villages no one is allowed to build, develop or disturb the old village environment in any way and all the houses are maintained in their original sixteenth-century style. Over four hundred thousand acres of coastline, woodland, and hill country are protected by the Trust and no development or disturbances of any kind are permitted.
The public has free access to these areas and is only asked to respect the peace, beauty and wildlife.
So it is that over the past eighty years the Trust has become a big and important organization and an essential and respected part of national life, preserving all that is of great natural beauty and of historical significance not only for future generations of Britons but also for the millions of tourists who
each year invade Britain in search of a great historic and cultural heritage.
The National Trust is financed by both personal donations and government allocations.[1分]
British people's dependence on the National Trust to protect places of great natural beauty and places of historical interest has been increasing.[1分]
Lord Lothian was one of the founders of the National Trust.[1分]
The Trust's "Country House Scheme" provides an easy access for the public to 150 old houses or so.[1分]
A project which is to fortify a 16th century old house but keep its original style will not be approved by the National Trust.[1分]
The public may enter in a wood under the protection of the National Trust without paying any money, but they are not allowed to bring in canned food and beverage.[1分]
The National Trust helps promote tourism in Britain.[1分]
Smoke Gets in Your Mind
1 Lung cancer, hypertension, heart disease, birth defects we are all too familiar with the dangers of smoking. But add to that list a frightening new concern. Mental illness. According to some controversial new findings, if smoking does not kill you, it may, quite litter, drive you to despair.
2 The tobacco industry openly pushes its product as something to lift your mood and soothe anxity. But the short-term feel-good effect may mask the truth: that smoking may worsen or even trigger exiety disorders, panic attacks and depression, perhaps even schizophrenia.
3 Cigarettes and mental illness have always tended to go together. An estimated 1.25 billion people smoke worldwide. Yet people who are depressed or anxious are twice as likely to smoke, and up to 88 per cent of those with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia smokers. A recent American survey concluded that around half of all cigarettes burn in the fingers of those with mental illness.
4 But the big question is why? The usual story is that the illness comes first. Mentally ill people take up smoking, or smoke more to alleviate some of their distress. Even when smoking seems to start before the illness, most doctors believe that early but invisible symptoms of the disorder spark the desire to light up. But perhaps something more sinister is going on.
5 A growing number of researchers claim that smoking is the cause, not the consequence of clinical depression and several forms of anxiety. "We know a lot about the effects of smoking on physical health, and now we are also starting to see the adverse effects in new research on mental illness," says Naomi Breslau, director of research at the Henry Ford Health Care System in Detroit.
6 Breslau was one of the first to consider this heretical possibility. The hint came from studies, published in 1998, which followed a group of just over 1,000 young adults for a five-year period. The 13 per cent who began the study with major depression were around three times more likely to progress from being light smokers to daily smokers during the course of the study, though there was no evidence that depression increased the tendency to take up smoking. But a history of daily smoking before the study commenced roughly doubled the risk of developing major depression during the five year period Smoking, it seems, could pre-date illness.
7 At first Breslau concluded that whatever prompts people to smoke might also make them depressed. But as the results of other much larger studies began to back the statistical link, she became more convinced than ever that what she was seeing were signs that smoking, perhaps the nicotine itself, could somehow affect the brain and cause depression.
8 One of these larger studies was led by Goodman, a pediatrician. She followed the health of two groups of teenagers for a year. the first group of 8,704 adolescents were not depressed, and might or might not. have been smokers, while the second group of 6,947 were highly depressed and had not been smokers in the past month. After a year her team found that although depressed teenagers were more likely to have become heavy smokers, previous experimentation with smoking was the strongest predictor of such behaviour, not the depression itself. What is more important is that teenagers who started Out mentally fit but smoked at least one packet per week during the study were four times more likely to develop depression than their non-smoking peers. Goodman says that depression does not seem to start before cigarette use among teens. "Current cigarette use is however, a powerful determinant of developing high depressive symptoms. "
9 Breslau, too, finds that smokers are as much as four times more likely to have an isolated panic attack and three times more likely to dew, top longer-term panic disorder than non smokers, It's a hard message to get across, because many smokers say they Become anxious when they quit, not when they smoke. But Breslau says that this is a shot lived effect of withdrawal which masks the reality that. in general, smokers have higher anxiety levels than non smokers or ex smokers.
A.Doubt about the usual belief
B.Researcher's opinions divided
C.Positive effects of smoking as advertised
D.close association between depression and smoking
E.Breslau's conclusion supported by another larger study
F.Effect of smoking on mental health initially proved
A.have been proved to be misleading
B.but to their mental health as well
C.taking up smoking
D.involved fewer people
E.they started to smoke at an early age
F.But their level of anxiety increases when they quit smoking
Nowadays many doctors have become aware that smoking is not only a hazard to people's physical health__________[1分]
The cigarette ads which claim that smoking can help soothe anxiety__________.[1分]
Breslau’s study__________than Goodman's but lasted longer.[1分]
To contradict Breslau's conclusion, many smokers say that they are less anxious when they smoke __________[1分]
Swimmers can drown in busy swimming pools when lifeguards fail to notice that they are in trouble. The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents says that on average 15 people drown in British pools each year, but many more suffer major injury after getting into difficulties. Now a French company has developed an artificial intelligence system called Poseidon that sounds the alarm when it sees someone in danger of drowning.
When a swimmer sinks towards the bottom of the pool, the new system sends an alarm signal to a poolside monitoring station and a lifeguard's pager. In trials at a pool in Ancenis, near Nantes, it saved a life within just a few months, says Alistair McQuade, a spokesman for its maker, Poseidon Technologies.
Poseidon keeps watch through a network of underwater and overheard video cameras. AI software analyses the images to work out swimmers trajectories. To do this reliably, it has to tell the difference between a swimmer and the shadow of someone being cast onto the bottom or side of the pool. "The underwater environment is a very dynamic one, with many shadows and reflections dancing around. "says McQuade.
The software does this by "projecting" a shape in its field of view onto an image of the far wall of the pool. It does the same with an image from another camera viewing the shape from a different angle.
If the two projections are in the same position, the shape is identified as a shadow and is ignored. But if they are different, the shape is a swimmer and so the system follows its trajectory.
To pick out potential drowning victims, anyone in the water who starts to descend slowly is added to the software's "pre-alert" list, says McQuade. Swimmers who then stay immobile on the pool bottom for 5 seconds or more are considered in danger of drowning. Poseidon double-checks that the image really is of a swimmer, not a shadow, by seeing whether it obscures the pool's floor texture when viewed from overhead. If so, it alerts the lifeguard, showing the swimmer's location on a poolside screen.
The first full-scale Poseidon system will be officially opened next week at a pool in High Wycombe. Buckinghamshire. One man who is impressed with the idea is Travor Baylis, inventor of the clockwork radio. Baylis runs a company that installs swimming pools, and he was once an underwater escapologist with a circus. "I say full marks to them if this works and can save lives," he says. But he adds that any local authority spending 30,000-plus on a Poseidon system ought to be investing similar amounts in teaching children to swim.
AI means the same as[3分]
What is required of AI software to save a life?[3分]
It must keep walking round the pool.
It can distinguish between a swimmer and a shadow.
It can save a life within a few months.
How does Poseidon save a life?[3分]
He plunges into the pool.
Which of the following statements about Trevor Baytis is NOT true?[3分]
He invented the clockwork radio.
He was once an entertainer.
The word "considered" in paragraph 5 could be best replaced by[3分]
第二篇 Can Buildings Be Designed to Resist Terrorist Attack
In the aftermath of the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, structural engineers are trying hard to solve a question that a month ago would have been completely unthinkable : Can building he designed to withstand catastrophic blasts inflicted by terrorists?
Ten days after the terrorist attacks on the twin towers, structural engineers from the University at Buffalo and the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER) headquar-tered at UB traveled to ground zero as part of a project funded by the National Science Foundation.
Visiting the site as part of an MCEER reconnaissance visit, they spent two days beginning the task of formulating ideas about how to design such structures and searching for clues on how to do so in buildings that were damaged, but still are standing.
"Our objective in visiting ground zero was to go and look at the buildings surrounding the World Trade Center, those buildings that are still standing, but that sustained damage," said M. Bruneau, Ph.D. " Our immediate hope is that we can develop a better understanding as to why those buildings remain standing, while our long-term goal is to see whether earthquake engineering technologies can be married to existing technologies to achieve enhanced performance of buildings in the event of terrorist attacks. " he added.
Photographs taken by the investigators demonstrate in startling detail the monumental damage inflicted on the World Trade Center towers and buildings in the vicinity. One building a block away from the towers remains standing, hut was badly damaged. "This building is many meters away from the World Trade Center and yet we see a column there that used to be part of that building ", explained A. Whhittaker,Ph. D. "The column became a missile that shot across the road,through the window and through the floor. "
The visit to the area also revealed some surprises, according to the engineers. For example, the floor framing systems in one of the adjacent buildings was quite rugged, allowing floors that were pierced by ions of falling debris to remain intact. "ttighly redundant ductile framing systems may provide a simple, but robust strategy for blast resistance. " he added. Other strategies may include providing alternate paths for gravity loads in the event that a load bearing column fails. " We also need a better understanding of the mechanism of collapse", said A. Whittaker. "We need to find out what causes a building to collapse and how you can predict it. "
D.noted that "earthquake shaking has led to the collapse of many buildings in the past. h induces dynamic response and extremely high stresses and deformations in structural components.
Solutions developed for earthquake-resistant design may be directly applicable to blast engineering and terrorist resistant design. Part of our mission now at UB is to transfer these solutions and to develop new ones where none exist at present."
The question raised in the first paragraph is one__________[3分]
that was asked by structural engineers a month ago
that is too difficult for structural engineers to answer even now
that was never thought of before the terrorist attack
that terrorists are eager to find a solution to
The project funded by the National Science Foundation__________[3分]
was first proposed by some engineers at UB
took about two days to complete
was to investigate the damage caused by the terrorist attack
was to find out why some buildings could survive the blasts
The column mentioned by Dr. Whittaker__________[3分]
was part of the building close to the World Trade Center
was part of the World Trade Center
was shot through the window and the floor of the World Trade Center
damaged many buildings in the vicinity of the World Trade Center
A surprising discovery made by the investigators during their visit to ground zero is that__________[3分]
floors in the adjacent buildings remain undamaged
some floor framing systems demonstrate resistance to explosion
simple floor framing systems are more blast resistant
floors in one of the adjacent buildings were pierced by tons of debris
What Dr. Reinhorn said in the last paragraph may imply all the following EXCEPT that[3分]
blast engineers should develop new solutions for terror resistant design
blast engineering can borrow technologies developed for terror-resistant design
solutions developed for earthquake resistant design may apply to terrorist resistant design
blast engineering emerges as a new branch of science
h had been boring hanging about the hotel all afternoon. The road crew were playing a game with dollar notes. Folding them into small planes to see whose would fly the furthest. Having nothing betterto do, I joined in and won five.and tben took the opport unity to escape with my profit, Despite the evil
第三篇 To Have and Have Not
looking clouds,I had to get out for a while.
I headed for a shop on the other side of the street. Unlike the others,it didn't have a sign shouting its name and business, and instead of the usual impersonal modern lighting, there was an appealing glow inside. Strangely nothing was displayed in the window. Not put off by this,I went inside.
It took my breath away. I didn't know where to look, where to start. On one wall there hung three hand-stitched American quilts that were in such wonderful condition they might have been newly-made. I came across tin toys and antique furniture, and on the wall in front of me, a 1957 Stratocaster guitar , also in excellent condition. A card pushed between the strings said $ 50. I ran my hand along a long shelf of records, reading their titles. And there was more...
"Can I help you?" She startled me. I hadn't even seen the woman behind the counter come in. The way she looked at me, so directly and with such power. It was a look of such intensity that for a moment I felt as if I were wrapped in some kind of magnetic or electrical field. I found it hard to take and almost turned away. But though it was uncomfortable. I was fascinated by the experience of her looking straight into me, and by the feeling that I was neither a stranger, nor strange, to her.
Besides amusement her expression showed sympathy. It was impossible to tell her age;she reminded me faintly of my grandmother because, although her eyes were friendly, I could see that she was not a woman to fall out with. I spoke at last. 'I was just looking really, ' I said, though secretly wondering how much of the stuff I could cram into the bus.
The woman turned away and went at once towards a back room, indicating that I should follow her. But it in no way lived up to the first room. The light made me feel peculiar, too. It came from an oil lamp that was hung from the centre of the ceiling and created huge shadows over everything. There
were no rare electric guitars, no old necklaces, no hand-painted boxes with delicate flowers. It was also obvious that it must have taken years, decades, to collect so much rubbish, so many old documents arid papers.
I noticed some old books, whose gold lettering had faded, making their titles impossible to read.'They look interesting,' I said, with some hesitation. 'To be able to understand that kind of writing you must first have had a similar experience,' she said clearly. She noted the confused look on my face, but didn't add anything.
She reached up for a small book which she handed to me. 'This is the best book I can give you at the moment, ' she laughed. "If you use it. " I opened the book to find it full. or rather empty, with blank white pages, but paid her the few dollars she asked for it, becoming embarrassed when I realised the notes were still folded into little paper planes. I put the book in my pocket, thanked her and left.
Why did the writer want to leave the hotel?[3分]
To enjoy the good weather.
To have a change of scene.
To spend all his winnings.
To get away from the crew.
What attracted the writer to the shop?[3分]
The lack of a sign or name.
The fact that it was nearby.
The empty window display.
The light coming from inside.
The writer found the stock in the front of the shop[3分]
What was unusual about the way the woman looked at him7[3分]
It made him feel self-conscious.
She was happy to stare at him.
She seemed to know him well.
It made him want to look away.
The writer disliked the back room because[3分]
there was hardly anything in it
she had ordered him to go there
he saw nothing he really liked
it was too dark to look around
Ludwig Van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven, a major composer of the nineteenth century, overcame many personal problems to achieve artistic greatness.
Born in Bonn, Germany, in 1770, be first studied music with the court organist, Gilles vander Eeden. His father was excessively strict and given to heavy drinking. 46 Appointed deputy court organist to Christian Gottlob Neefe at a surprisingly early age in 1782, Beethoven also played the harpsichord and the viola. In 1792 he was sent to Vienna by his patron, Count Ferdinand Waldstein, to study music under Haydn. Beethoven remained unmarried. 47 Continually plagued by ill health, he developed an ear infection which led to his tragic deafness in 1819.
48 . He completed mature masterpieces of great musical depth: three piano sonata, four string quartets, the Missa Solemnis, and the 9th Symphony. He died in 1827. 49
Noting that Beethoven often flew into fits of rage, Goethe once said of him, "I am astonished by his talent, but he is unfortunately an altogether untamed personality." Although Beethoven's personality 50
A.In spite of this handicap, however, he continued to write music.
B.Because of irregular payments from his publishers and erratic support from his patrons, he was troubled by financial worries throughout his adult life.
C.His life was marked by a passionate dedication to independence.
D.When his mother died, Beethoven, then a young man, was named guardian of his two younger brothers.
E.Although Beethoven's personality may have been untamed, his music shows great discipline and control, and this is how we remember him best.
F.Today his music is still being played all over the world.
The Old Gate
In the Middle Ages the vast majority of European cities had walls around them. This was partly for defensive 51 but another factor was the need to keep out anyone regarded as undesirable, like people with contagious 52 . The Old City of London gates were all 53 by the end of the 18th century. The last of London's gates was removed a century ago, but by a 54 of luck, it was never destroyed.
This gate is, in 55 fact, not called a gate at all; its name is Temple Bar, and it marked the 56 between the Old City of London and Westminster. In 1878 the Council of London took the Bar down, numbered the stones and put the gate in 57 because its design was 58 it was expensive to 59 and it was blocking the traffic.
The Temple Bar Trust was 60 in the 1970's with the intention of returning the gate home. The aim of the trust is the 61 of the nation's architectural heritage.
Transporting the gate will mean physically pulling it 62 , stone by stone, removing and rebuilding it near St Paul's Cathedral. Most of the facade of the gate will probably be 63 , though there is a good 64 that the basic structure will be sound. The hardest 65 of all, however, will be to recreate the statues of the monarchs that once stood on top of the gate.