Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a letter. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese:
You will never guess what I am going to tell you in this letter. I have received the letter of admission from Harvard University. This means I am going to do my doctor degree program this fall in America. After years of hard work, I know have finally realized my dream of being able to work in the most advanced laboratory in the world with the most outstanding top scientists in the field of genetic engineering.
I am now very busy preparing for this trip of utmost importance in my life. I spend most of my time improving my oral and aural English. You know I have a good command of written English. In fact, I have written my papers in English, some of which have been published abroad already. But my listening and speaking ability of English is far behind. I am afraid that this poor command of listening and speaking will hinder the effective communication once I am abroad. Can you just suggest any good way of improving my oral English skills quickly? I am a bit anxious recently.
Anyway, I will try my best.
Hope to hear from you soon!
Part II Reading Comprehension (skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1.
For questions 1-7, mark
Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage.
For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Robot Cars to Do Battle in Desert Race
When 15 competitors lined up in Nevada last year for the U.S. Defense Department's first million-dollar robot race, hopes were high. The challenge: to drive a vehicle without a human driver or remote control some 150 miles (241 kilometers) through the Mojave Desert.
But those hopes quickly went up in a cloud of dust as most robots barely managed to get off the starting line. The best performer, a modified Humvee built by engineers at Pennsylvania's Carnegie Mellon University, traveled 7 miles (11 kilometers) before breaking down.
To robot devotees(热爱者), however, it was a minor hiccup.
No surprise, then, that 43 teams showed up to try out for this year's race, dubbed(被称作) the Grand Challenge. For the past week, teams ranging from garage enthusiasts to well-funded university engineers have been fine-tuning their machines at qualifying rounds here at the California Speedway in Fontana, California. (Watch the robots in action in our exclusive video.)
Twenty-three finalists were announced Thursday for Saturday's Grand Challenge. The 175-mile (282-kilometer) course starts and finishes in Primm, Nevada.
The race promises to be even tougher than last year's run. But 18 months is an eternity in the robotics world, and the technology has vastly improved.
Organizers believe several teams have a real shot of finishing the race in less than ten hours to earn the grand prize of two million U.S. dollars.
"When the first team out of the chute(斜道)—Mojavaton, a small team out of Colorado—made it successfully around the 2.2-mile (3.5-kilometer) qualification course, I knew right there and then that we had something special," said Ron Kurjanowicz, the chief of staff for the Pentagon's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), which is sponsoring the race.
The aim of the Grand Challenge, Defense Department officials say, is to spur development of autonomous ground vehicles that can operate in dangerous environments, such as war zones, keeping soldiers out of harm's way.
A U.S. Congress mandate(训令)requires that one-third of military ground vehicles drive themselves by 2015, but the technology to meet that mandate does not yet exist.
So the government looked to enterprising teams to develop the technology for driverless vehicles, sweetening its offer with the two-million-dollar purse.
None of the 23 teams knows what lies ahead for this year's race. DARPA won't reveal the exact route until two hours before the start of the race on Saturday.
But the obstacles on the Fontana qualification course-including a steel—enforced tunnel that wipes out a vehicle's global positioning system—are made to resemble the rugged, real-life conditions that the vehicles will have to navigate.
The vehicles use sensors such as lasers, cameras, and radar to help them avoid obstacles such as rocks and cliffs. The computer's brain has to figure out how to resolve unexpected conflicts, like a boulder sitting in the middle of the road.
"Think about all the decisions that you and I have to make when we drive from our house to the store," Kurjanowicz said. "These vehicles have to do the same thing, without a driver."
Among the top contenders in Saturday's race is TerraMax, a massive truck originally built by the Wisconsin-based Oshkosh Truck Corporation for the U.S. Marine corps.
In last year's race, TerraMax managed to go only 1.2 miles (2 kilometers). Team leader Gary Schmiedel expects to do much better this year. He pointed to the new all-wheel steering feature on the truck as an important addition.
"We can move this large, 15-ton (13.5-metric ton) payload vehicle in a turn that's equivalent to that of a Humvee," he said.
The resources of teams like TerraMax or Carnegie Mellon University, which has two vehicles in the race this year, are a far cry from those of some of the other competitors, including inventors, electricians, and even a high school team.
One entry, from a Southern California team of engineers, racers, and hot-rodders, is called It Came From the Garage. It has a beer keg(小桶)stuck on the back and an on-off switch that says "brain."
"Most of the schools and organizations we're up against are just accessorizing conventional vehicles," said team leader Chris "C.J." Pedersen, a former actor. "Our [vehicle] is a custom-built, 21st-century hot rod... complete with hood scoop and exhaust coming off the side."
Anthony Levandowski, a robotics builder from Berkeley, California, is back with Ghostrider, the only motorcycle robot in the qualifications. Studded with sensors and computers, it toppled (翻倒)over after 3 feet (1 meter) in last year's race.
Levandowski, who had to postpone his graduate studies when he couldn't find a faculty advisor who believed it would be possible to build the motorcycle robot, says his vehicle has some distinct advantages.
"We're smaller and go a lot more places," he said while tinkering with the robot before another trial run. "We're also a lot less expensive. This bike costs as much as a tire or a wheel of some of these other guys' machines."
Neither Ghostrider nor It Came From the Garage made the final cut this week's qualifying races.
However, another crowd-pleaser, Cajunbot—or the Ragin' Cajun—a converted all-terrain vehicle developed by a team from the University of Louisiana in Lafayette, did.
The smart money in Saturday's race may be on Stanley, a converted Volkswagen Touareg made by a team at California's Stanford University. It was the only vehicle that didn't hit an obstacle in the trial runs.
Even if none of the vehicles finishes the race this year, DARPA's Kurjanowicz said, the event has succeeded in galvanizing robotics developers and pushing the creation of new technologies.
"The beauty of the Grand Challenge is that it doesn't tell people how to solve the problem," he said. "The community has come up with its own elegant solutions."
The passage mainly describes the advantages and disadvantages of robot car races.[1分]
Last year's robot race in Nevada was a great success.[1分]
It is a surprise that up to 43 teams came for this year's race called the Grand Challenge.[1分]
The Pentagon's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency(DARPA) is sponsoring the race.[1分]
The aim of the Grand Challenge is to spur development of autonomous ground vehicles.[1分]
Ghostrider and It Came From the Garage both made the final cut at this week's qualifying races.[1分]
TerraMax will finish the race and win the grand prize of two million U.S. dollars.[1分]
The obstacles on the Fontana qualification course are made to resemble the ________________.[1分]
The only motorcycle robot in the qualifications is ________________.[1分]
The only vehicle that didn't hit an obstacle in the trial runs is ________________.[1分]
Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D], and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
The man shouldn't expect her to go along.
She doesn't think she has enough money.
She'll go even though the movie is bad.
The man should count the number of people going.
She wasn't really studying.
She hadn't finished writing her articles.
She had furnished her house.
She could write beautifully.
The problem may have been a very complicated one.
The woman thinks that the problem is too easy.
The man can solve the problem himself.
The janitor is too busy to do his work.
The sanitary conditions of an apartment.
The relationship between the janitor and the two speakers.
The architecture of a building.
He can't tear either piece of cloth.
He wants part of each piece of cloth.
The pieces of cloth are made by a secret process.
The pieces of cloth seem identical to him.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Memories of a recent storm.
How strong winds develop into a hurricane.
Weather patterns that can affect Florida.
Planning a summer vacation.
Late summer is sunny season.
Late summer is hurricane season.
Late summer is rainy season.
Late summer is cloudy season.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Her professor did not like her story.
She had trouble finishing her assignment.
She did not like the topic she had chosen for her paper.
She was taking too many courses.
Do some work for another course.
Write the story ending first.
To do research for her story.
To meet with her professor.
To take a break from her work.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Given by the local government.
Born by a large number of bitches.
Bought from different cities and villages.
11-week course for control duty.
11-week course for patrol duty.
9-week course for control duty.
9-week course for patrol duty.
Catching runaway criminals.
Scratching the hidden bombs.
Patrolling the dangerous town.
Drug-sniffing or bomb-sniffing.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
The transcontinental railroad was completed.
The golden Gate Bridge was constructed.
Telegraph communications were established with the East.
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Computers have become part of our daily lives.
Computers have advantages as well as disadvantages.
People have different attitudes to computers.
More and more families will own computers.
Computers can bring financial problems.
Computers can bring unemployment.
Computers can be very useful in families.
Computerized robots can take over some unpleasant jobs.
Computers may change the life they have been accustomed to.
Spending too much time on computers may spoil people's relationship.
Buying computers may cost a lot of money.
Computers may take over human beings altogether.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blank, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
Development banks are international lending groups. They lend money to developing countries to help fuel economic growth and social (36) ________. They are not part of the World Bank, the International (37) ________ Fund or the United Nations. The money comes from member countries and borrowing on world markets.
Development banks provide long-term loans at market (38) ________. They provide even longer-term loans at below-market interest rates. These banks also provide technical (39) ________ and (40) ________.
There are four main ones. The oldest is the Inter-American Development Bank in Washington, D.C. It began in 1959. President Juscelino Kubitschek of Brazil had (41) ________ a bank to aid economic growth in the Americas. The (42) ________ of American States agreed. Today the bank is worth over 100,000 million dollars. It holds only 4 percent of that. The other money is (43) ________ by its members. (44) ________________________________________. 26 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean borrow from the bank.
The African Development Bank has its roots in an agreement signed in Sudan in 1963. It is based in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. (45) ________________________________________. The country with the most votes in the bank is Nigeria, followed as of July by the United States, Japan and Egypt.
The Asian Development Bank started in 1966. It is based in Manila, in the Philippines. There are 63 members, mostly in Asia. (46) ________________________________________.
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage
A sunflower is a sunflower. A mobile phone is a mobile phone. But can you 47 the two to do something for your local 48 ?
It may well be possible. When you have finished with your mobile phone you will be able to 49 it in the garden or a plant pot and wait for it to flower.
50 , a biodegradable (生物可降解的)mobile phone was introduced by scientists. It is hoped that the new type of phone will encourage 51 to recycle.
Scientists have come up with a new material over the last five years. It looks like any other 52 and can be hard or soft. and able to change shape. Overtime it can also break down into the soil without giving out any toxic 53 . British researchers used the new material to develop a phone cover that contains a sunflower seed. When this new type of cover turns into waste, it 54 nitrates(硝酸盐). These feed the seed and help the flower grow.
Engineers have designed a small 55 window to hold the seed. They have made sure it only grows when the phone is thrown away.
"We've only put sunflower seeds into the covers so far. But we are working with plant 56 to find out which flowers would perform best. Maybe we could put roses in next time," said one scientist.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
It is difficult to imagine what life would be like without memory. The meanings of thousands of everyday perceptions, the basis for the decisions we make, and the roots of our habits and skills are to be found in our past experiences, which are brought into the present by memory.
Memory can be defined as the capacity to keep information available for later use. It not only includes "remembering" things like arithmetic or historical facts, but also involves any change in the way an animal typically behaves. Memory is involved when a rat gives up eating grain because he has sniffed (嗅出)something suspicious in the grain pile.
Memory exists not only in humans and animals but also in some physical objects and machines. Computers, for example, contain devices for storing data for later use. It is interesting to compare the memory storage capacity of a computer with that of a human being. The instant access memory of a large computer may hold up to 100,000 "words"—string of alphabetic or numerical characters—ready for instant use. An average U.S. teenager probably recognizes the meaning of about 100,000 words of English. However, this is but a fraction of the total amount of information that the teenager has stored. Consider, for example, the number of faces and places that the teenager can recognize on sight.
The use of words is the basis of the advanced problem-solving intelligence of human beings. A large part of a person's memory is in terms of words and combinations of words. But while language greatly expands the number and the king of things a person can remember, it also requires a huge memory capacity. It may well be this capacity that distinguishes humans, setting them apart from other animals.
Which of the following is TRUE about memory?[1分]
It helps us perceive things happening around us every day.
It is based on the decisions we made in the past.
It is rooted in our past habits and skills.
It connects our past experiences with the present.
According to the passage, memory is helpful in one's life in the following aspects EXCEPT that ________.[1分]
it involves a change in one's behavior
it keeps information for later use
it warns people not to do things repeatedly
it enables one to remember events that happened in the past
What is the author's view about computers and human beings in terms of intelligence?[1分]
Computers have better memory than a child does.
Computers are as intelligent as a teenager is.
Computers can understand as many as 100,000 words.
Human beings are far superior to computers.
What is the major characteristic of man's memory capacity according to the author?[1分]
It can be expanded by language.
It can remember all the combined words.
It may keep all the information in the past.
It may change what has been stored in it.
Human beings make themselves different from other animals by _______.[1分]
having the ability to perceive danger
having a far greater memory capacity
having the ability to recognize faces and places on sight
having the ability to draw on past experiences
Questions 62 to 66 are based in the following passage.
"Family" is of course an elastic word. But when British people say that their society is based on family life, they are thinking of "family" in its narrow, peculiarly European sense of mother, father and children living together alone in their own house as an economic and social unit. Thus, every British marriage indicates the beginning of a new and independent family— hence the tremendous importance of marriage in British life.
For both the man and the woman, marriage means leaving one's parents and starting one's own life. The man's first duty will then be to his wife, and the wife's to her husband. He will be entirely responsible for her financial support, and she for the running of the new home. Their children will be their common responsibility and theirs alone. Neither the wife's parents nor the husband's, nor their brothers or sisters, aunts or uncles, have any right to interfere with them—they are their own masters.
Readers of novels like Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice will know that in former times marriage among wealthy families was arranged by the girl's parents, that is, it was the parents' duty to find a suitable husband for their daughter, preferably a rich one, and by skillful encouragement to lead him eventually to ask their permission to marry her. Until that time, the girl was protected and maintained in the parents' home, and the financial relief of getting rid of her could be seen in their giving the newly married pair a sum of money called a dowry(嫁妆). It is very different today. Most girls of today get a job when they leave school and become financially independent before their marriage. This has had two results: a girl chooses her own husband, and she gets no dowry.
What does the author mean by "'Family' is of course an elastic word"?[1分]
Different families have different ways of life.
Different definitions could be given to the word.
Different nations have different families.
Different times produce different families.
For an English family, the husband's duty is ________.[1分]
supporting the family while the wife is financial
defending the family while the wife is running the home
financial while the wife is running the home
independent while the wife is dependent
Everything is decided in a family ________.[1分]
with the help of their parents
with the help of aunts and uncles
What is TRUE concerning the book Pride and Prejudice?[1分]
It is the best book on marriage.
It is a handbook of marriage.
It gives quite some ideas of English social life in the past.
It provides a lot of information of former time wealthy families.
With regard to marriage in Britain, present day girls differ from former time girls in ________.[1分]
Part V Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [d] on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
An adult giraffe's head is about six feet above its heart. This means that to 67 enough blood up to the brain the circulatory 68 must be strong enough to keep the blood at very high pressure.
Biologists have known for some time that giraffes solve this problem by having 69 high blood pressure, about 70 that of human beings. But an international team of biologists began to 71 about this. If giraffes have such high blood pressure, they should have a 72 problem with swelling in their legs and feet. Why don't giraffes have swollen feet?
Giraffes should have 73 problem, too. Every time they bend heads 74 to drink, the blood should 75 to their heads and have a hard time 76 back up (when the head is down) to the heart. How come giraffes don't black out when they drink?
The answer to the 77 feet problem, the researchers found, is that giraffes have 78 the researchers call a "natural anti-gravity suit". It 79 out that the skin and other 80 in their legs and feet are 81 stiffer and tougher than those of other 82 . As a result, the blood vessels in the leg cannot swell.
Therefore, the blood has nowhere to go but back to the heart. What about blood rushing to the head 83 the giraffe bends down to drink? The researchers found that the giraffe's jugular vein, which 84 blood from the head back to the heart, has lots of one-way valves in it. In the giraffe's neck, there are lots of muscles that flex and relax repeatedly as the animal moves its head and sucks 85 drinking water. By squeezing the valved jugular vein, they 86 blood moving back to the heart even while the animal is drinking.
Part VI Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentences on Answer Sheet 2 by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.
Living in the desert has many problems, ________________________(缺水并不是惟一的问题).[2分]
The production ________________________ (增加到每月500吨)by the end of this month.[2分]
Some children put much emphasis ________________________(有足够的钱以便到外面去痛快享受).[2分]
The students now ________________________ (宁愿上网,也不愿意到图书馆去看书).[2分]