TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS (2010)
PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION (35 MIN)
SECTION A MINI-LECTURE
In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task after the mini-lecture. When the lecture is over, you will be given two minutes to check your notes, and another ten minutes to complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE. Use the blank sheet for note-taking.
The content Missing
SECTION B INTERVIEW
In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
Questions 1 to 5 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.
Now listen to the interview.
According to Dr Johnson, diversity means[0.5分]
merging of different cultural identities.
more emphasis on homogeneity.
embracing of more ethnic differences.
acceptance of more branches of Christianity.
According to the interview, which of the following statements in CORRECT?[0.5分]
Some places are more diverse than others.
Towns are less diverse than large cities.
Diversity can be seen everywhere.
American is a truly diverse country.
According to Dr Johnson, which place will witness a radical change in its racial makeup by 2025?[0.5分]
During the interview Dr Johnson indicates that[0.5分]
greater racial diversity exists among younger populations.
both older and younger populations are racially diverse.
age diversity could lead to pension problems.
older populations are more racially diverse.
According to the interview, religious diversity[0.5分]
was most evident between 1990 and 2000.
exists among Muslim immigrants.
is restricted to certain places in the US.
is spreading to more parts of the country.
SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST
In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your coloured answer sheet.
Question 6 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the question.
Now listen to the news.
What is the main idea of the news item?[0.5分]
Sony developed a computer chip for cell phones.
Japan will market its wallet phone abroad.
The wallet phone is one of the wireless innovations.
Reader devices are available at stores and stations.
Question 7 and 8 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the questions.
Now listen to the news.
Which of the following is mentioned as the government’s measure to control inflation?[0.5分]
According to Kingdom Bank, what is the current inflation rate in Zimbabwe?[0.5分]
Over 11.2 million percent.
Question 9 and 10 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the question.
Now listen to the news.
Which of the following is CORRECT?[0.5分]
A big fire erupted on the Nile River.
Helicopters were used to evacuate people.
Five people were taken to hospital for burns.
A big fire took place on two floors.
The likely cause of the big fire is[0.5分]
lack of fire-satefy measures.
PART II READING COMPREHENSION (30 MIN)
In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of 20 multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet.
Still, the image of any city has a half-life of many years. (So does its name, officially changed in 2001 from Calcutta to Kolkata, which is closer to what the word sounds like in Bengali. Conversing in English, I never heard anyone call the city anything but Calcutta.) To Westerners, the conveyance most identified with Kolkata is not its modern subway—a facility whose spacious stations have art on the walls and cricket matches on television monitors—but the hand-pulled rickshaw. Stories and films celebrate a primitive-looking cart with high wooden wheels, pulled by someone who looks close to needing the succor of Mother Teresa. For years the government has been talking about eliminating hand-pulled rickshaws on what it calls humanitarian grounds—principally on the ground that, as the mayor of Kolkata has often said, it is offensive to see “one man sweating and straining to pull another man.” But these days politicians also lament the impact of 6,000 hand-pulled rickshaws on a modern city’s traffic and, particularly, on its image. “Westerners try to associate beggars and these rickshaws with the Calcutta landscape, but this is not what Calcutta stands for,” the chief minister of West Bengal, Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, said in a press conference in 2006. “Our city stands for prosperity and development.” The chief minister—the equivalent of a state governor—went on to announce that hand-pulled rickshaws soon would be banned from the streets of Kolkata.
Rickshaws are not there to haul around tourists. (Actually, I saw almost no tourists in Kolkata, apart from the young backpackers on Sudder Street, in what used to be a red-light district and is now said to be the single place in the city where the services a rickshaw puller offers may include providing female company to a gentleman for the evening.) It’s the people in the lanes who most regularly use rickshaws—not the poor but people who are just a notch above the poor. They are people who tend to travel short distances, through lanes that are sometimes inaccessible to even the most daring taxi driver. An older woman with marketing to do, for instance, can arrive in a rickshaw, have the rickshaw puller wait until she comes back from various stalls to load her purchases, and then be taken home. People in the lanes use rickshaws as a 24-hour ambulance service. Proprietors of cafés or corner stores send rickshaws to collect their supplies. (One morning I saw a rickshaw puller take on a load of live chickens—tied in pairs by the feet so they could be draped over the shafts and the folded back canopy and even the axle. By the time he trotted off, he was carrying about a hundred upside-down chickens.) The rickshaw pullers told me their steadiest customers are schoolchildren. Middle-class families contract with a puller to take a child to school and pick him up; the puller essentially becomes a family retainer.
From June to September Kolkata can get torrential rains, and its drainage system doesn’t need torrential rain to begin backing up. Residents who favor a touch of hyperbole say that in Kolkata “if a stray cat pees, there’s a flood.” During my stay it once rained for about 48 hours. Entire neighborhoods couldn’t be reached by motorized vehicles, and the newspapers showed pictures of rickshaws being pulled through water that was up to the pullers’ waists. When it’s raining, the normal customer base for rickshaw pullers expands greatly, as does the price of a journey. A writer in Kolkata told me, “When it rains, even the governor takes rickshaws.”
While I was in Kolkata, a magazine called India Today published its annual ranking of Indian states, according to such measurements as prosperity and infrastructure. Among India’s 20 largest states, Bihar finished dead last, as it has for four of the past five years. Bihar, a couple hundred miles north of Kolkata, is where the vast majority of rickshaw pullers come from. Once in Kolkata, they sleep on the street or in their rickshaws or in a dera—a combination garage and repair shop and dormitory managed by someone called a sardar. For sleeping privileges in a dera, pullers pay 100 rupees (about $2.50) a month, which sounds like a pretty good deal until you’ve visited a dera. They gross between 100 and 150 rupees a day, out of which they have to pay 20 rupees for the use of the rickshaw and an occasional 75 or more for a payoff if a policeman stops them for, say, crossing a street where rickshaws are prohibited. A 2003 study found that rickshaw pullers are near the bottom of Kolkata occupations in income, doing better than only the ragpickers and the beggars. For someone without land or education, that still beats trying to make a living in Bihar.
There are people in Kolkata, particularly educated and politically aware people, who will not ride in a rickshaw, because they are offended by the idea of being pulled by another human being or because they consider it not the sort of thing people of their station do or because they regard the hand-pulled rickshaw as a relic of colonialism. Ironically, some of those people are not enthusiastic about banning rickshaws. The editor of the editorial pages of Kolkata’s Telegraph—Rudrangshu Mukherjee, a former academic who still writes history books—told me, for instance, that he sees humanitarian considerations as coming down on the side of keeping hand-pulled rickshaws on the road. “I refuse to be carried by another human being myself,” he said, “but I question whether we have the right to take away their livelihood.” Rickshaw supporters point out that when it comes to demeaning occupations, rickshaw pullers are hardly unique in Kolkata.
When I asked one rickshaw puller if he thought the government’s plan to rid the city of rickshaws was based on a genuine interest in his welfare, he smiled, with a quick shake of his head—a gesture I interpreted to mean, “If you are so naive as to ask such a question, I will answer it, but it is not worth wasting words on.” Some rickshaw pullers I met were resigned to the imminent end of their livelihood and pin their hopes on being offered something in its place. As migrant workers, they don’t have the political clout enjoyed by, say, Kolkata’s sidewalk hawkers, who, after supposedly being scaled back at the beginning of the modernization drive, still clog the sidewalks, selling absolutely everything—or, as I found during the 48 hours of rain, absolutely everything but umbrellas. “The government was the government of the poor people,” one sardar told me. “Now they shake hands with the capitalists and try to get rid of poor people.”
But others in Kolkata believe that rickshaws will simply be confined more strictly to certain neighborhoods, out of the view of World Bank traffic consultants and California investment delegations—or that they will be allowed to die out naturally as they’re supplanted by more modern conveyances. Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, after all, is not the first high West Bengal official to say that rickshaws would be off the streets of Kolkata in a matter of months. Similar statements have been made as far back as 1976. The ban decreed by Bhattacharjee has been delayed by a court case and by a widely held belief that some retraining or social security settlement ought to be offered to rickshaw drivers. It may also have been delayed by a quiet reluctance to give up something that has been part of the fabric of the city for more than a century. Kolkata, a resident told me, “has difficulty letting go.” One day a city official handed me a report from the municipal government laying out options for how rickshaw pullers might be rehabilitated.
“Which option has been chosen?” I asked, noting that the report was dated almost exactly a year before my visit.
“That hasn’t been decided,” he said.
“When will it be decided?”
“That hasn’t been decided,” he said.
According to the passage, rickshaws are used in Kolkata mainly for the following EXCEPT[2分]
taking foreign tourists around the city.
providing transport to school children.
carrying store supplies and purchases
carrying people over short distances.
Which of the following statements best describes the rickshaw pullers from Bihar?[2分]
They come from a relatively poor area.
They are provided with decent accommodation.
Their living standards are very low in Kolkata.
They are often caught by policemen in the streets.
That “For someone without land or education, that still beats trying to make a living in Bihar” (4 paragraph) means that even so,[2分]
the poor prefer to work and live in Bihar.
the poor from Bihar fare better than back home.
the poor never try to make a living in Bihar.
the poor never seem to resent their life in Kolkata.
We can infer from the passage that some educated and politically aware people[2分]
hold mixed feelings towards rickshaws.
strongly support the ban on rickshaws.
call for humanitarian actions fro rickshaw pullers.
keep quiet on the issue of banning rickshaws.
Which of the following statements conveys the author’s sense of humor?[2分]
“…not the poor but people who are just a notch above the poor.” (2 paragraph)
“…,.which sounds like a pretty good deal until you’ve visited a dera.” (4 paragraph)
Kolkata, a resident told me, “ has difficulty letting go.” (7 paragraph).
“…or, as I found during the 48 hours of rain, absolutely everything but umbrellas.” (6 paragraph)
The dialogue between the author and the city official at the end of the passage seems to suggest[2分]
the uncertainty of the court’s decision.
the inefficiency of the municipal government.
the difficulty of finding a good solution.
the slowness in processing options.
Depending on whom you believe, the average American will, over a lifetime, wait in lines for two years (says National Public Radio) or five years (according to customer-loyalty experts).
The crucial word is average, as wealthy Americans routinely avoid lines altogether. Once the most democratic of institutions, lines are rapidly becoming the exclusive province of suckers(people who still believe in and practice waiting in lines). Poor suckers, mostly.
Airports resemble France before the Revolution: first-class passengers enjoy "élite" security lines and priority boarding, and disembark before the unwashed in coach, held at bay by a flight attendant, are allowed to foul the Jetway.
At amusement parks, too, you can now buy your way out of line. This summer I haplessly watched kids use a $52 Gold Flash Pass to jump the lines at Six Flags New England, and similar systems are in use in most major American theme parks, from Universal Orlando to Walt Disney World, where the haves get to watch the have-mores breeze past on their way to their seats.
Flash Pass teaches children a valuable lesson in real-world economics: that the rich are more important than you, especially when it comes to waiting. An NBA player once said to me, with a bemused chuckle of disbelief, that when playing in Canada--get this--"we have to wait in the same customs line as everybody else."
Almost every line can be breached for a price. In several U.S. cities this summer, early arrivers among the early adopters waiting to buy iPhones offered to sell their spots in the lines. On Craigslist, prospective iPhone purchasers offered to pay "waiters" or "placeholders" to wait in line for them outside Apple stores.
Inevitably, some semi-populist politicians have seen the value of sort-of waiting in lines with the ordinary people. This summer Philadelphia mayor John Street waited outside an AT&T store from 3:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. before a stand-in from his office literally stood in for the mayor while he conducted official business. And billionaire New York mayor Michael Bloomberg often waits for the subway with his fellow citizens, though he's first driven by motorcade past the stop nearest his house to a station 22 blocks away, where the wait, or at least the ride, is shorter.
As early as elementary school, we're told that jumping the line is an unethical act, which is why so many U.S. lawmakers have framed the immigration debate as a kind of fundamental sin of the school lunch line. Alabama Senator Richard Shelby, to cite just one legislator, said amnesty would allow illegal immigrants "to cut in line ahead of millions of people."
Nothing annoys a national lawmaker more than a person who will not wait in line, unless that line is in front of an elevator at the U.S. Capitol, where Senators and Representatives use private elevators, lest they have to queue with their constituents.
But compromising the integrity of the line is not just antidemocratic, it's out-of-date. There was something about the orderly boarding of Noah's Ark, two by two, that seemed to restore not just civilization but civility during the Great Flood.
How civil was your last flight? Southwest Airlines has first-come, first-served festival seating. But for $5 per flight, an unaffiliated company called BoardFirst.com will secure you a coveted "A" boarding pass when that airline opens for online check-in 24 hours before departure. Thus, the savvy traveler doesn't even wait in line when he or she is online.
Some cultures are not renowned for lining up. Then again, some cultures are too adept at lining up: a citizen of the former Soviet Union would join a queue just so he could get to the head of that queue and see what everyone was queuing for.
And then there is the U.S., where society seems to be cleaving into two groups: Very Important Persons, who don't wait, and Very Impatient Persons, who do--unhappily.
For those of us in the latter group-- consigned to coach, bereft of Flash Pass, too poor or proper to pay a placeholder --what do we do? We do what Vladimir and Estragon did in Waiting for Godot: "We wait. We are bored."
What does the following sentence mean? “Once the most democratic of institutions, lines are rapidly becoming the exclusive province of suckers…Poor suckers, mostly.” (2 paragraph)[2分]
Lines are symbolic of America’s democracy.
Lines still give Americans equal opportunities.
Lines are now for ordinary Americans only.
Lines are for people with democratic spirit only.
Which of the following is NOT cited as an example of breaching the line?[2分]
Going through the customs at a Canadian airport.
Using Gold Flash Passes in amusement parks.
First-class passenger status at airports.
Purchase of a place in a line from a placeholder.
We can infer from the passage that politicians (including mayors and Congressmen)[2分]
prefer to stand in lines with ordinary people.
advocate the value of waiting in lines.
believe in and practice waiting in lines.
exploit waiting in lines for their own good.
What is the tone of the passage?[2分]
A bus took him to the West End, where, among the crazy coloured fountains of illumination, shattering the blue dusk with green and crimson fire, he found the café of his choice, a tea-shop that had gone mad and turned. Bbylonian, a while palace with ten thousand lights. It towered above the other building like a citadel, which indeed it was, the outpost of a new age, perhaps a new civilization, perhaps a new barbarism; and behind the thin marble front were concrete and steel, just as behind the careless profusion of luxury were millions of pence, balanced to the last halfpenny. Somewhere in the background, hidden away, behind the ten thousand llights and acres of white napery and bewildering glittering rows of teapots, behind the thousand waitresses and cash-box girls and black-coated floor managers and temperamental long-haired violinists, behind the mounds of cauldrons of stewed steak, the vanloads of ices, were a few men who went to work juggling with fractions of a farming, who knew how many units of electricity it took to finish a steak-and-kidney pudding and how many minutes and seconds a waitress( five feet four in height and in average health) would need to carry a tray of given weight from the kitchen life to the table in the far corner. In short, there was a warm, sensuous, vulgar life flowering in the upper storeys, and a cold science working in the basement. Such as the gigantic tea-shop into which Turgis marched, in search not of mere refreshment but of all the enchantment of unfamiliar luxury. Perhaps he knew in his heart that men have conquered half the known world, looted whole kingdoms, and never arrived in such luxury. The place was built for him.
It was built for a great many other people too, and, as usual, they were al there. It seemed with humanity. The marble entrance hall, piled dizzily with bonbons and cakes, was as crowded and bustling as a railway station. The gloom and grime of the streets, the raw air, all November, were at once left behind, forgotten: the atmosphere inside was golden, tropical, belonging to some high mid-summer of confectionery. Disdaining the lifts, Turgis, once more excited by the sight, sound, and smell of it all, climbed the wide staircase until he reached his favourite floor, whre an orchestra, led by a young Jewish violinist with wandering lustrous eyes and a passion for tremolo effects, acted as a magnet to a thousand girls, scented air, the sensuous clamour of the strings; and, as he stood hesitating a moment, half dazed, there came, bowing, s sleek grave man, older than he was and far more distinguished than he could ever hope to be, who murmured deferentially: “ For one, sir? This way, please,” Shyly, yet proudly, Turgis followed him.
That “behind the thin marble front were concrete and steel” suggests that[2分]
modern realistic commercialism existed behind the luxurious appearance.
there was a fundamental falseness in the style and the appeal of the café..
the architect had made a sensible blend of old and new building materials.
the café was based on physical foundations and real economic strength.
The following words or phrases are somewhat critical of the tea-shop EXCEPT[2分]
“perhaps a new barbarism’.
“balanced to the last halfpenny”.
In its context the statement that “ the place was built for him” means that the café was intended to[2分]
please simple people in a simple way.
exploit gullible people like him.
satisfy a demand that already existed.
provide relaxation for tired young men.
Which of the following statements about the second paragraph is NOT true?[2分]
The café appealed to most senses simultaneously.
The café was both full of people and full of warmth.
The inside of the café was contrasted with the weather outside.
It stressed the commercial determination of the café owners.
The following are comparisons made by the author in the second paragraph EXCEPT that[2分]
the entrance hall is compared to a railway station.
the orchestra is compared to a magnet.
Turgis welcomed the lift like a conquering soldier.
the interior of the café is compared to warm countries.
The author’s attitude to the café is[2分]
I Now elsewhere in the world, Iceland may be spoken of, somewhat breathlessly, as western Europe’s last pristine wilderness. But the environmental awareness that is sweeping the world had bypassed the majority of Icelanders. Certainly they were connected to their land, the way one is complicatedly connected to, or encumbered by, family one can’t do anything about. But the truth is, once you’re off the beat-en paths of the low-lying coastal areas where everyone lives, the roads are few, and they’re all bad, so Iceland’s natural wonders have been out of reach and unknown even to its own inhab-itants. For them the land has always just been there, something that had to be dealt with and, if possible, exploited—the mind-set being one of land as commodity rather than land as, well, priceless art on the scale of the “Mona Lisa.”
When the opportunity arose in 2003 for the national power company to enter into a 40-year contract with the American aluminum company Alcoa to supply hydroelectric power for a new smelter, those who had been dreaming of some-thing like this for decades jumped at it and never looked back. Iceland may at the moment be one of the world’s richest countries, with a 99 percent literacy rate and long life expectancy. But the proj-ect’s advocates, some of them getting on in years, were more emotionally attuned to the country’s century upon century of want, hardship, and colonial servitude to Denmark, which officially had ended only in 1944 and whose psychological imprint remained relatively fresh. For the longest time, life here had meant little more than a sod hut, dark all winter, cold, no hope, children dying left and right, earthquakes, plagues, starvation, volcanoes erupting and destroying all vegeta-tion and livestock, all spirit—a world revolving almost entirely around the welfare of one’s sheep and, later, on how good the cod catch was. In the outlying regions, it still largely does.
Ostensibly, the Alcoa project was intended to save one of these dying regions—the remote and sparsely populated east—where the way of life had steadily declined to a point of desperation and gloom. After fishing quotas were imposed in the early 1980s to protect fish stocks, many indi-vidual boat owners sold their allotments or gave them away, fishing rights ended up mostly in the hands of a few companies, and small fishermen were virtually wiped out. Technological advances drained away even more jobs previously done by human hands, and the people were seeing every-thing they had worked for all their lives turn up worthless and their children move away. With the old way of life doomed, aluminum projects like this one had come to be perceived, wisely or not, as a last chance. “Smelter or death.”
The contract with Alcoa would infuse the re-gion with foreign capital, an estimated 400 jobs, and spin-off service industries. It also was a way for Iceland to develop expertise that potentially could be sold to the rest of the world; diversify an economy historically dependent on fish; and, in an appealing display of Icelandic can-do verve, perhaps even protect all of Iceland, once and for all, from the unpredictability of life itself.
“We have to live,” Halldór Ásgrímsson said in his sad, sonorous voice. Halldór, a former prime minister and longtime member of parliament from the region, was a driving force behind the project. “We have a right to live.”
According to the passage, most Icelanders view land as something of[2分]
potential value for tourism.
great value for livelihood.
What is Iceland’s old-aged advocates’ feeling towards the Alcoa project?[2分]
Iceland is wealthy enough to reject the project.
The project would lower life expectancy.
The project would cause environmental problems.
The project symbolizes and end to the colonial legacies.
The disappearance of the old way of life was due to all the following EXCEPT[2分]
migration of young people.
impostion of fishing quotas.
The 4 paragraph in the passage[2分]
sums up the main points of the passage.
starts to discuss an entirely new point.
elaborates on the last part of the 3 paragraph.
continues to depict the bleak economic situation.
PART III GENERAL KNOWLEDGE (10 MIN)
There are ten multiple-choice questions in this section. Choose the best answer to each question. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
Which of the following statements in INCORRECT?[1分]
The British constitution includes the Magna Carta of 1215.
The British constitution includes Parliamentary acts.
The British constitution includes decisions made by courts of law.
The British constitution includes one single written constitution.
The first city ever founded in Canada is[1分]
When did the Australian Federation officially come into being?[1分]
The Emancipation Proclamation to end the slavery plantation system in the South of the U.S. was issued by[1分]
________ is best known for the technique of dramatic monologue in his poems..[1分]
The Financier is written by[1分]
In literature a story in verse or prose with a double meaning is defined as[1分]
________ refers to the learning and development of a language.[1分]
The word “ Motel” comes from “motor + hotel”. This is an example of ________ in morphology.[1分]
Language is t tool of communication. The symbol “ Highway Closed” on a highway serves[1分]
Part IV Proofreading & Error Correction (15 min)
The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:
For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a "∧" sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For a unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.
When ∧ art museum wants a new exhibit,
it ╱never buys things in finished form and hangs
them on the wall. When a natural history
museum wants an exhibition, it must often build it. 1________an
So far as we can tell, all human languages are equally complete and perfect as instruments of communication: that is, every language appears to be well equipped as any other to say the things their speakers want to say.
There may or may not be appropriate to talk about primitive peoples or cultures, but that is another matter. Certainly, not all groups of people are equally competent in nuclear physics or psychology or the cultivation of rice or the engraving of Benares brass. Whereas this is not the fault of their language. The Eskimos can speak about snow with a great deal more precision and subtlety than we can in English, but this is not because the Eskimo language (one of those sometimes miscalled 'primitive') is inherently more precise and subtle than English. This example does not come to light a defect in English, a show of unexpected 'primitiveness'. The position is simply and obviously that the Eskimos and the English live in similar environments. The English language will be just as rich in terms for similar kinds of snow, presumably, if the environments in which English was habitually used made such distinction as important.
Similarly, we have no reason to doubt that the Eskimo language could be as precise and subtle on the subject of motor manufacture or cricket if these topics formed the part of the Eskimos' life. For obvious historical reasons, Englishmen in the nineteenth century could not talk about motorcars with the minute discrimination which is possible today: cars were not a part of their culture. But they had a host of terms for horse-drawn vehicles which send us, puzzled, to a historical dictionary when we are reading Scott or Dickens. How many of us could distinguish between a chaise, a landau, a victoria, a brougham, a coupe, a gig, a diligence, a whisky, a calash, a tilbury, a carriole, a phaeton, and a clarence ?
PART V TRANSLATION (60 MIN)
SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH
Translate the underlined part of the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
朋友关系的存续是以相互尊重为前提的, 容不得半点强求､干涉和控制｡朋友之间, 情趣相投､脾气对味则合､则交; 反之, 则离､则绝｡朋友之间再熟悉, 再亲密, 也不能随便过头,不恭不敬｡不然,默契和平衡将被打破, 友好关系将不复存在｡每个人都希望拥有自己的私密空间,朋友之间过于随便,就容易侵入这片禁区,从而引起冲突,造成隔阂｡待友不敬,或许只是一件小事,却可能已埋下了破坏性的种子｡维持朋友亲密关系的最好办法是往来有节,互不干涉｡[10分]
Friends tend to become more intimated if they have the same interests and temper, they can get along well and keep contacting; otherwise they will separate and end the relationship. Friends who are more familiar and closer can not be too casual and show no respect. Otherwise the harmony and balance will be broken, and the friendship will also be nonexistent any more. Everyone hopes to have his own private space, and if too casual among friends, it is easy to invade this piece of restricted areas, which will lead to the conflict, resulting in alienation. It may be a small matter to be rude to friends; however, it is likely to plant the devastating seeds. The best way to keep the close relationship between friends is to keep contacts with restraint, and do not bother each other.
SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE
Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
I thought that it was a Sunday morning in May; that it was Easter Sunday, and as yet very early in the morning. I was standing at the door of my own cottage. Right before me lay the very scene which could really be commanded from that situation, but exalted, as was usual, and solemnized by the power of dreams. There were the same mountains, and the same lovely valley at their feet; but the mountains were raised to more than Alpine height, and there was interspace far larger between them of meadows and forest lawns; the hedges were rich with white roses; and no living creature was to be seen except that in the green churchyard there were cattle tranquilly reposing upon the graves, and particularly round about the grave of a child whom I had once tenderly loved, just as I had really seen them, a little before sunrise in the same summer, when that child died.[10分]
Recently newspapers have reported that officials in a little-known mountainous area near Guiyang, Guizhou Province wanted to turn the area into a “central business district” for Guiyang and invited a foreign design company to give it a n entirely new look. The design company came up with a blueprint for unconventional, super-futuristic buildings. Tis triggered off different responses. Some appreciated the bold innovation of the design, but others held that it failed to reflect regional characteristics or local cultural heritage. What is your view on this? Write an essay of about 400 words. You should supply an appropriate title for your essay.
In the first part of your writing you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.
Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.[10分]
The important role of a city’s local conditions in the urban design
Recently there is a hot debate on a report that a foreign design company invited by a little-known mountainous area in Guiyang provided a design without paying too much attention to the city’s unique characteristics. Some people appreciate the bold innovation of the design but others do not like it. In my opinion, any urban design should take the city’s original cultural heritage into account. The designers should suit their design to local conditions and try to take advantage of the local resources.
First, a city’s regional characteristics or local cultural heritage are its symbol, its identity. In a mountainous area, too many unconventional, super-futuristic buildings will not be compatible with the city’s landscapes. Without these landscapes, it is just another so called modern city composed of concrete and steel. Take Beijing for example. In the past few years, Beijing has been removing a large number of such alleys traditionally called hutong, in order to make it become a real international city. But without these hutongs can this city still be called Beijing, an ancient capital? The disappearance of hutongs means the disappearance of a period of history, a cordial lifestyle, and even the disappearance of Beijing itself. Then Beijing will lose its uniqueness.
Second, it can help a city save a lot of money by suiting the design to local conditions and try to take advantage of the local resources. This is especially important to small cities, like this one in a mountainous area near Guiyang. We all know Guiyang is a developing city, not very rich. Unconventional, super-futuristic buildings mean large need of money input. Then more burdens may be added to this city, which will run counter to the city’s original purpose of developing itself. Instead, if connections between a city’s culture and the various urban sectors, including housing, infrastructure and governance, are well made, the maximum economic benefits will be achieved.
Besides, the modernization should be a gradual process. More haste, less speed. Nonetheless, it should not be overlooked that the shortcomings of futuristic-style constructing outweigh its advantages brought.
In conclusion, any urban design should take the city’s original cultural heritage into account. The designers should suit their design to local conditions and try to take advantage of the local resources. A scientific city design should be dependent on the city’s regional characteristics, on a case-by-case basis.