TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS(2008)
TIME LIMIT: 195MIN
PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION [35 MIN.]
SECTION A MINI-LECTURE
In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening, take notes on the important points. You notes will not be market, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task for after the mini- lecture. When the lecture is over, you will be given two minutes to check your notes, and another ten minutes to complete the gap-filling task on
ANSWER SHEET ONE.
Use the blank sheet for note- tanking.
The Popularity of English
I. Present status of English
A. English as a native/first language
B. English as a lingua franca: a language for communication among people
whose (1)______ are different (1)_______
C. Number of people speaking English as a first or a second language:
— 320-380 million native speakers
— 250- (2) _____ million speakers of English as a second language (2)_______
II. Reasons for the popular use of English
A. (3) ____ reasons (3)_______
— the Pilgrim Fathers brought the language to America;
— British settlers brought the language to Australia;
— English was used as a means of control in (4)_____ (4)_______
B. Economic reasons
— spread of (5) _____ (5)_______
— language of communication iii the international business community
C. (6)______ in international travel (6)_______
— use of English in travel and tourism
— signs in airports
— language of announcement
— language of (7) ______ (7)_______
D. Information exchange
— use of English in the academic world
— language of (8) _____ or journal articles (8)_______
E. Popular culture
— pop music on (9)______ (9)_______
— films from the USA
III. Questions to think about
A. status of English in the future
B. (10) ______ of distinct varieties of English (10)_______
SECTION B INTERVIEW
In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your colored answer sheet.
Questions 1 to 5 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.
Now listen to the interview
Mary doesn't seem to favour the idea of a new airport because[1分]
the existing airports are to be wasted
more people will be encouraged to travel.
more oil will be consumed.
more airplanes will be purchased.
Which of the following is NOT mentioned by Mary as a potential disadvantage?[1分]
Freddy has cited the following advantages for a new airport EXCEPT[1分]
vitality to the local economy.
presence of aircrew in the area.
Mary thinks that people dont need to do much travel nowadays as a result of[1分]
less emphasis on personal contact.
advances in modern telecommunications.
recent changes in peoples concepts.
more potential damage to the area
We learn from the conversation that Freddy is Marys ideas,[1分]
SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST
In this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your coloured answer sheet.
Question 6 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.
What is the main idea of the news item?[1分]
A new government was formed after Sunday’s elections.
The new government intends to change the welfare system.
The Social Democratic Party founded the welfare system.
The Social Democratic Party was responsible for high unemployment.
Questions 7 and 8 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news.
The tapes of the Apollo-11 mission were first stored in[1分]
a U.S. government archives warehouse
a NASA ground tracking station
the Goddard Space Flight Centre
What does the news item say about Richard Nafzger?[1分]
He is assigned the task to look for the tapes.
He believes that the tapes are probably lost.
He works in a NASA ground receiving site.
He had asked for the tapes in the 1970s.
Questions 9 and 10 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news.
The example in the news item is cited mainly to show[1分]
those doctors are sometimes professionally incompetent
that in cases like that hospitals have to pay huge compensations
the language barriers might lower the quality of treatment.
that language barriers can result in fatal consequences.
According to Dr. Flores, hospitals and clinics[1分]
has seen the need for hiring trained interpreters.
has realized the problems of language barriers.
has begun training their staff to be bilinguals.
has taken steps to provide accurate diagnosis.
PART II READING COMPREHENSION (30 MIN)
In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of 20 multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your colored answer sheet｡
At the age of 16, Lee Hyuk Joons life is a living hell. The South Korean 10th grader gets up at 6 in the morning to go to school, and studies most of the day until returning home at 6 p.m. After dinner, it is time to hit the books again—at one of Seouls many so-called cram schools. Lee gets back home at 1 in the morning, sleeps less than five hours, and then repeats the routine—five days a week. Its a grueling schedule, but Lee worries that it may not be good enough to get him into a top university. Some of his classmates study even harder.
South Koreas education system has long been highly competitive. But for Lee and the other 700,000 high-school sophomores in the country, high-school studies have gotten even more intense. That’s because South Korea has conceived a new college-entrance system, which will be implemented in 2008. This years 10th graders will be the first group evaluated by the new admissions standard, which places more emphasis on grades in the three years of high school and less on nationwide SAT-style and other selection tests, which have traditionally determined which students go to the elite colleges.
The change was made mostly to reduce what the government says is a growing education gap in the country: wealthy students go to the best colleges and get the best jobs, keeping the children of poorer families on the social margins. The aim is to reduce the importance of costly tutors and cram schools, partly to help students enjoy a more normal high-school life. But the new system has had the opposite effect. Before, students didn’t worry too much about their grade-point averages; the big challenge was beating he standardized tests as high-school seniors. Now students are competing against one another over a three-year period, and every midterm and final test is crucial. Fretful parents are relying even more heavily on tutors and cram schools to help their children succeed.
Parents and kids have sent thousands of angry online letters to the Education Ministry complaining that the new admissions standard is setting students against each other. "One can succeed only when others fail,” as one parent said.
Education experts say that South Koreas public secondary-school system is foundering, while private education is thriving. According to critics, the country’s high schools are almost uniformly mediocre—the result of an egalitarian government education policy. With the number of elite schools strictly controlled by the government, even the brightest students typically have to settle for ordinary schools in their neighborhoods, where the curriculum is centered on average students. To make up for the mediocrity, zealous parents send their kids to the expensive cram schools. Students in affluent southern Seoul neighborhoods complain that the new system will hurt them the most.
Nearly all Korean high schools will be weighted equally in the college-entrance process, and relatively weak students in provincial schools, who may not score well on standardized tests, often compile good grade-point averages.
Some universities, particularly prestigious ones, openly complain that they cannot select the best students under the new system because it eliminates differences among high schools. They’ve asked for more discretion in picking students by giving more weight to such screening tools as essay writing or interviews.
President Roh Moo Hyun doesn’t like how some colleges are trying to circumvent the new system. He recently criticized "greedy" universities that focus more on finding the best students than faying to "nurture good students". But amid the crossfire between the government and universities, the country’s 10th graders are feeling the stress. On online protest sites, some are calling themselves a “cursed generation” and “mice in a lab experiment”. It all seems a touch melodramatic, but that’s the South Korean school system.
According to the passage, the new college-entrance system is designed to[2分]
requires students to sit for more college-entrance tests
reduce the weight of college-entrance tests
select students on their high school grades only
reduce the number of prospective college applicants
What seems to be the effect of introducing the new system?[2分]
The system has given equal opportunities to students.
The system has reduced the number of cram schools.
The system has intensified competition among schools.
The system has increased students study load.
According to critics, the popularity of private education is mainly the result of[2分]
the government’s egalitarian policy
insufficient number of schools
curriculums of average quality
low cost of private education
According to the passage, there seems to be disagreement over the adoption of the new system between the following groups EXCEPT[2分]
between universities and the government
between school experts and the government
between parents and schools
between parents and the government
Which of the following adjectives best describes the authors treatment of the topic?[2分]
Wilfred Emmanuel-Jones was a teenager before he saw his first cow in his first field. Born in Jamaica, the 47-year-old grew up in inner-city Birmingham before making a career as a television producer and launching his own marketing agency. But deep down he always nurtured every true Englishman’s dream of a rustic life, a dream that his entrepreneurial wealth has allowed him to satisfy. These days has the owner of a thriving 12-hectare farm in deepest Devon with cattle, sheep and pigs. His latest business venture: pushing his brand of Black Fanner gourmet sausages and barbecue sauces. “My background may be very urban,” says Emmanuel-Jones.
“But it has given me a good idea of what other urbanites want.”
And of how to sell it-Emmanuel-Jones joins a herd of wealthy fugitives from city life who are bringing a new commercial know-how to British farming. Britain’s burgeoning farmers markets -numbers have doubled to at least 500 in the last five years—swarm with specialty cheese makers, beekeepers or organic smallholders who are redeploying the business skills they learned in the city. "Everyone in the rural community has to
come to terms with the fact that things have changed." says Emmanuel-Jones. "You can produce the best food in the world, but if you don’t know how to market it, you are wasting your time. We are helping the traditionalists to move on."
The emergence of the new class of super peasants reflects some old yearnings. If the British were the first nation to industrialize, they were also the first to head back to the land. "There is this romantic image of the countryside that is particularly English," says Alan Hawkins of the University of Sussex, who reckons the population of rural England has been rising since 1911. Migration into rural areas is now running at about 100,000
a year, and the hunger for a taste of the rural life has kept land prices buoyant even as agricultural incomes tumble. About 40 percent of all farmland is now sold to "lifestyle buyers" rather than the dwindling number of traditional farmers, according to the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors.
What’s new about the latest returnees is their affluence and zeal for the business of producing quality foods, if only at a micro-level. A healthy economy and surging London house prices have helped to ease the escape of the would-be rustics. The media recognize and feed the fantasy. One of the big TV hits of recent years, the "River
Cottage" series, chronicled the attempts of a London chef to run his own Dorset farm. Naturally, the newcomers cant hope to match their City salaries, but many are happy to trade any loss of income for the extra job satisfaction. Who cares if there’s no six-figure annual bonus when the land offers other incalculable compensations?
Besides, the specialist producers can at least depend on a burgeoning market for their products. Today’s eco-aware generation loves to seek out authentic ingredients. "People like me may be making a difference in a small way," Jan McCourt, a onetime investment banker now running his own 40-hectare spread in the English Midlands stocked with rare breeds. Optimists see signs of far-reaching change: Britain isnt catching up with mainland Europe; its leading the way. “Unlike most other countries, where artisanal food production is being eroded, here it is being recovered," says food writer Matthew Fort. “It may be the mark of the next stage of civilization that we rediscover the desirability of being a peasant.” And is not being an investment banker.
Which of the following details of Wilfred Emmanuel-Jones is INCORRECT?[2分]
He was born and brought up in Birmingham.
He used to work in the television industry.
He is wealthy, adventurous and aspiring.
He is now selling his own quality foods.
Most importantly, people like Wilfred have brought to traditional British farming[2分]
Which of the following does NOT contribute to the emergence of a new class of farmers?[2分]
Strong desire for country life.
Longing for greater wealth,
Influence of TV productions.
Enthusiasm for quality food business.
What is seen as their additional source of new income?[2分]
Modern tendency to buy natural foods.
Increase in the value of land property.
Raising and selling rare live stock. V
Publicity as a result of media coverage.
The sentence in the last paragraph “...Britain isn’t catching up with mainland Europe; its leading the way" implies that[2分]
Britain has taken a different path to boost economy.
more authentic foods are being produced in Britain.
the British are heading back to the countryside.
the Europeans are showing great interest in country life.
In Barcelona the Catalonians call they cast ells, but these aren’t stereotypical castles in Spain. These castles are made up of human beings, not stone. The people who perform this agile feat of acrobatics are called cast ellers, and to see their towers take shape is to observe a marvel of human cooperation.
First the cast ellers form what looks like a gigantic rugby scrimmage. They are the foundation blocks of the castle. Behind them, other people press together, forming outward-radiating ramparts of inward-pushing muscle: flying buttresses for the castle. Then sturdy but lighter cast ellers scramble over the backs of those at the bottom and stand, barefoot, on their shoulders—then still others, each time adding a higher "story".
These human towers can rise higher than small apartment buildings: nine “stories”, 35 feet into the air. Then, just when it seems this tower of humanity cant defy gravity any longer, a little kid emerges from the crowd and climbs straight up to the top.
Arms extended, the child grins while waving to the cheering crowd far below.
Dressed in their traditional costumes, the cast ellers seem to epitomize an easier time, before Barcelona became a world metropolis arid the Mediterraneans most dynamic city. But when you observe-them tip close, in their street clothes, at practice, you see there’s nothing easy about what the cast ellers do - and that they are not merely reenacting an ancient ritual.
None of the cast ellers can-give a logical answer as to why they love doing this. But Victor Luna, 16, touches me on the shoulder and says in English: "We do it because its beautiful. We do it because we are Catalan."
Barcelona’s mother tongue is Catalan, and to understand Barcelona, you must understand two words of Catalan: seny and rauxa. Seny pretty much translates as common sense, or the ability to make money, arrange things, and get things done. Rauxa is reminiscent of our words “raucous” and “ruckus”.
What makes the castellers revealing of the city is that they embody rauxa and seny. The idea of a human castle is rauxa—it defies common sense—but to watch one going up is to see seny in action. Success is based on everyone working together to achieve a shared goal.
The success of Carlos Tusquets bank, Fibanc, shows seny at work in everyday life. The bank started as a family concern and now employs hundreds. Tusquets said it exemplifies how the economy in Barcelona is different.
Entrepreneurial seny demonstrates why Barcelona and Catalonia—the ancient region of which Barcelona is the capital—are distinct from the rest of Spain yet essential to Spains emergence, after centuries of repression, as a prosperous, democratic European
country. Catalonia, with Barcelona as its dynamo, has turned into an economic powerhouse. Making up 6 percent of Spain’s territory, with a sixth of its people, it accounts for nearly a quarter of Spains production—everything from textiles to computers—even though the rest of Spain has been enjoying its own economic miracle.
Hand in hand with seny goes rauxa, and there’s no better place to see rauxa in action than on the Ramblas, the venerable, tree-shaded boulevard that, in gentle stages, leads you from the centre of Barcelona down to the port. There are two narrow lanes each way for cars and motorbikes, but it’s the wide centre walkway that makes the Ramblas a front-row seat for Barcelonas longest running theatrical event. Plastic armchairs are set out on the sidewalk. Sit in one of them, and an attendant will come and charge you a small fee. Performance artists throng the Ramblas—stilt walkers, witches caked in charcoal dust, Elvis impersonators. But the real stars are the old women and happily playing children, millionaires on motorbikes, and pimps and women who, upon closer inspection, prove not to be.
Aficionados (Fans) of Barcelona love to compare notes: “Last night there was a man standing on the balcony of his hotel room,” Mariana Bertagnolli, an Italian photographer, told me. "The balcony was on the second floor. He was naked, and he was talking
into a cell phone."
There you have it, Barcelona’s essence. The man is naked (rauxa), but he is talking into a cell phone (seny).
From the description in the passage, we learn that[2分]
all Catalonians can perform cast ells.
cast ells require performers to stand on each other.
people perform cast ells in different formations.
in cast ells people have to push and pull each other.
According to the passage, the4mplication of the performance is that[2分]
the Catalonians are insensible and noisy people.
the Catalonians show more sense than is expected.
the Catalonians display paradoxical characteristics.
the Catalonians think highly of team work.
The passage cites the following examples EXCEPT __________ to show seny at work.[2分]
contribution to national economy
comparison with other regions
In the last but two paragraphs, the Ramblas is described as “a front-row seat for Barcelona’s longest running theatrical event”. What does it mean?[2分]
On the Ramblas people can see a greater variety of performances
the Ramblas provides many front seats for the performances
the Ramblas is preferred as an important venue for the events
Theatrical performers like to perform on the Ramblas
What is the main impression of the scenes on the Ramblas?[2分]
It is bizarre and Outlandish
It is conventional and quiet
It is of professional standard
The law firm Patrick worked for before he died filed for bankruptcy protection a year after his funeral. After his death, the firms’ letterhead properly included him: Patrick S. Lanigan, 1954-1992. He was listed up in the right-hand corner, just above the paralegals. Then the rumors got started and wouldn’t stop. Before long, everyone believed he had taken the money and disappeared. After three months, no one on the Gulf Coast believed that he was dead. His name came off the letterhead
as the debts piled up.
The remaining partners in the law firm were still together, attached unwillingly at the hip by the bondage of mortgages and the bank notes, back when they were rolling and on the verge of serious wealth. They had been joint defendants in several unwinnable lawsuits; thus the bankruptcy. Since Patricks departure, they had tried every possible way to divorce one another, but nothing would work. Two were raging alcoholics who drank at the office behind locked doors, but never together. The other two were in recovery, still teetering on the brink of sobriety.
He took their money. Their millions. Money they had already spent long before it arrived, as only lawyers can do. Money for their richly renovated office building in downtown Biloxi. Money for new homes, yachts, condos in the Caribbean. The money was on the way, approved, the papers signed, orders entered; they could see it, almost touch it when their dead partner—Patrick—snatched it at the last possible second.
He was dead. They buried him on February 11, 1992. They had consoled the widow and put his rotten name on their handsome letterhead. Yet six weeks later, he somehow stole their money.
They had brawled over who was to blame. Charles Bogan, the firms senior partner and its iron hand, had insisted the money be wired from its source into a new account offshore, and this made sense after some discussion. It was ninety million bucks, a third of which the firm would keep, and it would be impossible to hide that kind of money in Biloxi, population fifty thousand. Someone at the bank would talk. Soon everyone would know. All four vowed secrecy, even as they made plans to display as much of their new wealth as possible. There had even been talk of a firm jet, a six-seater.
So Bogan took his share of the blame. At forty-nine, he was the oldest of the four, and, at the moment, the most stable. He was also responsible for hiring Patrick nine years earlier, and for this he had received no small amount of grief.
Doug Vitrano, the litigator, had made the fateful decision to recommend Patrick as the fifth partner. The other three had agreed, and when Patrick Lanigan was added to the firm name, he had access to virtually every file in the office. Bogan, Rapley, Vitrano, Havarac, and Lanigan, Attorneys and Counselors-at-Law. A large ad in the yellow pages claimed "Specialists in Offshore Injuries." Specialists or not, like most firms they
would take almost anything if the fees were lucrative. Lots of secretaries and paralegals. Big overhead, and the strongest political connections on the Coast.
They were all in their mid- to late forties. Havarac had been raised by his father on a shrimp boat. His hands were still proudly calloused, and he dreamed of choking Patrick until his neck snapped. Rapley was severely depressed and seldom left his home, where he wrote briefs in a dark office in the attic.
What happened to the four remaining lawyers after Patricks disappearance?[2分]
They all wanted to divorce their wives.
They were all heavily involved in debts.
They were all recovering from drinking.
They had bought new homes, yachts, etc.
Which of the following statements contains a metaphor?[2分]
His name came off the letterhead as the debts piled up.
…they could see it, almost touch it when their dead partner...
…, attached unwillingly at the hip by the bondage of mortgages...
…, and for this he had received no small amount of grief.
According to the passage, what is the main cause of Patrick stealing the money?[2分]
Patrick was made a partner of the firm.
The partners agreed to have the money transferred.
Patrick had access to all the files in the firm.
Bogan decided to hire Patrick nine years earlier.
The lawyers were described as being all the following EXCEPT[2分]
Which of the following implies a contrast?[2分]
…, and it would be impossible to hide that kind of money in Biloxi, population fifty thousand.
They had been joint defendants in several unwinnable lawsuits; thus the bankruptcy.
There had even been talk of a firm jet, a six-seater.
His name came off the letterhead as the debts piled up.
PART III GENERAL KNOWLEDGE (10 MIN)
There are ten multiple-choice questions in this section. Choose the best answer to each question. Mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet
The largest city in Canada is[1分]
According to the United States Constitution, the legislative power is invested in[1分]
Which of the following is the oldest sport in the United States?[1分]
The head of the executive branch in New Zealand is[1分]
The Canterbury Tales, a collection of stories told by a group of pilgrims on their way to Canterbury, is an important poetic work by[1分]
Who wrote The American?[1分]
All of the following are well-known female writers in 20th -century Britain EXCEPT[1分]
Which of the following is NOT a design feature of human language?[1分]
What type of sentence is “Mark likes fiction, but Tim is interested in poetry.”?[1分]
The phenomenon that words having different meanings have the same form is called[1分]
PART IV PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION (15 MIN)
Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed.
The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proof-read the passage and correct it in the following way:
For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a "/" sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/" and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.
When ∧ art museum wants a new exhibit, (1) an
It never ╱ buys things in finished form and hangs (2) never
them on the wall. When a natural history museum
wants an exhibition, it must often build it. (3) exhibit
The desire to use language as a sign of national identity is a
very natural one, and in result language has played a prominent 1—
part in national moves. Men have often felt the need to cultivate 2—
a given language to show that they are distinctive from another 3—
race whose hegemony they resent. At the time the United States 4—
split off from Britain, for example, there were proposals that
independence should be linguistically accepted by the use of a 5—
different language from those of Britain. There was even one 6—
proposal that Americans should adopt Hebrew. Others favoured
the adoption of Greek, though, as one man put it, things would
certainly be simpler for Americans if they stuck on to English 7—
and made the British learn Greek. At the end, as everyone 8—
knows, the two countries adopted the practical and satisfactory
solution of carrying with the same language as before. 9—
Since nearly two hundred years now, they have shown the world 10—
that political independence and national identity can be complete
without sacrificing the enormous mutual advantages of a common
PART V TRANSLATION (60 MIN)
SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH
Translate the underlined part of the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
I think everyone, in effect, has a small garden or a flower bed of his own, namely, our inner world. There is a need for human beings to tap into their own intelligence, as is the case with their inner world. What distinguishes between human beings and animals, apart from the various aspects which are universally known, may probably be in that human beings have an inner world. Heart is no more than an important organ whereas the inner world constitutes a landscape, which gradually takes its shape under the continuous influence from the outside world. So great is the importance that everyone attaches to the physical condition of his own heart or those of his closest and dearest ones, that merely a minor disease would enduringly weign on his mind.
SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE
Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
But, as has been true in many other cases, when they were at last married, the most ideal of situations was found to have been changed to the most practical. Instead of having shared their original duties, and as school-boys would say, going halves, they discovered that the cares of life had been doubled. This led to some distressing moments for both our friends; they understood suddenly that instead of dwelling in heaven they were still upon earth, and had made themselves slaves to new laws and limitations. Instead of being freer and happier than ever before, they had assumed new responsibilities; they had established a new household, and must fulfill in some way or another the obligations of it. They looked back with affection to their engagement; they had been longing to have each other to themselves, apart from the world, but it seemed they never felt so keenly that they were still units in modern society.[5分]
In a few months’ time you are going to graduate from university. How do you think your college years have prepared you for your future life? Write an essay of about 400 words on the following topic:
What I have learned from my years at university
In the first part of your essay you should state dearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your
argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary.
Mark will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy. Failure to follow the above instructions may result
in a loss of marks
Write your composition on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.[10分]