TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS (2011)
TIME LIMIT: 195 MIN
PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION
SECTION A MINI-LECTURE
In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task after the mini-lecture. When the lecture is over, you will be given two minutes to check your notes, and another ten minutes to complete the gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE. Some of the gaps may require a maximum of THREE words. Make sure the word(s) you fill in is (are) both grammatically and semantically acceptable. You may refer to your notes while completing the task. Use the blank sheet for note-taking.
Now, listen to the mini-lecture.
Classifications of Cultures
According to Edward Hall, different cultures result in different ideas about the world. Hall is an anthropologist. He is interested in relations between cultures.
I. High-context culture
- context: more important than the message
- meaning: (1)__________
i.e. more attention paid to (2) ___________ than to the message itself
- personal space
- preference for (3)__________
- less respect for privacy / personal space
- attention to (4)___________
- concept of time
- belief in (5)____________ interpretation of time
- no concern for punctuality
- no control over time
II. Low-context culture
- message: separate from context
- meaning: (6)___________
- personal space
- desire / respect for individuality / privacy
- less attention to body language
- more concern for (7)___________
- attitude toward time
- concept of time: (8)____________
- dislike of (9)_____________
- time seen as commodity
Awareness of different cultural assumptions
- relevance in work and life
e.g. business, negotiation, etc.
- (10)_____________ in successful communication
SECTION B INTERVIEW/CONVERSATIONIn this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the best answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
Questions 1 to 5 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.
Now, listen to the interview.
According to Dr. Harley, what makes language learning more difficult after a certain age?[1分]
Differences between two languages.
Declining capacity to learn syntax.
What does the example of Czech speakers show?[1分]
It's natural for language learners to make errors.
Differences between languages cause difficulty.
There exist differences between English and Czech.
Difficulty stems from either difference or similarity.
Which of the following methods does NOT advocate speaking?[1分]
Which hypothesis deals with the role of language knowledge in the learning process?[1分]
The acquisition and learning distinction hypothesis.
The comprehensible input hypothesis.
The active filter hypothesis.
Which of the following topics is NOT discussed during the interview?[1分]
Causes of language learning difficulties.
Differences between mother tongue and a second language.
Theoretical conceptualization of second language learning.
Pedagogical implementation of second language teaching.
SECTION C NEWS BROADCASTIn this section you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the best answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
Question 6 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the question.
Now, listen to the news.
Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?[1分]
Greyhound is Britain's largest bus and train operator.
Currently Greyhound routes in Britain are limited.
The coach starts from London every hour.
Passengers are offered a variety of services.
Questions 7 and 8 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the questions.
Now, listen to the news.
What does the news item say about the fires in Greece?[1分]
Fires only occurred near the Greek capital.
Fires near the capital caused casualties.
Fires near the capital were the biggest.
Fires near the capital were soon under control.
According to the news, what measure did authorities take to fight the fires?[1分]
Residents were asked to vacate their homes.
Troops were brought in to help the firefighters.
Air operations and water drops continued overnight.
Another six fire engines joined the firefighting operation.
Questions 9 and 10 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the questions.
Now, listen to the news.
Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a cause of the current decline in the Mexican economy?[1分]
Fewer job opportunities in Mexico.
Strong ties with the U.S. economy.
Drop in remittances from abroad is mainly due to _________.[1分]
the outbreak of the H1N1 flu
the declining GDP in Mexico
the economic downturn in the U.S.
PART Ⅱ READING COMPREHENSION [30 MIN]
In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of 20 multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark the best answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
Whenever we could, Joan and I took refuge in the streets of Gibraltar. The Englishman's home is his castle because he has not much choice. There is nowhere to sit in the streets of England, not even, after twilight, in the public gardens. The climate, very often, does not even permit him to walk outside. Naturally, he stays indoors and creates a cocoon of comfort. That was the way we lived in Leeds.
These southern people, on the other hand, look outwards. The Gibraltarian home is, typically, a small and crowded apartment up several flights of dark and dirty stairs. In it, one, two or even three old people share a few ill-lit rooms with the young family. Once he has eaten, changed his clothes, embraced his wife, kissed his children and his parents, there is nothing to keep the southern man at home. He hurries out, taking even his breakfast coffee at his local bar. He comes home late for his afternoon meal after an appetitive hour at his café. He sleeps for an hour, dresses, goes out again and stays out until late at night. His wife does not miss him, for she is out, too — at the market in the morning and in the afternoon sitting with other mothers, baby-minding in the sun.
The usual Gibraltarian home has no sitting-room, living-room or lounge. The parlour of our working-class houses would be an intolerable waste of space. Easy-chairs, sofas and such-like furniture are unknown. There are no bookshelves, because there are no books. Talking and drinking, as well as eating, are done on hard chairs round the dining-table, between a sideboard decorated with the best glasses and an inevitable display cabinet full of family treasures, photographs and souvenirs. The elaborate chandelier over this table proclaims it as the hub of the household and of the family. "Hearth and home" makes very little sense in Gibraltar. One's home is one's town or village, and one's hearth is the sunshine.
Our northern towns are dormitories with cubicles, by comparison. When we congregate — in the churches it used to be, now in the cinema, say, impersonally, or at public meetings, formally — we are scarcely ever man to man. Only in our pubs can you find the truly gregarious and communal spirit surviving, and in England even the pubs are divided along class lines.
Along this Mediterranean coast, home is only a refuge and a retreat. The people live together in the open air — in the street, market-place. Down here, there is a far stronger feeling of community than we had ever known. In crowded and circumscribed Gibraltar, with its complicated inter-marriages, its identity of interests, its surviving sense of siege, one can see and feel an integrated society.
To live in a tiny town with all the organization of a state, with Viceroy (总督), Premier, Parliament, Press and Pentagon, all in miniature, all within arm's reach, is an intensive course in civics. In such an environment, nothing can be hidden, for better or for worse. One's successes are seen and recognized; one's failures are immediately exposed. Social consciousness is at its strongest, with the result that there is a constant and firm pressure towards good social behaviour, towards courtesy and kindness. Gibraltar, with all its faults, is the friendliest and most tolerant of places. Straight from the cynical anonymity of a big city, we luxuriated in its happy personalism. We look back on it, like all its exiled sons and daughters, with true affection.
Which of the following best explains the differences in ways of living between the English and the Gibraltarians?[2分]
The italicized part in the third paragraph implies that ____________.[2分]
English working-class homes are similar to Gibraltarian ones
English working-class homes have spacious sitting-rooms
English working-class homes waste a lot of space
the English working-class parlour is intolerable in Gibraltar
We learn from the description of the Gibraltarian home that it is _________.[2分]
There is a much stronger sense of _______ among the Gibraltarians.[2分]
According to the passage people in Gibraltar tend to be well-behaved because of the following EXCEPT _______.[2分]
the entirety of the state structure
constant pressure from the state
the small size of the town
transparency of occurrences
For office innovators, the unrealized dream of the "paperless" office is a classic example of high-tech hubris (傲慢). Today's office drone is drowning in more paper than ever before.
But after decades of hype, American offices may finally be losing their paper obsession. The demand for paper used to outstrip the growth of the US economy, but the past two or three years have seen a marked slowdown in sales — despite a healthy economic scene.
Analysts attribute the decline to such factors as advances in digital databases and communication systems. Escaping our craving for paper, however, will be anything but an easy affair.
"Old habits are hard to break," says Merilyn Dunn, a communications supplies director. "There are some functions that paper serves where a screen display doesn't work. Those functions are both its strength and its weakness."
In the early to mid-1990s, a booming economy and improved desktop printers helped boost paper sales by 6 to 7 percent each year. The convenience of desktop printing allowed office workers to indulge in printing anything and everything at very little effort or cost.
But now, the growth rate of paper sales in the United States is flattening by about half a percent each year. Between 2004 and 2005, Ms. Dunn says, plain white office paper will see less than a 4 percent growth rate, despite the strong overall economy. A primary reason for the change, says Dunn, is that for the first time ever, some 47 percent of the workforce entered the job market after computers had already been introduced to offices.
"We're finally seeing a reduction in the amount of paper being used per worker in the workplace," says John Maine, vice president of a pulp and paper economic consulting firm. "More information is being transmitted electronically, and more and more people are comfortable with the information residing only in electronic form without printing multiple backups."
In addition, Mr. Maine points to the lackluster employment market for white-collar workers — the primary driver of office paper consumption for the shift in paper usage.
The real paradigm shift may be in the way paper is used. Since the advent of advanced and reliable office-network systems, data storage has moved away from paper archives. The secretarial art of "filing" is disappearing from job descriptions. Much of today's data may never leave its original digital format.
The changing attitudes toward paper have finally caught the attention of paper companies, says Richard Harper, a researcher at Microsoft. "All of a sudden, the paper industry has started thinking, 'We need to learn more about the behavioural aspects of paper use,'" he says. "They had never asked, they'd just assumed that 70 million sheets would be bought per year as a literal function of economic growth."
To reduce paper use, some companies are working to combine digital and paper capabilities. For example, Xerox Corp. is developing electronic paper: thin digital displays that respond to a stylus, like a pen on paper. Notations can be erased or saved digitally.
Another idea, intelligent paper, comes from Anoto Group. It would allow notations made with a stylus on a page printed with a special magnetic ink to simultaneously appear on a computer screen.
Even with such technological advances, the improved capabilities of digital storage continue to act against "paperlessness," argues Paul Saffo, a technology forecaster. In his prophetic and metaphorical 1989 essay, "The Electronic Piñata (彩罐)," he suggests that the increasing amounts of electronic data necessarily require more paper.
The information industry today is like a huge electronic piñata, composed of a thin paper crust surrounding an electronic core," Mr. Saffo wrote. The growing paper crust "is most noticeable, but the hidden electronic core that produces the crust is far larger — and growing more rapidly. The result is that we are becoming paperless, but we hardly notice at all."
In the same way that digital innovations have increased paper consumption, Saffo says, so has video conferencing — with its promise of fewer in-person meetings — boosting business travel.
"That's one of the great ironies of the information age," Saffo says. "It's just common sense that the more you talk to someone by phone or computer, it inevitably leads to a face-to-face meeting. The best thing for the aviation industry was the Internet."
What function does the second sentence in the first paragraph serve?[2分]
It further explains high-tech hubris.
It confirms the effect of high-tech hubris.
It offers a cause for high-tech hubris.
It offers a contrast to high-tech hubris.
Which of the following is NOT a reason for the slowdown in paper sales?[2分]
Workforce with better computer skills.
Slow growth of the US economy.
Changing patterns in paper use.
Changing employment trends.
The two innovations by Xerox Corp. and Anoto Group feature ________.[2分]
integrated use of paper and digital form
a shift from paper to digital form
the use of computer screen
What does the author mean by ''irony of the information age"?[2分]
The dream of the "paperless" office will be realized.
People usually prefer to have face-to-face meetings.
More digital data use leads to greater paper use.
Some people are opposed to video-conferencing.
What is the author's attitude towards "paperlessness"?[2分]
He reviews the situation from different perspectives.
He agrees with some of the people quoted in the passage.
He has a preference for digital innovations.
He thinks airlines benefit most from the digital age.
When George Orwell wrote in 1941 that England was "the most class-ridden country under the sun", he was only partly right. Societies have always had their hierarchies, with some group perched at the top. In the Indian state of Bihar the Ranveer Sena, an upper-caste private army, even killed to stay there.
By that measure class in Britain hardly seems entrenched (根深蒂固的). But in another way Orwell was right, and continues to be. As a new YouGov poll shows, Britons are surprisingly alert to class — both their own and that of others. And they still think class is sticky. According to the poll, 48% of people aged 30 or over say they expect to end up better off than their parents. But only 28% expect to end up in a different class. More than two-thirds think neither they nor their children will leave the class they were born into.
What does this thing that people cannot escape consist of these days? And what do people look at when decoding which class someone belongs to? The most useful identifying markers, according to the poll, are occupation, address, accent and income, in that order. The fact that income comes fourth is revealing: though some of the habits and attitudes that class used to define are more widely spread than they were, class still indicates something less blunt than mere wealth.
Occupation is the most trusted guide to class, but changes in the labour market have made that harder to read than when Orwell was writing. Manual workers have shrunk along with farming and heavy industry as a proportion of the workforce, while the number of people in white-collar jobs has surged. Despite this striking change, when they were asked to place themselves in a class, Brits in 2006 huddled in much the same categories as they did when they were asked in 1949. So, jobs, which were once a fairly reliable guide to class, have become misleading.
A survey conducted earlier this year by Expertian shows how this convergence on similar types of work has blurred class boundaries. Expertian asked people in a number of different jobs to place themselves in the working class or the middle class. Secretaries, waiters and journalists were significantly more likely to think themselves middle-class than accountants, computer programmers or civil servants. Many new white-collar jobs offer no more autonomy or better prospects than old blue-collar ones. Yet despite the muddle over what the markers of class are these days, 71% of those polled by YouGov still said they found it very or fairly easy to figure out which class others belong to.
In addition to changes in the labour market, two other things have smudged the borders on the class map. First, since 1945 Britain has received large numbers of immigrants who do not fit easily into existing notions of class and may have their own pyramids to scramble up. The flow of new arrivals has increased since the late 1990s, multiplying this effect.
Second, barriers to fame have been lowered. Britain's fast-growing ranks of celebrities — like David Beckham and his wife Victoria — form a kind of parallel aristocracy open to talent, or at least to those who are uninhibited enough to meet the requests of television producers. This too has made definitions more complicated.
But many Brits, given the choice, still prefer to identify with the class they were born into rather than that which their jobs or income would suggest. This often entails pretending to be more humble than is actually the case: 22% of white-collar workers told YouGov that they consider themselves working class. Likewise, the Expertian survey found that one in ten adults who call themselves working class are among the richest asset-owners, and that over half a million households which earn more than $191,000 a year say they are working class. Pretending to be grander than income and occupation suggest is rarer, though it happens too.
If class no longer describes a clear social, economic or even political status, is it worth paying any attention to? Possibly, yes. It is still in most cases closely correlated with educational attainment and career expectations.
Why does the author say "...Orwell was right, and continues to be" (Paragraph Two)?[2分]
Because there was stronger class consciousness in India.
Because more people hope to end up in a higher class.
Because people expect to gain more wealth than their parents.
Because Britons are still conscious of their class status.
''...class still indicates something less blunt than mere wealth" (Paragraph Three) means that ________.[2分]
class is still defined by its own habits and attitudes
class would refer to something more subtle than money
people from different classes may have the same habits or attitudes
income is unimportant in determining which class one belongs to
Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?[2分]
White-collar workers would place themselves in a different class.
People with different jobs may place themselves in the same class.
Occupation and class are no longer related with each other.
Changes in the workforce have made it difficult to define class.
Which of the following is NOT a cause to blur class distinction?[2分]
Notions of class by immigrants.
Changing trends of employment.
When some successful white-collar workers choose to stay in the working class, it implies that they are _________.[2分]
The train was whirling onward with such dignity of motion that a glance from the window seemed simply to prove that plains of Texas were pouring eastward. Vast flats of green grass, dull-hued spaces of mesquite and cactus, little groups of frame houses, woods of light and tender trees, all were sweeping into the east, sweeping over the horizon, a precipice.
A newly married pair had boarded this coach at San Antonio. The man's face was reddened from many days in the wind and sun, and a direct result of his new black clothes was that his brick-coloured hands were constantly performing in a most conscious fashion. From time to time he looked down respectfully at his attire. He sat with a hand on each knee, like a man waiting in a barber's shop. The glances he devoted to other passengers were furtive and shy.
The bride was not pretty, nor was she very young. She wore a dress of blue cashmere, with small reservations of velvet here and there, and with steel buttons abounding. She continually twisted her head to regard her puff sleeves, very stiff, and high. They embarrassed her. It was quite apparent that she had cooked, and that she expected to cook, dutifully. The blushes caused by the careless scrutiny of some passengers as she had entered the car were strange to see upon this plain, under-class countenance, which was drawn in placid, almost emotionless lines.
They were evidently very happy. "Ever been in a parlor-car before?" he asked, smiling with delight.
"No," she answered; "I never was. It's fine, ain't it?"
"Great! And then after a while we'll go forward to the dinner, and get a big lay-out. Fresh meal in the world. Charge a dollar."
"Oh, do they?" cried the bride. "Charge a dollar? Why, that's too much — for us — ain't it, Jack?"
"Nor this trip, anyhow," he answered bravely. "We're going to go the whole thing."
Later he explained to her about the trains. "You see, it's a thousand miles from one end of Texas to the other; and this runs right across it, and never stops but four times.” He had the pride of an owner. He pointed out to her the dazzling fittings of the coach; and in truth her eyes opened wider and she contemplated the sea-green figured velvet, the shining brass, silver, and glass, the wood that gleamed as darkly brilliant as the surface of a pool of oil. At one end a bronze figure sturdily held a support for a separated chamber, and at convenient places on the ceiling were frescos in olive and silver.
To the minds of the pair, their surroundings reflected the glory of their marriage that morning in San Antonio; this was the environment of their new estate; and the man's face in particular beamed with an elation that made him appear ridiculous to the Negro porter. This individual at times surveyed them from afar with an amused and superior grin. On other occasions he bullied them with skill in ways that did not make it exactly plain to them that they were being bullied. He subtly used all the manners of the most unconquerable kind of snobbery. He oppressed them. But of this oppression they had small knowledge, and they speedily forgot that infrequently a number of travelers covered them with stares of derisive enjoyment. Historically there was supposed to be something infinitely humorous in their situation.
"We are due in Yellow Sky at 3:42," he said, looking tenderly into her eyes.
"Oh, are we?" she said, as if she had not been aware of it. To evince (表现出) surprise at her husband's statement was part of her wifely amiability. She took from a pocket a little silver watch; and as she held it before her, and stared at it with a frown of attention, the new husband's face shone.
"I bought it in San Anton' from a friend of mine," he told her gleefully.
"It's seventeen minutes past twelve," she said, looking up at him with a kind of shy and clumsy coquetry (调情;卖俏). A passenger, noting this play, grew excessively sardonic, and winked at himself in one of the numerous mirrors.
At last they went to the dining-car. Two rows of Negro waiters, in glowing white suits, surveyed their entrance with the interest, and also the equanimity (平静), of men who had been forewarned. The pair fell to the lot of a waiter who happened to feel pleasure in steering them through their meal. He viewed them with the manner of a fatherly pilot, his countenance radiant with benevolence. The patronage, entwined with the ordinary deference, was not plain to them. And yet, as they returned to their coach, they showed in their faces a sense of escape.
The description of the couple's clothes and behaviour at the beginning of the passage seems to indicate that they had a sense of __________.[2分]
Which of the following adjectives best depicts the interior of the coach?[2分]
Which of the following best describes the attitude of other people on the train towards the couple?[2分]
They regarded the couple as an object of fun.
They expressed indifference towards the couple.
They were very curious about the couple.
They showed friendliness towards the couple.
Which of the following contains a metaphor?[2分]
... like a man waiting in a barber's shop.
... his countenance radiant with benevolence.
... sweeping over the horizon, a precipice.
... as darkly brilliant as the surface of a pool of oil.
We can infer from the last paragraph that in the dining-car ________.[2分]
the waiters were snobbish
the couple felt ill at ease
the service was satisfactory
the couple enjoyed their dinner
PART III GENERAL KNOWLEDGE
There are ten multiple-choice questions in this section. Mark the best answer to each question on ANSWER SHEET TWO.
The northernmost part of Great Britain is _______.[1分]
It is generally agreed that _______ were the first Europeans to reach Australia's shores.[1分]
Which country is known as the Land of Maple Leaf?[1分]
The United States of America.
Who wrote the famous pamphlet, The Common Sense, before the American Revolution?[1分]
Virginia Woolf was an important female ________ in the 20th-century England.[1分]
______ refers to a long narrative poem that records the adventures of a hero in a nation's history.[1分]
Which of the following best explores American myth in the 20th century?[1分]
_______ is defined as the study of the relationship between language and mind.[1分]
A vowel is different from a consonant in English because of ________.[1分]
The definition "the act of using or promoting the use of several languages, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers" refers to _________.[1分]
PART Ⅳ PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION [15 MIN.]
The following passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:
For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a "∧" sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/"and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.
When ∧ art museum wants a new exhibit, (1) an
it never buys things in finished form and hangs them on the wall. (2) never
When a natural history museum wants an exhibition, it must (3) exhibit
often build it.
From a very early age, perhaps the age of five or six, I knew that when I grew up I should be a writer. Between the ages of about seventeen and twenty-four I tried to abandon this idea, but I did so with the consciousness that I was outraging my true nature and that sooner or later I should have to settle down and write books.
I was the middle child of three, but there was a gap of five years on either side, and I barely saw my father before I was eight. For this and other reasons I was somewhat lonely, and I soon developed disagreeable mannerisms which made me unpopular throughout my schooldays. I had the lonely child's habit of making up stories and holding conversations with imaginary persons, and I think from the very start my literary ambitions were mixed up with the feeling of being isolated and undervalued. I knew that I had a facility with words and a power of facing unpleasant facts, and I felt that this created a sort of private world in which I could get my own back for my failure in everyday life. Nevertheless the volume of serious — i.e. seriously intended — writing which I produced all through my childhood and boyhood would not amount to half a dozen pages. I wrote my first poem at the age of four or five, my mother taking it down to dictation.
PART IV TRANSLATION [60 MIN]
SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH
Translate the underlined part of the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE
Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
When flying over Nepal, it's easy to soar in your imagination and pretend you're tiny — a butterfly — and drifting above one of those three-dimensional topographical maps architects use, the circling contour lines replaced by the terraced rice paddies that surround each high ridge.
Nepal is a small country, and from the windows of our plane floating eastward at 12,000 feet, one can see clearly the brilliant white mirage of the high Himalayas thirty miles off the left window.
Out the right window, the view is of three or four high terraced ridges giving sudden way to the plains of India beyond.
There were few roads visible below, most transportation in Nepal being by foot along ancient trails that connect and bind the country together. There is also a network of dirt airstrips, which was fortunate for me, as I had no time for the two-and-a-half week trek to my destination. I was on a flight to the local airport.[5分]
According to a recent newspaper report, many famous sites of historical interest in China have begun or are considering charging tourists higher entry fees during peak travel seasons. This has aroused a lot of public attention and also public debate. What is your opinion? Should famous Chinese sites of historical interest charge higher fees during peak travel seasons? Write an essay of about 400 words.
In the first part of your essay you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary.
You should supply an appropriate title for your essay.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization language and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.
Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.[10分]
Higher Entry Fees During Peak Travel Season
In recent years, people in China have more time and money to visit famous sites of historical interest, owing to longer holidays and higher incomes. These visits, on the one hand, can enrich their own life and bring the sites substantial incomes. On the other hand, too many visits, especially during travel peaks when there are more visitors, have caused huge problems in several aspects. In my opinion, one effective solution to this problem is to charge higher fees during peak travel seasons.
For one reason, those who oppose higher fees have ignored the unique features of famous sites of historical interest. Different from the common parks, the historical spots normally imply ample historical and cultural values. The relics in these spots are so precious and fragile that they usually need special and professional preservation and administration, which obviously costs large amounts of money. During peak travel seasons, even more tourists pay visits to the historical spots. Such huge amount of people arriving at one historical spot may probably lead to some unexpected damages. Facing this situation, there is no better measure than raising the entry fees to reduce the number of tourists in peak seasons. The only purpose of charging higher entry fees is to stop some people's visits during special seasons so as to achieve a better protection of the valuable relics. With higher entry fees, some people may change their plans and give up their visits. Here economic means are applied to conserve precious things at the sites of historical interest in an appropriate and sustainable way.
For another reason, higher fees charged may effectively reduce the number of tourists visiting historical spots in peak seasons, which is also good to the safety of the tourists. Reports on the accidents happening to tourists are not new to us. Especially during peak seasons, heavy traffic of passengers poses potential threats to the life of tourists. Furthermore, relaxation is always an ultimate goal for tourists. It is almost impossible for anyone to appreciate anything in an overcrowded spot with a sea of people around. An ideal holiday may even be ruined by the hustle and bustle and endless waiting.
In short, we need to control the number of visitors especially during the peak travel seasons, to guarantee a sound protection of historical spots as well as the safety of tourists. Among others, higher entry fees may be a simple and effective economic means of regulation, which should be taken into account by the authorities. As for the tourists, this may not be so bad as it sounds.