TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS (2003)
TIME LIMIT: 95 MIN
PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION [40 MIN.]
In Sections A, B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your COLORED ANSWER SHEET.
SECTION A TALK
Questions 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now listen to the talk.
Which of the following statements about offices is NOT true according to the talk?[1分]
Offices throughout the world are basically alike.
There are primarily two kinds of office layout.
Office surroundings used to depend on company size.
Office atmosphere influences workers' performance.
We can infer from the talk that harmonious work relations may have a direct impact on your ____. [1分]
Supposing you were working in a small firm, which of the following would you do when you had some grievances?[1分]
Request a formal special meeting with the boss.
Draft a formal agenda for a special meeting.
Contact a consultative committee first.
Ask to see the boss for a talk immediately.
According to the talk, the union plays the following roles EXCPET ____. [1分]
Which topic is NOT covered in the talk?[1分]
SECTION B INTERVIEW
Questions 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.
Now listen to the interview.
Which of the following statements is INCORRECT about David's personal background?[1分]
He had excellent academic records at school and university.
He was once on a PhD program at Yale University.
He received professional training in acting.
He came from a single-parent family.
David is inclined to believe in ____. [1分]
David thinks he is fit for the TV role because of his ____. [1分]
From the interview, we know that at present David feels ____. [1分]
haunted by the unknown things
successful yet unsatisfied
How does David feel about the divorce of his parents?[1分]
He feels a sense of anger.
He has a sense of sadness.
It left no effect on him.
SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST
Question 11 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15 seconds to answer the question.
Now listen to the news.
What is the main idea of the news item?[1分]
US concern over the forthcoming peace talks.
Peace efforts by the Palestinian Authority.
Recommendations by the Mitchell Commission.
Bomb attacks aimed at Israeli civilians.
Question 12 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15 seconds to answer the question.
Now listen to the news.
Some voters will waste their ballots because ____. [1分]
they like neither candidate
they are all ill-informed
the candidates do not differ much
they do not want to vote twice
Questions 13 to 15 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the questions.
Now listen to the news.
According to the UN Human Development Report, which is the best place for women in the world?[1分]
____ is in the 12th place in overall ranking. [1分]
According to the UN report, the least developed country is ____. [1分]
Central African Republic
SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING
In this section you will hear a mini lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening to the lecture, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a 15 minute gap filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE after the mini lecture. Use the blank sheet for note taking.
PART II PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION [15 MIN]
Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed.
PART III READING COMPREHENSION [40 MIN]
SECTION A READING COMPREHENSION [30 min]
In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of fifteen multiple choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your Coloured Answer Sheet.
Hostility to Gypsies has existed almost from the time they first appeared in Europe in the 14th century. The origins of the Gypsies, with little written history, were shrouded in mystery. What is known now from clues in the various dialects of their language, Romany, is that they came from northern India to the Middle East a thousand years ago, working as minstrels and mercenaries, metal smiths and servants. Europeans misnamed them Egyptians, soon shortened to Gypsies. A clan system, based mostly on their traditional crafts and geography, has made them a deeply fragmented and fractious people, only really unifying in the face of enmity from non-Gypsies, whom they call gadje. Today many Gypsy activists prefer to be called Roma, which comes from the Romany word for "man". But on my travels among them most still referred to themselves as Gypsies.
In Europe their persecution by the gadje began quickly, with the church seeing heresy in their fortune-telling and the state seeing anti-social behavior in their nomadism. At various times they have been forbidden to wear their distinctive bright clothes, to speak their own language, to travel, to marry one another, or to ply their traditional crafts. In some countries they were reduced to slavery-it wasn't until the mid-1800s that Gypsy slaves were freed in Romania. In more recent times the Gypsies were caught up in Nazi ethnic hysteria, and perhaps half a million perished in the Holocaust. Their horses have been shot and the wheels removed from their wagons, their names have been changed, their women have been sterilized, and their children have been forcibly given for adoption to non-Gypsy families.
But the Gypsies have confounded predictions of their disappearance as a distinct ethnic group, and their numbers have burgeoned. Today there are an estimated 8 to 12 million Gypsies scattered across Europe, making them the continent's largest minority. The exact number is hard to pin down. Gypsies have regularly been undercounted, both by regimes anxious to downplay their profile and by Gypsies themselves, seeking to avoid bureaucracies. Attempting to remedy past inequities, activist groups may overcount. Hundreds of thousands more have emigrated to the Americans and elsewhere. With very few exceptions Gypsies have expressed no great desire for a country to call their own-unlike the Jews, to whom the Gypsy experience is often compared. "Romanestan," said Ronald Lee, the Canadian Gypsy writer, "is where my two feet stand."
Gypsies are united only when they ____. [1分]
are engaged in traditional crafts
In history hostility to Gypsies in Europe resulted in their persecution by all the following EXCEPT ____. [1分]
According to the passage, the main difference between the Gypsies and the Jews lies in their concepts of ____. [1分]
I was just a boy when my father brought me to Harlem for the first time, almost 50 years ago. We stayed at the Hotel Theresa, a grand brick structure at 125th Street and Seventh Avenues. Once, in the hotel restaurant, my father pointed out Joe Louis. He even got Mr. Brown, the hotel manager, to introduce me to him, a bit paunchy but still the champ as far as I was concerned.
Much has changed since then. Business and real estate are booming. Some say a new renaissance is under way. Others decry what they see as outside forces running roughshod over the old Harlem.
New York meant Harlem to me, and as a young man I visited it whenever I could. But many of my old haunts are gone. The Theresa shut down in 1966. National chains that once ignored Harlem now anticipate yuppie money and want pieces of this prime Manhattan real estate. So here I am on a hot August afternoon, sitting in a Starbucks that two years ago opened a block away from the Theresa, snatching at memories between sips of high-priced coffee. I am about to open up a piece of the old Harlem-the New York Amsterdam News-when a tourist asking directions to Sylvia's, a prominent Harlem restaurant, penetrates my daydreaming. He's carrying a book: Touring Historic Harlem.
History. I miss Mr. Michaux's bookstore, his House of Common Sense, which was across from the Theresa. He had a big billboard out front with brown and black faces painted on it that said in large letters:" World History Book Outlet on 2,000,000,000 Africans and Nonwhite Peoples. "An ugly state office building has swallowed that space.
I miss speaker like Carlos Cooks, who was always on the southwest corner of 125th and Seventh, urging listeners to support Africa. Harlem's powerful political electricity seems unplugged-although the streets are still energized, especially by West African immigrants.
Hardworking southern newcomers formed the bulk of the community back in the 1920s and '30s, when Harlem renaissance artists, writers, and intellectuals gave it a glitter and renown that made it the capital of black America. From Harlem, W. E. B. Dubois, Langston Hughes, Paul Robeson, Zora Hurston, and others helped power America's cultural influence around the world.
By the 1970s and '80s drugs and crime had ravaged parts of the community. And the life expectancy for men in Harlem was less than that of men in Bangladesh. Harlem had become a symbol of the dangers of inner-city life.
Now, you want to shout "Lookin' good!"at this place that has been neglected for so long. Crowds push into Harlem USA, a new shopping centre on 125th, where a Disney store shares space with HMV Records, the New York Sports Club, and a nine-screen Magic Johnson theatre complex. Nearb, a Rite Aid drugstore also opened. Maybe part of the reason Harlem seems to be undergoing a rebirth is that it is finally getting what most people take for granted.
Harlem is also part of an "empowerment zone"-a federal designation aimed at fostering economic growth that will bring over half a billion in federal, state, and local dollars. Just the shells of once elegant old brownstones now can cost several hundred thousand dollars. Rents are skyrocketing. An improved economy, tougher law enforcement, and community efforts against drugs have contributed to a 60 percent drop in crime since 1993.
At the beginning the author seems to indicate that Harlem ____. [1分]
has remained unchanged all these years
has undergone drastic changes
has become the capital of Black America
has remained a symbol of dangers of inner-city life
When the author recalls Harlem in the old days, he has a feeling of ____. [1分]
Harlem was called the capital of Black America in the 1920s and '30s mainly because of its ____. [1分]
From the passage we can infer that, generally speaking, the author ____. [1分]
has strong reservations about the changes
has slight reservations about the changes
welcomes the changes in Harlem
is completely opposed to the changes
The senior partner, Oliver Lambert, studied the resume for the hundredth time and again found nothing he disliked about Mitchell Y. McDeere, at least not on paper. He had the brains, the ambition, the good looks. And he was hungry; with his background, he had to be. He was married, and that was mandatory. The firm had never hired an unmarried lawyer, and it frowned heavily on divorce, as well as womanizing and drinking. Drug testing was in the contract. He had a degree in accounting, passed the CPA exam the first time he took it and wanted to be a tax lawyer, which of course was a requirement with a tax firm. He was white, and the firm had never hired a black. They managed this by being secretive and clubbish and never soliciting job applications. Other firms solicited, and hired blacks. This firm recruited, and remained lily white. Plus, the firm was in Memphis, and the top blacks wanted New York or Washington or Chicago. McDeere was a male, and there were no women in the firm. That mistake had been made in the mid-seventies when they recruited the number one grad from Harvard, who happened to be a she and a wizard at taxation. She lasted four turbulent years and was killed in a car wreck.
He looked good, on paper. He was their top choice. In fact, for this year there were no other prospects. The list was very short. It was McDeere, or no one.
The managing partner, Royce McKnight, studied a dossier labeled "Mitchell Y. McDeere-Harvard. "An inch thick with small print and a few photographs; it had been prepared by some exCIA agents in a private intelligence outfit in Bethesda. They were clients of the firm and each year did the investigating for no fee. It was easy work, they said, checking out unsuspecting law students. They learned, for instance, that he preferred to leave the Northeast, that he was holding three job offers, two in New York and one in Chicago, and that the highest offer was $ 76 000 and the lowest was $ 68 000. He was in demand. He had been given the opportunity to cheat on a securities exam during his second year. He declined, and made the highest grade in the class. Two months ago he had been offered cocaine at a law school party. He said no and left when everyone began snorting. He drank an occasional beer, but drinking was expensive and he had no money. He owed close to $ 23 000 in student loans. He was hungry.
Royce McKnight flipped through the dossier and smiled. McDeere was their man. Lamar Quin was thirty-two and not yet a partner. He had been brought along to look young and act young and project a youthful image for Bendini, Lambert & Locke, which in fact was a young firm, since most of the partners retired in their late forties or early fifties with money to burn. He would make partner in this firm. With a six-figure income guaranteed for the rest of his life, Lamar could enjoy the twelve-hundred-dollar tailored suits that hung so comfortably from his tall, athletic frame. He strolled nonchalantly across the thousand dollar a day suite and poured another cup of decaf. He checked his watch. He glanced at the two partners sitting at the small conference table near the windows.
Precisely at two-thirty someone knocked on the door. Lamar looked at the partners, who slid the resume and dossier into an open briefcase. All three reached for their jackets. Lamar buttoned his top button and opened the door.
Which of the following is NOT the firm's recruitment requirement?[1分]
The details of the private investigation show that the firm ____. [1分]
was interested in his family background
intended to check out his other job offers
wanted to know something about his preference
was interested in any personal detail of the man
According to the passage, the main reason Lama Quin was there at the interview was that ____. [1分]
his image could help impress McDeere
he would soon become a partner himself
he was good at interviewing applicants
his background was similar to McDeere's
We get the impression from the passage that in job recruitment the firm was NOT ____. [1分]
Harry Truman didn't think his successor had the right training to be president. "Poor Ike-it won't be a bit like the Army,” he said. "He'll sit there all day saying 'do this, do that,’ and nothing will happen.” Truman was wrong about Ike. Dwight Eisenhower had led a fractious alliance-you didn't tell Winston Churchill what to do-in a massive, chaotic war. He was used to politics. But Truman's insight could well be applied to another, even more venerated Washington figure: the CEO-turned cabinet secretary.
A 20-year bull market has convinced us all that CEOs are geniuses, so watch with astonishment the troubles of Donald Rumsfeld and Paul O' Neill. Here are two highly regarded businessmen, obviously intelligent and well-informed, foundering in their jobs.
Actually, we shouldn't be surprised. Rumsfeld and O' Neill are not doing badly despite having been successful CEOs but because of it. The record of senior businessmen in government is one of almost unrelieved disappointment. In fact, with the exception of Robert Rubin, it is difficult to think of a CEO who had a successful career in government.
Why is this? Well, first the CEO has to recognize that he is no longer the CEO. He is at best an adviser to the CEO, the president. But even the president is not really the CEO. No one is. Power in a corporation is concentrated and vertically structured. Power in Washington is diffuse and horizontally spread out. The secretary might think he's in charge of his agency. But the chairman of the congressional committee funding that agency feels the same. In his famous study "Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents," Richard Neustadt explains how little power the president actually has and concludes that the only lasting presidential power is "the power to persuade. "
Take Rumseld's attempt to transform the cold-war military into one geared for the future. It's innovative but deeply threatening to almost everyone in Washington. The Defense secretary did not try to sell it to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Congress, the budget office of the White House. As a result, the idea is collapsing.
Second, what power you have, you must use carefully. For example, O' Neill's position as Treasury secretary is one with little formal authority. Unlike Finance ministers around the world, Treasury does not control the budget. But it has symbolic power. The secretary is seen as the chief economic spokesman for the administration and, if he plays it right, the chief economic adviser for the president.
O' Neill has been publicly critical of the IMF's bailout packages for developing countries while at the same time approving such packages for Turkey, Argentina and Brazil. As a result, he has gotten the worst of both worlds. The bailouts continue, but their effect in holstering investor confidence is limited because the markets are rattled by his skepticism.
Perhaps the government doesn't do bailouts well. But that leads to a third rule: you can't just quit. Jack Welch's famous law for re-engineering General Electric was to be first or second in any given product category, or else get out of that business. But if the government isn't doing a particular job at peak level, it doesn't always have the option of relieving itself of that function. The Pentagon probably wastes a lot of money. But it can't get out of the national-security business.
The key to former Treasury secretary Rubin's success may have been that he fully understood that business and government are, in his words, "necessarily and properly very different. "In a recent speech he explained, "Business functions around one predominate organizing principle, profitability …… Government, on the other hand, deals with a vast number of equally legitimate and often potentially competing objectives-for example, energy production versus environmental protection, or safety regulations versus productivity. "
Rubin's example shows that talented people can do well in government if they are willing to treat it as its own separate, serious endeavor. But having been bathed in a culture of adoration and flattery, it's difficult for a CEO to believe he needs to listen and learn, particularly from those despised and poorly paid specimens, politicians, bureaucrats and the media. And even if he knows it intellectually, he just can't live with it.
For a CEO to be successful in government, he has to ____. [1分]
regard the president as the CEO
take absolute control of his department
exercise more power than the congressional committee
become acquainted with its power structure
In commenting on O' Neill's record as Treasury Secretary, the passage seems to indicate that ____. [1分]
O' Neill has failed to use his power well
O' Neill policies were well received
O' Neill has been consistent in his policies
O' Neill uncertain about the package he's approved
According to the passage, the differences between government and business lie in the following areas EXCEPT ____. [1分]
The author seems to suggest that CEO-turned government officials ____. [1分]
are able to fit into their new roles
are unlikely to adapt to their new roles
can respond to new situations intelligently
may feel uncertain in their new posts
SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING [10 MIN]
In this section there are seven passages with ten multiple-choice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on COLORED ANSWER SHEET.
First read the question.
The passage is mainly concerned with ____ in the U. S. A. [1分]
Now go through TEXT E quickly to answer question 31.
Planning to answer your e-mail while on holiday in New York? That may not be easy. The Internet may have been invented in the United States, but America is one of the least likely places where a traveler might find an Internet cafe. "Every major city in the world has more cybercafés than New York,” says Joie Kelly, who runs Cybercafé Guide. com. The numbers seem to bear her out: according to various directories, London has more than 30, Paris 19, Istanbul 17, but New York has only 8. Other U. S. cities fare just as poorly: Los Angeles has about 11, Chicago has 4. "Here it's quite hard work to find a cafe. I was surprised,” says Michael Robson, a sportswriter from York, England, who was visibly relieved to be checking his e-mail at Cybercafé near New York's Times Square.
Why the lack of places to plug in? Americans enjoy one of the highest rates of Internet access from work and home in the world, and they've never really taken to cafes. About 80 percent of Cyber Café’s clients, for instance, are tourists from overseas. Greek tycoon Stelios HajiIoannou also thinks high prices drive away locals. Last November, he opened a branch of his Internet-cafe chain easyEverything in Times Square. With 800 terminals, it's the largest Net cafe in the world. While the typical American cafe charges $ 8 to $ 12 an hour, easyEverything charges $ 1 to 4. Marketing manager Stephaine Engelsen says half the cafe's customers are locals. "We get policemen, firemen, nurses who don't work at desks with computers, actors between auditions. "easyEverything is now planning to open new locations in Harlem, and possibly SoHo. Unless there's some cultural shift afoot, however, New York will continue to lag behind metropolises from Mexico City to Moscow.
First read the question.
In the passage below the author primarily attempts to ____. [1分]
criticize yogis in the West
Now go through TEXT F quickly to answer question 32.
Most of the so-called yogis in the West seem to focus on figure correction, not true awareness. They make statements about yoga being for the body, mind and soul. But this is just semantics. Asanas (postures), which get such huge play in the West, are the smallest aspect of yoga. Either you practice yoga as a whole or you don't. If one is practicing just for health, better to take up walking. Need to cure a disease? See a doctor. Yoga is not about fancy asanas or breath control. Nor is it a therapy or a philosophy. Yoga is about inside awareness. It is the process of union of the self with the whole. Yoga is becoming the Buddha.
Yogis are experimentalists. In the West, scientists research mainly external phenomena. Yogis focus on the inside. They know that the external world is maya (illusionary) and everything inside is sathya (truth). In maya everything goes, but if you know yourself nothing goes. The West tends to practice only what we call cultural asanas that focus on the external. We don't practice asanas just to become fit. Indian yogis have discovered 8. 4 million such postures. It is essential to train our bodies to find the most comfortable pose that we can sit in for hours. Beyond that there is no role for physical yoga.
Basically yoga is made up of two parts: bahirang (external yoga) and antarang (internal yoga). The West practices only the former. It needs to enter into antarang yoga. After that begins the trip to the unknown where the master makes the student gradually aware at every stage, where you know that you are not the body or the mind and not even the soul. That is when you get the first taste of moksha, or enlightenment. It is the sense of the opening of the silence, the sense where you lose yourself and are happy doing it, where for the first time your ego has merged with the superconsciousness. You feel you no longer exist, for you have walked into the valley of death. And if you start walking more and more in this valley, you become freer.
First read the question.
The reviewer's comments on Henry Kissinger's new book are basically ____. [1分]
Now go through TEXT G quickly to answer question 33.
Whatever you think of Henry Kissinger, you have to admit: the man has staying power. With a new book-Does America Need a Foreign Policy?-on the shelves, Kissinger is once again helping to shape American thinking on foreign relations. This is the sixth decade in which that statement can be said to be true.
Kissinger's new book is terrific. Plainly intended as an extended tutorial on policy for the new American Administration, it is full of good sense and studded with occasional insights that will have readers nodding their heads in silent agreement. A particularly good chapter on Asia rebukes anyone who unthinkingly assigns China the role once played by the Soviet Union as the natural antagonist of the U. S.
Kissinger's book can also be read in another, and more illuminating, light. It is, in essence, an extended meditation on the end of a particular way of looking at the world: one where the principal actors in international relations are nation-states, pursuing their conception of their own national interest, and in which the basic rule of foreign policy is that one nation does not intervene in the internal affairs of another.
Students of international relations call this the "Westphalian system,"after the 1648 Peace of Westphalia that ended Europe's Thirty Years War, a time of indescribable carnage waged in the name of competing religions. The treaties that ended the war put domestic arrangements-like religion-off limits to other states. In the war's aftermath a rough-and-ready commitment to a balance of power among neighbors took shape. Kissinger is a noted school of the balance of power. And he is suspicious of attempts to meddle in the internal business of others.
Yet Kissinger is far too sophisticated to attempt to recreate a world that is lost. "Today,"he writes,"the Westphalian order is in systematic crisis. "In particular, nation-states are no longer the sole drivers of the international system. In some cases, groups of states-like the European Union or Mercosur-have developed their own identities and agendas. Economic globalization has both blurred the boundaries between nations and given a substantial international role to those giant companies for whom such boundaries make little sense. In today's world, individuals can be as influential as nations; future historians may consider the support for public health of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to be more noteworthy than last week's United Nations conference on AIDS. And a large number of institutions are premised on the assumption that intervention in the internal affairs of others is often desirable. Were that not the case, Slobodan Milosevic would not have been surrendered last week to the jurisdiction of the war crimes tribunal in the Hague.
The consequences of these changes are profound. Kissinger is right to note that globalization has undermined the role of the nation-state less in the case of the U. S. (Why? Because it's more powerful than anyone else. ) Elsewhere, the old ways of thinking about the "national interest"-that guiding light of the Westphalian system-have fewer adherents than they once did.
First read the question.
In the passage the author expresses his concern about ____. [1分]
the survival of small languages
globalization in the post-Cold War era
present-day technological progress
Now go through TEXT H quickly to answer question 34.
During the past century, due to a variety of factors, more than 1 000 of the world's languages have disappeared, and it is possible to foresee a time, perhaps 100 years from now, when about half of today's 6 000 languages will either be dead or dying.
This startling rate of linguistic extinction is possible because 96 per cent of the world's languages are now spoken only by 4 per cent of the world's population.
Globalization in the post-Cold War era has witnessed the coming of the information age, which has played an important role in promoting economic co-operation but which has, at the same time, helped facilitate the assimilation of smaller cultural systems into a larger, mostly English-speaking whole.
Internet and other forms of mass media have succeeded in making English the worldwide standard.
In 1998, the Seminar on Technological Progress & Development of the Present-day World was held in China. At the seminar, many participants expressed concern over the potential risks associated with excessive dependency on information technology. These critics claimed a move from "information monopoly" to "information hegemony" could possibly become just another way for the strong to dominate the weak, culturally as well as economically.
In other words, life in a technology-and information-based global society may lead to a new social stratification, in which linguistic assimilation will lead to cultural assimilation and social injustice will abound.
In the 20th century, human society's over-development caused the deterioration of the environment and ecological imbalance. The extinction of myriad biological species aroused deep concern which led people to an understanding of the special importance of protecting rare animals and plants on the brink of extinction.
Now we face the question, is the maintenance of cultural and linguistic diversity as important as the preservation of pandas and Chinese white-flag dolphins?
Given the open society in which we live, or wish to live, this question becomes complicated. A balance must be struck between promoting international exchanges on the one hand, and taking measures to protect "small" languages on the other hand.
Most widely used languages, such as the six working languages-including English and Chinese-used in the United Nations, have little to fear and need no special protection.
But for other, more marginal languages some measures should be taken. Professionals should be trained to study and use them in order to keep them alive. Effective measures such as bilingual or multilingual education should also be implemented to protect them from extinction.
To some, 6 000 may seem like an inexhaustible number of languages. To those same people, it may seem irrelevant if one or two of those languages cease to be used.
But what many fail to realize is that language and culture are linked. Without one, the other dies, and so with the death of different languages we have the death of different cultures. The extinction of languages is equal to animal extinction in this respect. The fading away of a language, no matter how small, causes real damage to the "ecological balance" in the field of culture.
First read the questions.
The work of Project Manager is chiefly concerned with ____. [1分]
emergency relief programs
helicopter assisted surveys
The working contract is offered on a ____ basis. [1分]
Now go through TEXT I quickly to answer questions 35 and 36.
AGRICULTURAL REHABILITATION PROJECT, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA
SCF started work in Ethiopia in 1973 with an emergency relief program in response to the famine of that year. Since then SCF has been involved in a range of longer-term relief and development programs to secure lasting benefits for children.
As a result of a helicopter assisted survey undertaken in the northern highlands of Ethiopia in 2000, SCF has been involved in a number of interventions aimed at engaging with the agricultural sector in order to promote food security in the most vulnerable areas of North Wollo.
As Project Manager your key task will be to manage, promote and develop all SCF's activities in the agriculture / livestock and natural resources sectors in Wollo. You will also play a major role in developing policy at national level.
To meet the challenge of this exciting new post you will need a relevant post graduate qualification; substantial experience in managing agricultural development projects in Africa with an emphasis on providing institutional support to the capacity of extension services while prompting farmer participation; ability to think and plan strategically; proven team management skills; report writing and financial skills; willingness to travel extensively and live and work in an isolated location.
This post is offered on a twelve-month contract with a salary of ￡ 19 294(normally tax-free). You can also expect a generous benefits package including all flights and reasonable living and accommodation expenses.
For further details and an application form please apply with CV to Jenny Thomas, Overseas Personnel Administrator, SCF, 17 Grove Lane, London SE5 8RD
Closing date: 30th November 2001.
First read the questions.
Who have found a protein called M2?[1分]
Scientists from a Belgium University.
Drug-makers in Belgium.
Doctors in a Belgium hospital.
How many causes of bad breath does the passage cite?[1分]
Now go through TEXT J quickly to answer questions 37 and 38.
The Common Cold?
The conventional wisdom says no, but by mid-century that assessment-along with the sniffles-may well be ancient history. Colds are considered incurable today because it would take months to come up with a vaccine for every new strain. That's fine for the flu, which breeds in animals and only jumps over to humans every year or two. But colds mutate even while they're infecting you, and new strains pop up so often that by the time drug-makers create a vaccine against one variation, the serum is already out of date.
The flu may yet point the way toward a cold cure though. Scientists at the University of Ghent, in Belgium, have found a protein called M2 that seems to be present in virtually every flu strain known to man. Using that knowledge, they have made a vaccine that they think could protect against all flus-old, new and those not yet in existence.
If a similar protein is found in cold viruses-a protein that's present no matter what strain is involved-then it is possible that by 2025 or so, children could be getting a universal cold vaccine. And then they will have to listen to us old geezers reminsice about the days when we used to carry a small white cloth called a handkerchief.
Afraid not. Bad breath isn't an illness; it's merely a symptom of something else. In some cases, the something else really is an illness-some kidney disorder or an infection. Infections can usually be cured, and if you're suffering from an incurable one or from another serious condition, bad breath is the least of your problems.
Another cause is foods like onions or garlic, in which case you're out of luck: essential oils from such foods get into the blood, then into the lungs, then out with each exhaled breath. Even in the 21st century, if you want the flavor, you risk disfavor.
The most common reason for bad breath, though, is, to put it delicately, food molecules rotting in the mouth. Mouthwash masks te smell, but ultimately you have to get rid of the stuff. Brushing removes larger particles, but dentists suggest brushing the back of the tongue as well, where food residues and bacteria congregate. The microscopic bits that remain must be flushed down by drink or saliva. But if you're waiting for a true cure, it won't happen until we eat all our food in pill form. In other words, don't hold you breath.
First read the questions.
When did Moore receive his first commission?[1分]
Where did Moore win his first international prize?[1分]
Now go through TEXT K quickly to answer questions 39 and 40.
Henry Moore, the seventh of eight children of Raymond Spencer Moore and his wife Mary, was born in Yorkshire on 30 July 1898. After graduating from secondary school, Moore taught for a short while. Then the First World War began and he enlisted in the army at the age of eighteen. After the war he applied for and received an ex-serviceman's grant to attend Leeds School of Art. At the end of his second year he won a scholarship to the Royal College of Art in London.
In 1928 Moore met Irina Radesky, a painting student at the college, whom he married a year later. The couple then moved into a house which consisted of a small ground-floor studio with an equally small flat above. This remained their London home for ten years.
Throughout the 1920's Moore was involved in the art life of London. His first commission, received in 1928, was to produce a sculpture relief for the newly opened headquarters of London Transport. His first one-man exhibition opened at the Warren Gallery in 1928; it was followed by a show at the Leicester Galleries in 1931 and his first sale to a gallery abroad-the Museum fur Kunst und Gewerbe in Hamburg. His success continued.
In 1946 Moore had his first foreign retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, New York. In 1948 he won the International Sculpture Prize at the 24th Venice Biennale, the first of countless international accolades acquired in succeeding years. At the same time sales of Moore's work around the world increased, as did the demand for his exhibitions. By the end of 1970's the number of exhibitions had grown to an average of forty a year, ranging from the very small to major international retrospectives taking years years of detailed planning and preparation.
The main themes in Moore's work included the mother and child, the earliest work created in 1922, and the reclining figure dating from 1926. At the end of the 1960's came stringed figures based on mathematical models observed in the Science Museum, and the first helmet head, a subject that later developed into the internal-external theme-variously interpreted as a hard form covering a soft, like a mother protecting her child or a foetus inside a womb.
A few years before his death in 1986 Moore gave the estate at Perry Green with its studios, houses and cottages to the Trustees of the Henry Moore Foundation to promote sculpture and the fine arts within the cultural life of the country and in particular the works of Henry Moore.
ANSWER SHEET ONE
TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS (2003)
- GRADE EIGHT -
PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION
SECTION D NOTE-TAKING & GAP-FILLING [15 MIN.]
Fill in each of the gaps with ONE word. You may refer to your notes. Make sure the word you fill in is grammatically and semantically acceptable.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow has developed a famous theory of human needs, which can be arranged in order of importance.
Physiological needs: the most (1)________ones for survival. They include such needs as food, water, etc. And there is usually one way to satisfy these needs. (2)________needs: needs for a) physical security; b)(3)_______security.
The former means no illness or injury, while the latter is concerned with freedom from (4)______, misfortunes, etc. These needs can be met through a variety of means, e.g. job security, (5)_______ plans, and safe working conditions. Social needs: human requirements for a) love and affection; b) a sense of belonging. There are two ways to satisfy these needs: a) formation of relationships at workplace; b) formation of relationships outside workplace. Esteem needs: a) self-esteem, i.e. one’s sense of achievement; b) esteem of others, i.e. others’ respect as a result of one’s (6)________.These needs can be fulfilled by achievement, promotion, honors, etc. Self-realization needs: need to realize one’s potential. Ways to realize these needs are individually (7)_______ Features of the hierarchy of needs: a) Social, esteem and self-realization needs are exclusively(8)________ needs. b) Needs are satisfied in a fixed order from the bottom up. c) (9)________ for needs comes from the lowest un-met level. d) Different levels of needs may (10)________ when they come into play.
ANSWER SHEET TWO
TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS (2003)
- GRADE EIGHT -[1分]
PART II PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION [15 MIN.]
The following passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:
For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a "∧" sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash "/"and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.
When ∧ art museum wants a new exhibit, (1) an
it never buys things in finished form and hangs them on the wall. (2) never
When a natural history museum wants an exhibition, it must (3) exhibit
often build it.
Demographic indicators show that Americans in the postwar period were more eager than ever to establish families. They quickly brought down the age at marriage for both men and women and brought the birth rate to a twentieth century height after more than a hundred (1)______years of a steady decline, producing the “baby boom.” These young (2)______adults established a trend of early marriage and relatively large families that Went for more than two decades and caused a major (3)_______but temporary reversal of long-term demographic patterns. From the 1940S through the early 1960s, Americans married at a high rate (4)_______and at a younger age than their Europe counterparts.(5)_______Less noted but equally more significant, the men and women on who (6)______ formed families between 1940 and 1960 nevertheless reduced the (7)_______divorce rate after a postwar peak; their marriages remained intact to a greater extent than did that of couples who married in earlier as well (8)_______as later decades. Since the United States maintained its dubious (9)______distinction of having the highest divorce rate in the world, the temporary decline in divorce did not occur in the same extent in (10)_______Europe. Contrary to fears of the experts, the role of breadwinner and homemaker was not abandoned.
TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS (2003)
TIME LIMIT: 120 MIN.
PART IV TRANSLATION [60 MIN]
SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH
Translate the following underlined text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
Before I fell ill, my parents doted on me a lot. I could have my way at home. Once I was isolated and confined in a chamber on the hillside of the garden, I suddenly felt I was neglected and became very depressed. One spring evening, my parents held a Banquet in the garden, where all sorts of flowers were in full bloom. In no time, a crowd of their guests collected and laughter was heard all over there. I, without being noticed, lifted the curtain in my small room, only to spy the bustle of a kaleidoscopic world down in the garden, and my elder sisters, brothers and my cousins, each full of the joys of spring, were shuttling among the guests. Quickly enough, I was thrown into a fist of sorrowful anger at being forgotten and discarded by the rest and could not help crying my heart out.
SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE
Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
In his classic novel, "The Pioneers", James Fenimore Cooper has his hero, a land developer, with his cousin on a tour of the city he is building. He describes the broad streets, rows of houses, a bustling metropolis. But his cousin looks around bewildered. All she sees is a forest. "Where are the beauties and improvements which you were to show me?" she asks. He's astonished she can't see them. "Where! Why everywhere," he replies. For though they are not yet built on earth, he has built them in his mind, and they are as concrete to him as if they were already constructed and finished.
Cooper was illustrating a distinctly American trait, future-mindedness: the ability to see the present from the vantage point of the future; the freedom to feel unencumbered by the past and more emotionally attached to things to come. As Albert Einstein once said, "Life for the American is always becoming, never being.”[10分]
An English newspaper is currently running a discussion on whether young people in China today are (not) more self-centered and unsympathetic than were previous generations. And the paper is inviting contributions from university students. You have been asked to write a short article for the newspaper to air your views.
Your article should be about 300 words in length. In the first part of your article you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary.
You should supply a title for your article.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.
Write your composition on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.[20分]
Love, and Then Be Loved
In recent years, more and more teachers complain that their students are indifferent to others. Some even worry that the young generation might ruin the future of China. To be sure, many of our young people cannot see eye to eye with this view. However, as a university student, I myself would like to content that we young people today are in general more self-centered and unsympathetic than our previous generations.
To start with, most, if not all, young people choose to attend exclusively to their own needs. In their eyes, It is all too natural to seek satisfaction from what they do, even if it may mean inconvenience to others. Take my dormitory for example. It is a common scene here that a roommate cheerfully talks to his girlfriend on the phone at midnight when others are struggling for a sound sleep. One may complain now and then, but to no avail. In fact, the others, to the exclusion of me, live their dormitory life much in the same way. When I take a nap at noon, they often play cards. They have no regard for others. Life is a joy to them, yet they often enjoy it to the neglect of others' feelings. In sharp contrast, our caring parents always pay heed to our needs and those of others. Whenever my father comes back home late in the night, he tiptoes In for fear that he might awake me.
Moreover, our young people tend to be insensitive to others' difficulty. When a classmate falls ill, few people offer to help, but regard it as none of their business. Some students in my class come from poor families. Yet, they are active mobile phone users, who may spend twice as much as what their parents earn from arduous labor. When asked why they behave so, they answer that their parents have the obligation to accommodate their expenses. Personally, I detest their answer, for I know my parents never thought that way when they were young. Being aware of their parents' financial difficulty, they managed to save every penny they could.
For the above reasons and those not mentioned here, I subscribe to the view that young people in today's China are more self-centered and unsympathetic than were our previous generations. It is high time that we learned from older generations so that a harmonious and splendid future can be anticipated.