TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS (2000)-GRADE EIGHT-
TIME LIMIT: 95 MIN
PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION [40 MIN.]
In Sections A, B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your Colored Answer Sheet.
SECTION A TALK
Questions 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section .At the end of the talk you w ill be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.
Now listen to the talk.
The rules for the first private library in the US were drawn up by ___.[1分]
The earliest public library was also called a subscription library because books ___.[1分]
could be lent to everyone
could be lent by book stores
were lent to students and the faculty
were lent on a membership basis
Which of the following is NOT stated as one of the purposes of free public libraries? [1分]
To provide readers with comfortable reading rooms.
To provide adults with opportunities of further education.
To serve the community's cultural and recreational needs.
To supply technical literature on specialized subjects.
The major difference between modem private and public libraries lies in ___.[1分]
The main purpose of the talk is ___.[1分]
to introduce categories of books in US libraries
to demonstrate the importance of US libraries
to explain the roles of different US libraries
to define the circulation system of US libraries
SECTION B INTERVIEW
Questions 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you wil l be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions.
Now listen to the interview.
Nancy became a taxi driver because ___.[1分]
she liked drivers' uniforms
it was her childhood dream
According to her, what was the most difficult about becoming a taxi dr iver?[1分]
The right sense of direction.
The skill of maneuvering.
What does Nancy like best about her job?[1分]
Seeing interesting buildings in the city.
Being able to enjoy the world of nature.
Driving in unsettled weather.
Taking long drives outside the city.
It can be inferred from the interview that Nancy in a (n) ___ mother.[1分]
The people Nancy meets are[1分]
rather difficult to please
talkative and generous with tips
different in personality
SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST
Question 11 is based on the following news. At the end of the news i tem, you wil l be given 15 seconds to answer the question.
Now listen to the news.
The primary purpose of the US anti-smoking legislation is ___.[1分]
to tighten control on tobacco advertising
to impose penalties on tobacco companies
to start a national anti-smoking campaign
to ensure the health of American children
Questions 12 and 13 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 30 seconds to answer the questions.
Now listen to the news.
The French President's visit to Japan aims at ___.[1分]
making more investments in Japan
stimulating Japanese businesses in France
helping boost the Japanese economy
launching a film festival in Japan
This is Jacques Chirac's ___ visit to Japan.[1分]
Questions 14 and 15 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 30 seconds to answer the questions.
Now listen to the news.
Afghan people are suffering from starvation because ___.[1分]
melting snow begins to block the mountain paths
the Taliban have destroyed existing food stocks
the Taliban are hindering food deliveries
an emergency air-lift of food was cancelled
people in Afghanistan are facing starvation.[1分]
SECTION DNOTE-TAKING ANDGAP-FILLING
In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening to the lecture, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a 15-minute gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE after the mini-lecture. Use the blank paper for note-taking.
Part Ⅱ PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION (15 MIN)
Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed.
Part Ⅲ READING COMPREHENSION (40 MIN)
SECTION A READING COMPREHENSION (30 MIN)
In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of fifteen multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your Colored Answer Sheet.
Despite Denmark's manifest virtues, Danes never talk about how proud they a re to be Danes. This would sound weird in Danish. When Danes talk to foreigners about Denmark, they always begin by commenting on its tininess, its unimportance, the difficulty of its language, the general small-mindedness and self-indulgence of their countrymen and the high taxes. No Dane would look you in the eye and say, "Denmark is a great country." You're supposed to figure this out for yourself.
It is the land of the silk safety net, where almost half the national budget goes toward smoothing out life's inequalities, and there is plenty of money f or schools, day care, retraining programmes, job seminars-Danes love seminars: three days at a study centre hearing about waste management is almost as good as a ski trip. It is a culture bombarded by English, in advertising, pop music, the Internet, and despite all the English that Danish absorbs-there is no Danish Academy to defend against it -old dialects persist in Jutland that can barely be understood by Copenhageners. It is the land where, as the saying goes," Fe w have too much and fewer have too little, "and a foreigner is struck by the sweet egalitarianism that prevails, where the lowliest clerk gives you a level gaze, where Sir and Madame have disappeared from common usage, even Mr. and Mrs. It’s a nation of recyclers-about 55 % of Danish garbage gets made into something new- and no nuclear power plants. It's a nation of tireless planner. Trains run on time. Things operate well in general.
Such a nation of overachievers - a brochure from the Ministry of Business and Industry says, "Denmark is one of the world's cleanest and most organize d countries, with virtually no pollution, crime, or poverty. Denmark is the most corruption-free society in the Northern Hemisphere. "So, of course, one's heart lifts at any sighting of Danish sleaze: skinhead graffiti on buildings ("Foreigner s Out of Denmark! "), broken beer bottles in the gutters, drunken teenagers slumped in the park.
Nonetheless, it is an orderly land. You drive through a Danish town, it comes to an end at a stone wall, and on the other side is a field of barley, a nice clean line: town here, country there. It is not a nation of jay-walkers. People stand on the curb and wait for the red light to change, even if it's 2 a.m. a n d there's not a car in sight. However, Danes don' t think of themselves as a wainting-at-2-a.m.-for-the-green-light people——that's how they see Swedes and Germans. Danes see themselves as jazzy people, improvisers, more free spirited than Swedes, but the truth is (though one should not say it) that Danes are very much like Germans and Swedes. Orderliness is a main selling point. Denmark has few natural resources, limited manufacturing capability; its future in Europe will be as a broker, banker, and distributor of goods. You send your goods by container ship to Copenhagen, and these bright, young, English-speaking, utterly honest, highly disciplined people will get your goods around to Scandinavia, the Baltic States, and Russia. Airports, seaports, highways, and rail lines are ultramodern and well-maintained.
The orderliness of the society doesn't mean that Danish lives are less messy or lonely than yours or mine, and no Dane would tell you so. You can hear plenty about bitter family feuds and the sorrows of alcoholism and about perfectly sensible people who went off one day and killed themselves. An orderly society c an not exempt its members from the hazards of life.
But there is a sense of entitlement and security that Danes grow up with. Certain things are yours by virtue of citizenship, and you shouldn't feel bad f o r taking what you're entitled to, you're as good as anyone else. The rules of the welfare system are clear to everyone, the benefits you get if you lose your job, the steps you take to get a new one; and the orderliness of the system makes it possible for the country to weather high unemployment and social unrest without a sense of crisis.
The author thinks that Danes adopt a ___ attitude towards their country.[1分]
Which of the following is NOT a Danish characteristic cited in the passage? [1分]
Fondness of foreign culture.
The author's reaction to the statement by the Ministry of Business and Industry is ___.[1分]
According to the passage, Danish orderliness ___.[1分]
sets the people apart from Germans and Swedes
spares Danes social troubles besetting other people
is considered economically essential to the country
prevents Danes from acknowledging existing troubles
At the end of the passage the author states all the following EXCEPT that ___.[1分]
Danes are clearly informed of their social benefits
Danes take for granted what is given to them
the open system helps to tide the country over
orderliness has alleviated unemployment
But if language habits do not represent classes, a social stratification in to something as bygone as "aristocracy" and "commons", they do still of course serve to identify social groups. This is something that seems fundamental in the use of language. As we see in relation to political and national movements, language is used as a badge or a barrier depending on which way we look at it. The new boy at school feels out of it at first because he does not know the fight words for things, and awe-inspiring pundits of six or seven look down on him for no t being aware that racksy means "dilapidated", or hairy "out first ball". The miner takes a certain pride in being "one up on the visitor or novice who calls the cage a "lift" or who thinks that men working in a warm seam are in their "underpants" when anyone ought to know that the garments are called hoggers. The "insider" is seldom displeased that his language distinguishes him from the "outsider".
Quite apart from specialized terms of this kind in groups, trades and professions, there are all kinds of standards of correctness at which mast of us feel more or less obliged to aim, because we know that certain kinds of English invite irritation or downright condemnation. On the other hand, we know that other kinds convey some kind of prestige and bear a welcome cachet.
In relation to the social aspects of language, it may well be suggested that English speakers fall into three categories: the assured, the anxious and the indifferent. At one end of this scale, we have the people who have "position" and "status", and who therefore do not feel they need worry much about their use of English. Their education and occupation make them confident of speaking an unimpeachable form of English: no fear of being criticized or corrected is likely t o cross their minds, and this gives their speech that characteristically unselfconscious and easy flow which is often envied.
At the other end of the scale, we have an equally imperturbable band, speaking with a similar degree of careless ease, because even if they are aware that their English is condemned by others, they are supremely indifferent to the fact. The Mrs. Mops of this world have active and efficient tongues in their heads, and if we happened not to like the/r ways of saying things, well, we "can lump it ". That is their attitude. Curiously enough, writers are inclined to represent t he speech of both these extreme parties with -in' for ing. On the one hand, "we're goin' huntin', my dear sir"; on the other, "we're goin' racin’, mate."
In between, according to this view, we have a far less fortunate group, the anxious. These actively try to suppress what they believe to be bad English and assiduously cultivate what they hope to be good English. They live their lives in some degree of nervousness over their grammar, their pronunciation, and their choice of words: sensitive, and fearful of betraying themselves. Keeping up with the Joneses is measured not only in houses, furniture, refrigerators, cars, and clothes, but also in speech.
And the misfortune of the "anxious" does not end with their inner anxiety. Their lot is also the open or veiled contempt of the "assured" on one side of them and of the "indifferent" on the other.
It is all too easy to raise an unworthy laugh at the anxious. The people thus uncomfortably stilted on linguistic high heels so often form part of what is, in many ways, the most admirable section of any society: the ambitious, tense, inner-driven people, who are bent on" going places and doing things". The greater the pity, then, if a disproportionate amount of their energy goes into what Mr. Sharpless called" this shabby obsession" with variant forms of English- especially if the net result is(as so often)merely to sound affected and ridiculous. “Here", according to Bacon, "is the first distemper of learning, when men study words and not matter …. It seems to me that Pygmalion’s frenzy is a good emblem …of this vanity: for words axe but the images of matter; and except they have life of reason and invention, to fall in love with them is to fall in love with a picture."
The attitude held by the assured towards language is ___.[1分]
The anxious are considered a less fortunate group because ___.[1分]
they feel they are socially looked down upon
they suffer from internal anxiety and external attack
they are inherently nervous and anxious people
they are unable to meet standards of correctness
The author thinks that the efforts made by the anxious to cultivate w hat they believe is good English are ___.[1分]
Fred Cooke of Salford turned 90 two days ago and the world has been beating a path to his door. If you haven't noticed, the backstreet boy educated at Blackpool grammar styles himself more grandly as Alastair Cooke, broadcaster extraordinaire. An honorable KBE, he would be Sir Alastair if he had not taken American citizenship more than half a century ago.
If it sounds snobbish to draw attention to his humble origins, it should be reflected that the real snob is Cooke himself, who has spent a lifetime disguising them. But the fact that he opted to renounce his British passport in 1941 - just when his country needed all the wartime help it could get-is hardly a matter for congratulation.
Cooke has made a fortune out of his love affair with America, entrancing listeners with a weekly monologue that has won Radio 4 many devoted adherents. Part of the pull is the developed drawl. This is the man who gave the world "midatlantic", the language of the disc jockey and public relations man.
He sounds American to us and English to them, while in reality he has for decades belonged to neither. Cooke's world is an America that exists largely in the imagination. He took ages to acknowledge the disaster that was Vietnam and even longer to wake up to Watergate. His politics have drifted to the right with age, and most of his opinions have been acquired on the golf course with fellow celebrities.
He chased after stars on arrival in America, Fixing up an interview with Charlie Chaplin and briefly becoming his friend. He told Cooke he could turn him into a fine light comedian; instead he is an impressionist's dream.
Cooke liked the sound of his first wife's name almost as much as he admired her good looks. But he found bringing up baby difficult and left her for the wife of his landlord. Women listeners were unimpressed when, in 1996, he declared on air that the fact that 4% of women in the American armed forces were raped showed remarkable self-restraint on the part of Uncle Sam's soldiers. His arrogance in not allowing BBC editors to see his script in advance worked, not for the first time, to his detriment. His defenders said he could not help living with the 1930s values he had acquired and somewhat dubiously went on to cite "gallantry" as chief among them. Cooke's raconteur style encouraged a whole generation of BBC men to think of themselves as more important than the story. His treacly tones were the mo del for the regular World Service reports From Our Own Correspondent, known as FOOCs in the business. They may yet be his epitaph.
At the beginning of the passage the writer sounds critical of ___.[1分]
Cooke's broadcasting style
Cooke's American citizenship
Cooke's fondness of America
The following adjectives can be suitably applied to Cooke EXCEPT ___.[1分]
The writer comments on Cooke's life and career in a slightly ___ tone.[1分]
Mr. Duffy raised his eyes from the paper and gazed out of his window on the cheerless evening landscape. The river lay quiet beside the empty distillery and from time to time a light appeared in some house on Lucan Road. What an end! The whole narrative of her death revolted him and it revolted him to think that he had ever spoken to her of what he held sacred. The cautious words of a reporter won over to conceal the details of a commonplace vulgar death attacked his stomach. Not merely had she degraded herself, she had degraded him. His soul's companion! He thought of the hobbling wretches whom he had seen carrying cans and bottles to be filled by the barman. Just God, what an end! Evidently she had been unfit to live, without any strength of purpose, an easy prey to habits, one of the wrecks on which civilization has been reared. But that she could have sunk so low! Was it possible he had deceived himself so utterly about her? He remembered her outburst of that night and interpreted it in a harsher sense than he had ever done. He had no difficulty now in approving of the course he had taken.
As the light failed and his memory began to wander he thought her hand touched his. The shock which had first attacked his stomach was now attacking his nerves. He put on his overcoat and hat quickly and went out. The cold air met him on the threshold; it crept into the sleeves of his coat. When he came to the public house at Chapel Bridge he went in and ordered a hot punch.
The proprietor served him obsequiously but did not venture to talk. There were five or six working-men in the shop discussing the value of a gentleman's e state in County Kildare. They drank at intervals from their huge pint tumblers, and smoked, spitting often on the floor and sometimes dragging the sawdust over their heavy boots. Mr. Duffy sat on his stool and gazed at them, without seeing o r hearing them. After a while they went out and he called for another punch. He sat a long time over it. The shop was very quiet. The proprietor sprawled on the counter reading the newspaper and yawning. Now and again a tram was heard swishing along the lonely road outside.
As he sat there, living over his life with her and evoking alternately the two images on which he now conceived her, he realized that she was dead, that s he had ceased to exist, that she had become a memory. He began to feel ill at ea se. He asked himself what else could he have done. He could not have lived with her openly. He had done what seemed to him best. How was he to blame? Now that s he was gone he understood how lonely her life must have been, sitting night after night alone in that room. His life would be lonely too until he, too, died, ceased to exist, became a memory-if anyone remembered him.
Mr. Duffy's immediate reaction to the report of the woman's death was that of ___.[1分]
It can be inferred from the passage that the reporter wrote about the woman's death in a ___ manner.[1分]
We can infer from the last paragraph that Mr. Duffy was in a(n) ___ mood.[1分]
According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT t rue?[1分]
Mr. Duffy once confided in the woman.
Mr. Duffy felt an intense sense of shame.
The woman wanted to end the relationship.
They became estranged probably after a quarrel.
SECTION B SKIMMING ANDSCANNING ( 10 MIN)
In this section there are seven passages followed by ten multiple -choice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on the Coloured Answer Sheet.
First read the following question.
In the passage Bill Gates mainly discusses ___.[1分]
a person's opportunity of a lifetime
the success of the computer industry
the importance of education
high school education in the US
Now go through TEXT E quickly and answer question 31.
Hundreds of students send me e-mail each year asking for advice about education. They want to know what to study, or whether it's OK to drop out of college since that's what I did.
My basic advice is simple and heartfelt." Get the best education you can. Take advantage of high school and college. Learn how to learn."
It's true that I dropped out of college to start Microsoft, but I was at Harvard for three years before dropping out-and I'd love to have the time to go b a ck. As I've said before, nobody should drop out of college unless they believe they face the opportunity of a lifetime. And even then they should reconsider.
The computer industry has lots of people who didn't finish college, but I 'm not aware of any success stories that began with somebody dropping out of high school. I actually don't know any high school dropouts, let alone any successful ones.
In my company's early years we had a bright part-time programmer who threatened to drop out of high school to work full-time. We told him no.
Quite a few of our people didn't finish college, but we discourage dropping out.
College isn't the only place where information exists. You can learn in a library. But somebody handing you a book doesn't automatically foster learning. Y o u want to learn with other people, ask questions, try out ideas and have a way to test your ability. It usually takes more than just a book.
Education should be broad, although it's fine to have deep interests, too.
In high school there were periods when I was highly focused on writing soft ware, but for most of my high school years I had wide-ranging academic interests. My parents encouraged this, and I'm grateful that they did.
One parent wrote me that her 15-year old son "lost himself in the hole of t he computer.”He got an A in Web site design, but other grades were sinking, she said.
This boy is making a mistake. High school and college offer you the best chance to learn broadly-math, history, various sciences-and to do projects with other kids that teach you firsthand about group dynamics. It's fine to take a deep interest in computers, dance, language or any other discipline, but not if it jeopardizes breadth.
In college it's appropriate to think about specialization. Getting real expertise in an area of interest can lead to success. Graduate school is one way t o get specialized knowledge. Choosing a specialty isn't something high school students should worry about. They should worry about getting a strong academic start.
There's not a perfect correlation between attitudes in high school and success in later life, of course. But it's a real mistake not to take the opportunity to learn a huge range of subjects, to learn to work with people in high school, and to get the grades that will help you get into a good college.
First read the following question.
The passage focuses on ___.[1分]
the history and future of London
London’s manufacturing skills
London's status as a financial centrer
the past and present roles of London
Now go through Text F quickly and answer question 32.
What is London for? To put the question another way, why was London, by 190 0, incomparably the largest city in the world, which it remained until the bombardments of the Luftwaffe? There could be many answers to this question, but any history of London will rehearse three broad explanations. One is the importance of its life as a port. When the Thames turned to ice in February 1855, 50,000 men were put out of work, and there were bread riots from those whose liveliboods had been frozen with the river. Today, the Thames could be frozen for a year with out endangering the livelihoods of any but a few pleasure-boatmen.
The second major cause of London's wealth and success was that it was easily the biggest manufacturing centre in Europe. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, Dutch looms and the stocking knitting frame were first pioneered in London. The vast range of London's manufacturing skills is another fact; almost any item you can name was manufactured in London during the days of its prosperity. In 1851, 13.75 percent of the manufacturing work-force of Great Britain was based in London. By 1961, this had dramatically reduced. By 1993, there were a mere 328,000 Londoners engaged in manufacturing. In other words, by our own time s, two of the chief reasons for London's very existence-its life as a pert and as a centre of manufacture-had dwindled out of existence.
London's third great function, since the seventeenth century, has been that of national and international bourse: the exchange of stocks and shares, banking, commerce and, increasingly, insurance. Both In wood and Francis Sheppard, in London: A history, manage to make these potentially dry matters vivid to the general reader, and both authors assure us that "The City" in the financial sense is still as important as ever it was. Both, however, record the diminution of the City as an architectural and demographic entity, with the emptying of many city offices (since the advent of the computer much of the work can be done anywhere) and the removal of many distinctive landmarks.
First read the following question.
The primary purpose of the passage is to ___.[1分]
discuss the impact of the internet
forecast the future roles of the bookstore
compare the publisher with the editor
evaluate the limitations of the printed page
Now go through TEXT G quickly and answer question 33.
Since the advent of television people have been prophesying the death of the book. Now the rise of the World Wide Web seems to have revived this smoldering controversy from the ashes. The very existence of paper copy has been brought into question once more. It might be the bookstore, rather than the book itself, that is on the brink of extinction. Many of you will have noted tom of bookseller websites popping up. They provide lists of books and let you read sample chapters, reviews from other customers and interviews with authors.
What does all this mean? Browsing a virtual bookstore may not afford you the same dusty pleasure as browsing round a real shop, but as far as service, pr ice and convenience are concerned there is really no competition. This may change before long, as publishers' websites begin to offer direct access to new publications.
Perhaps it is actually the publisher who is endangered by the relentless advance of the Internet. There are a remarkable number of sites republishing texts online——an extensive virtual library of materials that used to be handled primarily by publishing companies.
From the profusion of electronic-text sites available, it looks as if this virtual library is here to stay unless a proposed revision to copyright law takes many publications out of the public domain. However, can electronic texts still be considered books?
Then again, it might be the editor at risk, in danger of being cut out of the publishing process. The Web not only makes it possible for just about anyone to publish whatever they like whenever they like-there are virtually no costs involved. The editors would then be the millions of Internet users. And there is little censor ship, either.
So possibly it is the printed page, with its many limitations, that is perishing as the implications of new technologies begin to be fully realized. Last year Stanford University published the equivalent of a 6,000 page Business English dictionary, online. There seem to be quite obvious benefits to housing these multi-volume reference sets on the Web. The perceived benefits for other books, such as the novel, are perhaps less obvious.
First read the following question.
The reviewer's attitude towards the books is ___.[1分]
Now go through TEXT H quickly and answer question 34.
The 1990s have witnessed a striking revival of the idea that liberal democratic political system are the best basis for international peace. Western states men and scholars have witnessed worldwide process of democratization, and tend t o see it as a sounder basis for peace than anything we have had in the past.
Central to the vision of a peaceful democratic world bas been the proposition that liberal democracies do not fight each other; that they may and frequently do get into fights with illiberal states, but not with other countries that a re basically similar in their political systems. The proposition appeals to political leaders and scholars as well.
Yet it is doubtful whether the proposition is strong enough to bear the vast weight of generalization that has been placed on it. Among the many difficulties it poses, two stand out: first there are many possible exceptions to the rule that democracies do not fight each other; and second, there is much uncertainty about why democracies have, for the most part, not fought each other.
Liberal Peace, Liberal War: American politics and international security b y John M. Owen is an attempt to explain the twin phenomena of liberal peace (why democracies do not fight each other) and liberal war (why they fight other states, sometimes with the intent of making them liberal).
Owen's analysis in the book strongly suggests that political leaders on all sides judged a given foreign country largely on the basis of its political sys tem; and this heavily influenced decisions on whether or not to wage war against it. However, be also shows that military factors, including calculations of the cost of going to war, were often influential in tipping the balance against war. In other words, democratic peace does not mean the end of power politics.
Owen hints at, but never addresses directly, a sinister aspect of democratic peace theory: its assumption that there would be peace if only everybody else was like us. This can lead only too easily to attempts to impose the favoured system on benighted foreigners by force-regardless of the circumstances and sensibilities that make the undertaking hazardous, Owen's central argument is not strengthened by the occasional repetition nor by the remorselessly academic tone of the more theoretical chapters. However, most of the writing is succinct; the historical accounts are clear and to the point; and the investigation of the causal links between liberalism and war is admirably thorough.
There are several grounds on which the book's thesis might be criticized. The most obvious is that some twentieth-century experience goes against the argument that liberal states ally with others, above all, because they perceive them as fellow liberals. In our own time, several liberal democracies have maintained long and close relations with autocracies. However, Owen's argument for a degree of solidarity between liberal states provides at least part of the explanation for the continuation and even expansion of NATO in the post-Cold War era.
First read the following questions.
In ___, the table of contents of the magazine was placed on its back cover.[1分]
The magazine was criticized for failing to ___.[1分]
captivate readers in their 50s
Now go through TEXT I quickly and answer questions 35 and 36.
New York-Reader's Digest, the most widely read magazine in the world, will get a new look in a bid to attract younger readers, Reader' Digest Association Inc. announced on March 29. Beginning with the May issue, the world's largest- circulation magazine will move its table of contents off the front cover to modernize its look and make it easier for readers to navigate, editor in chief Chris top her Willcox said. "When you have the table of contents on the cover, it limits w hat you can say about what's in the magazine, "Willcox said. The magazine's familiar table of contents will be replaced with a photograph. The small size and focus of the editorial content will be unchanged, publisher Gregory Coleman said. "It will be a much more visual magazine, with more photography and less illustration," he said in an interview.
Reader's digest was first published in 1922, with line drawings on the covers, and in the 1930s began listing the contents on the front. For a couple of years in the 1960s, Willcox said, the table of contents was shifted to the back c over. The May issue will feature a cover photo of a woman firefighter in San Francisco for an excerpt from a new book," Fighting Fire. "The names of a few articles are listed on the cover, but the full table of contents will be on pages 2 and 3. The issue began reaching subscribers on April 10 and will be on newsstands two weeks later. All 48 of the Digest's worldwide editions-27 million copies in 19 languages-are making the change. Publisher Gregory Coleman said he expected the redesign to boost advertising sales. "We've done a lot of research, and have tested the concept in the US, Sweden, and New Zealand," Coleman said.
The move comes as Reader's Digest Association Inc. has struggled to boost profits. But industry analysts said its problems stretch beyond changes that were needed at the magazine. Publishing industry executives and Wall Street analyst s have criticized the magazine for failing to attract the next generation of readers. The company says its average reader is about 47, the same as the age for the weekly new magazines, "They've been looking for ways to make the magazine a little bit more the '90s than the '50s," said Doug Arthur at Morgan Stanley Dean Witter & Co. "The company has to be addressing the response rate on its direct marketing campaign, "where its main problems lie. The company earned USD133.5 mi l lion on sales of USD2.8 billion in the year which ended last June. But it said, when it reported results, that profits would fall in the current year.
In answer to a question, Coleman said the redesign was not done because of advertisers, although they were enthusiastic about the changes. "This is being done from a reader-driven standpoint, "he said.
First read the following questions.
Words in both the OWF and Longman Activator are ___.[1分]
listed according to alphabetical order
listed according to use frequency
grouped according to similarities only
grouped according to differences only
To know the correct word for "boiling with a low heat", you will probably turn to first ___.[1分]
Now go through TEXT J quickly and answer questions 37 and 38.
The Oxford Wordfinder (OWF) is a "production dictionary" designed for learner s of English at Intermediate level and above, it is a useful tool with which to discover and encode (produce) meaning, rather than just to simply check the meaning, grammar and pronunciation of words. The OWF encourages a reversal of the traditional role of the language learners' dictionary, which is normally to help decode and explain aspects of words that appear in a text.
The OWF is based upon similar lines to the ground breaking Longman Activator in that words in each dictionary are not simply listed in alphabetical order. Instead, they are grouped according to their similarities and differences in both meaning and use. Twenty-three main groups of 630 "keywords" (concepts) in alphabetical order assist the learner in exploring semantic areas such as: "People”, "Food and drink", and "Language and Communication". Each of these rather large areas contains cross-referencing in order to provide further helpful lexical in formation. Some of the keywords helpfully direct the learner to another keyword. Most keywords, however, have an index that shows how lexical items and their related terms are organized. Other keywords point to smaller sub-section headings whilst a few contain sections labeled "More", which deal with less frequently occurring vocabulary.
The majority of words in the OWF are grouped together because they are clearly related in meaning. Examples include: rucksack, "suitcase", trunk and hold- all, on page 28, under the keyword "Bag". Other words are grouped together because statistically they tend to "collocate", i.e. appear in English very near, if not next to each other. The reader would, more often than not, find them in the same sentence or phrase. Examples include those for "butter", "spread" and "melt ", and those for Television on page 448: "watching", "turn on/off" and "programme".
The OWF is an ideal supplementary resource for learners to engage in word-building activities during topic based lessons. How is it best used? Let's say t h e learner wishes to know the correct word for "boiling with a low heat". The intermediate learner, who will probably begin her search under "Cook" on page 99, locates the sub-section: "heating food in order to cook it" on page 100, then the further sub-section "cooking food in water" and finally finds the definition followed by the word:-to boil slowly and gently: simmer. With the help of the OWF teachers could design a variety of such vocabulary exercises for a class, or even go on to designing a vocabulary-based syllabus.
Definitions in the OWF are, as with all good dictionaries, concise but clear. They are obviously written according to a controlled defining vocabulary. Linguistic varieties are also taken into consideration: formal/in formal labels are provided and, where it occurs, American English (AmE) is pointed out, e. g. for alcohol, liquor in AmE on page 10. The OWF also contains many drawings that outline meaning where words could not possibly do so or would require too much space. Items chosen for inclusion in the OWF, along with example phrases outlining meaning are, it is assumed, based on evidence of frequency from a carefully constructed linguistic corpus, although this is not made clear.
First read the following questions.
Students who wish to take courses in Dutch or French ___.[1分]
should pass the TOEFL test first
must speak Dutch or French fluently
may receive language training
must have a good command of English
Belgian universities do NOT offer courses on ___.[1分]
political and social sciences
archaeology and art sciences
Now go through TEXT K quickly and answer questions 39 and 40.
To qualify to study in Belgium, it is essential to meet relevant requirements in (1) academic credentials, (2) linguistic skills, (3) academic objectives and (4) financial resources. Let us review these four points:
Equivalence and admissibility of degrees will be assessed according to Belgian l aw and individual university regulations. Please submit a copy of your degree with a translation to the chosen university's admission board.
Chinese students who wish to follow courses in Dutch or French must realize that a superficial knowledge of the language will not do. The ability to speak Dutch or French is imperative in order to follow lectures and to pass examinations. A preparatory year of language instruction is available in some universities for already enrolled students. Please apply for information at the university of your choice. Students who wish to attend lectures in English (post-academic training international courses) must of course have a good command of that language. Universities will inform you about their individual TOEFL requirements.
Belgian universities offer basic academic courses, advance academic training courses, doctoral programmes, post-academic training and various international stud y programmes (Master's) in the field of technology, law, economics and applied economics, political and social sciences, dentistry, pharmaceutical sciences, language and literature/history, archaeology and art sciences, psychology and educational sciences, medical sciences, engineering and applied biological sciences.
Although precise determination of study and living expenses depends on individual life style, one can assess that about 350,000 Belgian Francs (BEF)( about 88,0 00 RMB) is necessary for one year's study. This amount should include books, ho u sing, food, transport, and health insurance. It does not include registration fees which can vary from about 25,000 BEF for a student under scholarship to 290,0 00 BEF for a self-financing student, according to the chosen study program.
ANSWER SHEET ONE
TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS (2000)
PARTI LISTENING COMPREHENSION
SECTION DNOTE-TAKING & GAP-FILLING [15MIN]
Fill each of gaps with ONE word. You may refer to your notes. Make sure the word you fill in is both grammatically and semantically acceptable.
On Public Speaking
When people are asked to give a speech in public for the first time,
they usually feel terrified no matter how well they speak in informal
situations. In fact, public speaking is the same as any other form of
(1)___ that people are usually engaged in. Public speaking is a way
for a speaker to (2) ___ his thoughts with the audience. Moreover,
the speaker is free to decide on the (3) ___ of his speech.
Two key points to achieve success in public speaking:
(4) ___ of the subject matter.
good preparation of the speech.
To facilitate their understanding, inform your audience beforehand of
the (5) ___ of your speech, and end it with a summary.
Other key points to bear in mind:
be aware of your audience through eye contact.
vary the speed of (6) ___
use the microphone skillfully to (7)___ yourself in speech.
be brief in speech; always try to make your message (8) ___
Example: the best remembered inaugural speeches of the US presidents
are the (9) ___ ones.
Therefore, brevity is essential to the (10) ___ of a speech.
ANSWER SHEET TWO
TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS (2000)
Part Ⅱ PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION (15 MIN)
Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed.
The following passage contains TEN errors. Each line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way.
For a wrong word,
underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For a missing word,
mark the position of the missing word with a "∧" sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.
For an unnecessary word,
cross out the unnecessary word with a slash "/' and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.
When∧ art museum wants a new exhibit, (1) an
it never buys things in finished form and hangs (2) never
them on the wall. When a natural history museum
wants an exhibition, it must often build it. (3) exhibit
The grammatical words which play so large a part in English
grammar are for the most part sharply and obviously different from
the lexical words. A rough and ready difference which may
seem the most obvious is that grammatical words have "less
meaning", but in fact some grammarians have called them
"empty" words as opposed in the "full" words of vocabulary. But
this is a rather misled way of expressing the distinction. Although a
word like the is not the name of something as man is, it is very
far away from being meaningless; there is a sharp difference in
meaning between "man is vile" and "the man is vile", yet
the is the single vehicle of this difference in meaning.
Moreover, grammatical words differ considerably among
themselves as the amount of meaning they have, even in the
lexical sense. Another name for the grammatical words has been
"little words". But size is by no mean a good criterion for
distinguishing the grammatical words of English, when we consider
that we have lexical words as go, man, say, car. Apart from
this, however, there is a good deal of truth in what some people
say: we certainly do create a great number of obscurity when we
omit them. This is illustrated not only in the poetry of Robert Browning
but in the prose of telegrams and newspaper headlines.
TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS (2000)
TIME LIMIT: 120 MIN.
Part Ⅳ Translation (60 MIN)
SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH
Translate the following underlined part of the text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
The first-generation museums in the world are museums of natural history. With fossils and specimens they introduce to people the evolution of the earth and various living organisms on it. The second-generation museums are those of industrial technology. Fruits of various stages of industrial civilization are on display here. Although these two generations of muslins have played the role of spreading scientific knowledge, they regard visitors as passive spectators.
The world’s third-generation museums are full of completely new concepts. H ere visitors can carry out operations and careful observations themselves. In this way they come closer to advanced achievements in science and technology so as to probe their mystery.
SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE
Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SH EET THREE.
If people mean anything at all by the expression "untimely death", they m us t believe that some deaths nm on a better schedule than others. Death in old age is rarely called untimely-a long life is thought to be a full one. But with the passing of a young person, one assumes that the best years lay ahead and the measure of that life was still to be taken.
History denies this, of course. Among prominent summer deaths, one recalls those of Marilyn Monroe and James Deans, whose lives seemed equally brief and complete. Writers cannot bear the fact that poet John Keats died at 26, and only half playfully judge their own lives as failures when they pass that year. The id ea that the life cut short is unfulfilled is illogical because lives are measure d by the impressions they leave on the world and by their intensity and virtue.[10分]
Some people simply see education as going to schools or colleges, or as a means to secure good jobs; most people view education as a lifelong process. In y our opinion, how important is education to modem man?
Write a composition of about 300 words on the following topic:
EDUCATION AS A LIFELONG PROCESS
In the first part of your writing you should present your thesis statement, and in the second part you should support the thesis statement with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.
Write your composition on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.[20分]
Education as a Lifelong Process
When education is mentioned, we can easily think of school, colleges and young people. In fact, education is so important in modern society that it can be viewed as a lifelong process.
First; it’s the requirement of fast-developing society, to accept education despite of your age. Our world is changing dramatically with the development of new science and technology. A person who completed his education at school in 7 0s or 80s may have encountered new problems when he is working now. The problems might have something to do with his major or other aspects. For example an accountant now must master the skills of accounting through computers, which is the basic tools for him, so he should also learn how to apply his job in a computer. No matter how old is he.
Secondly, education creates human character and moralities. Through education, youth may learn how to make contributions to the world. And the old may learn new things to enrich their lives. Through education, a healthy person can become stronger and a disabled person can have a new hope on his life. Man can find great pleasure by accepting education.
Thirdly, our modem society has provided everyone the chance to accept education. As long as you wish you could get education by attending night-schools, adult colleges, training centers and even long-distance education through Internet and TV.
In one word, knowledge is limitless. And life is limited. So education is a lifelong process.