He shifted his position a little in order to (alleviate) the pain in his leg.[1分]
Our aim was to (update) the health service, and we succeeded.[1分]
She moves from one (exotic) location to another.[1分]
Nothing would (induce) me to vote for him again.[1分]
The photographs (evoked) strong memories of our holiday in France.[1分]
The weather was (crisp) and clear and you could see the mountains fifty miles away.[1分]
Every week the magazine presents the (profile) of a well-known sports personality.[1分]
Her comments about men are (utterly) ridiculous completely.[1分]
The walls are made of (hollow) concrete blocks.[1分]
We almost (ran into) a Rolls-Royce that pulled out in front of us without signaling.[1分]
When I heard the noise in the next room, I couldn’t resist having a (peep) look.[1分]
He has been granted (asylum) in France.[1分]
He was (weary) of the constant battle between them.[1分]
Newborn babies can (discriminate) between a man’s and a woman`s voice.[1分]
All the flats in the building had the same (layout) arrangement.[1分]
The Mind-Body Connections
Norman Cousins was a famous American magazine editor. In 1964, he returned from an overseas trip and then became very ill. In the hospital, he had terrible pain and couldn't move his body. Doctors told him he had a serious disease called ankylosing spondylitis(强直性脊柱炎)and said he had only 1 chance in 500 of surviving. They gave him powerful drugs, but his condition only got worse.
Cousins had read about a theory that negative emotions can harm your health. He believed that positive emotions were good for one's health, and he decided to try an experiment. He would fill his days with good feelings and laughter and see if that might improve his condition.
He left the hospital and moved into a hotel room. There, he got a large supply of funny TV programs and copies of old Marx Brothers movies and cartoons. He also hired a nurse to read funny stories to him. His plan was to spend the whole day laughing and thinking about happy things. On his first night in the hotel, Cousins found that laughing at the movies helped his body produce chemicals that reduced pain. For the first time in weeks, he could sleep comfortably for a few hours. Every time the pain came back, he watched another funny movie and laughed until he felt better.
Over time, Cousins was able to measure changes in his body with blood tests. He found that the harmful chemicals in his body decreased at least 5 percent every time he watched a funny movie. After a short time, he was able to stop taking all of his medications. Finally his condition improved so much that he could go back to work.
Cousins later wrote a book about how laughter and happiness helped him to survive a deadly illness. Many people didn't believe his story and said that his doctors were wrong about his disease. But since then, research has found that emotions do have a strong effect on physical health, and experiments found that laughter can help to reduce pain. Scientists today are working to understand the ways that our minds affect our bodies.
Norman Gousins became ill while he was traveling in another country.[1分]
Doctors told Cousins that he would probably die from his disease.[1分]
Drugs helped to stop the pain of Cousins's disease.[1分]
Cousins started watching movies because he was bored.[1分]
Cousins spent a lot of time laughing every day.[1分]
Movies were better than funny stories for stopping pain.[1分]
When Cousins wrote his book, everyone agreed with him.[1分]
1 Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease in which the patient's immune(免疫的)system attacks the central nervous system. This can lead to numerous physical and mental symptoms, as the disease affects the transmission of electrical signals between the body and the brain. However, the human body, being a flexible, adaptable system, can compensate for some level of damage, so a person with MS can look and feel fine even though the disease is present.
2 MS patients can have one of two main varieties of the disease: the relapsing form (复发型)and the primary progressive form. In the relapsing form, the disease progresses in a series of jumps; at times it is in remission(减轻).which means that a person's normal functions return for a period of time before the system goes into relapse and the disease again becomes more active. This is the most common form of MS; 80-90% of people have this form of the disease when they are first diagnosed. The relapse-remission cycle can continue for many years. Eventually, however, Ioss of physical and cognitive functions starts to take place and the remissions become less frequent.
3 In the primary progressive form of MS, there are no remissions and a continual but steady loss of physical and cognitive functions takes place. This condition affects about 10-15% of sufferers at diagnosis.
4 The expected course of the disease, or prognosis(预后),depends on many variables: the subtype of the disease, the patient's individual characteristics and the initial symptoms. Life expectancy of patients, however, is often nearly the same as that of an unaffected person - provided that a reasonable standard of care is received. In some cases a near-normal life span is possible.
5 The cause of the disease is unclear; it seems that some people have a genetic Susceptibility(易感性),which is triggered by some unknown environmental factor. Onset(发作)of the disease usually occurs in young adults between the ages of 20 and 40.It is more common in women than men; however, it has also been diagnosed in young children and in elderly people.
A.The cause of MS
B.The relapsing form of MS
C.The treatment for MS
D.The primary progressive form of MS
E.The definition of MS
F.The development of MS
Paragraph 2 __B____[1分]
A.relatives of MS patients
B.the elderly people
D.the progressive form
MS affects the communication of nerve cells between the body and ___E___[1分]
An MS patient can feel fine for years without being affected much by ___A___[1分]
10-15% of MS patients are diagnosed as having ___C___[1分]
Young adults might have a higher chance of developing the disease than ___B___[1分]
Gross National Happiness
In the last century, new technology improved the lives of many people in many countries. However, one country resisted these changes. High in the Himalayan mountains of Asia, the kingdom of Bhutan remained separate. Its people and Buddhist(佛教)culture had not been affected for almost a thousand years. Bhutan, however, was a poor country. People died at a young age. Most of its people could not read, and they did not know much about the outside world. Then, in 1972, a new ruler named King Jigme Singye Wangchuck decided to help Bhutan to become modern, but without losing its traditions.
King Wangchuck looked at other countries for ideas. He saw that most countries measured their progress by their Gross Natonal Product(GNP). The GNP measures products and money. When the number of products sold increases people say the country is making progress. King Wangchuck had a different idea for Bhutan. He wanted to measure his country’s progress by people’s happiness. If the people’s happiness increased, the king could say that Bhutan was making progress. To decide if people were happier, he created a measure called Gross National Happiness(GNH).
GNH is based on certain principles that create happiness. People are happier if they have health care, education, and jobs. They are happier when they live in a healthy, protected environment. They are happier when they can keep their traditional culture and customs. Finally, people are happier when they have a good, stable government.
Now these is some evidence of increased GNH in Bhutan. People are healthier and are living longer. More people are educated and employed. Teenty-five percent of the land has become national parks, and the country has almost no pollution. The Bhutanese continue to wear their traditional clothing and follow their ancient Buddhist customs. Bhutan has also become a democracy. In 2008, King Wangchuck gave his power to his son. Although the country still had a king, it held its first democratic elections that year. Bhutan had political parties and political candidates for the first time. Finally, Bhutan has connected to the rest of the world through television and internet.
Bhutan is a symbol for social progress. Many countries are now interested in Bhutan’s GNH. These countries are investigating their own ways to measure happiness. They want to create new policies that take care of their people, cultures, and land.
Brazil may be the nest country to use the principles of GNH. Brazilian leaders see the principles of GNH as a source of inspiration. Brazil is a large country with a diverse population. If happiness works as a measure of progress in Brazil, perhaps the rest of the world will follow.
Who was Jigme Singye Wangchuck?[3分]
Apart from moderizing Bhutan, what else did Wangchuck want to do for Bhutan?[3分]
To make its populaton grow.
To keep it separate from the world.
To encourage its people to get rich.
To keep its tradition and customs.
A country shows its progress with GNP by[3分]
According to GNH, people are happier if they[3分]
can change their religion.
have a good, stable government.
Today, many countries are[3分]
using the principles of GNH to measure their progress.
woking together to develop a common scale to measure GNH.
taking both Bhutan and Brazil as symbols for social progress.
trying to find their own ways to measure happiness.
Caffeine is probably the most widely used drug in the world. Humans have been consuming caffeine for hundreds of years, primarily in the form of coffee, tea, and cocoa. Habitual coffee and tea drinkers had long been observed to have a lower incidence of non-melanoma(黑色素瘤) skin cancers, although no one knew why. A recent study found that caffeine affects skin cells damaged by ultraviolet radiation, a main cause of skin cancer. Caffeine interferes with a protein that cancerous cells need to survive, leaving the damaged cells to die before they become cancerous. Drinking caffeinated coffee has also been associated with a decreased incidence of endometrial(予宫内膜的) cancer - that is, cancer of the cells lining the uterus - The strongest effect appears to be in overweight women, who are at greatest risk for the disease. Researchers believe blood sugar, fat cells, and estrogen(雌性激素) may play a role. Although the mechanism remains unknown, people who drink more than two cups of coffee or tea a day reportedly have about half the risk of developing chronic liver disease as those who drink less than one cup of coffee daily; caffeinated coffee has also been associated with lowered risk of cirrhosis(肝硬化) and liver cancer.
While many of caffeine's undesirable effects, such as elevated heart rate and blood pressure, are brief, some short-term benefits, including pain relief, increased alertness, and increased physical endurance, have also been attributed to caffeine. As a component of numerous over-the-counter diet pills and pain relievers, caffeine increases their effectiveness and helps the body absorb them more quickly. By constricting(收缩) blood vessels in the brain, it can alleviate headaches - even migraines(偏头痛) – and can help counter the drowsiness(眩晕)caused by antihistamines(抗组胺药).
Caffeine does not alter the need for sleep, but it does offer a temporary solution to fatigue for people who need to stay alert. Research has shown that sleep-deprived individuals who consumed caffeine had improved memory and reasoning abilities, at least in the short term. Studies of runners and cyclists have shown that caffeine can improve their stamina - hence its addition to energy-boosting sports drinks.
People who consume a lot of caffeine regularly may develop temporary withdrawal symptoms, headache being the most common, if they quit or cut back on it abruptly. Fortunately, these symptoms last only a day or two in most cases. Individuals who are more sensitive to the stimulatory side effects of caffeine may want to avoid it, but most doctors agree that the equivalent of three cups of coffee a day does not harm healthy people. There is no medical basis to give up daily caffeine and many reasons to include a moderate amount in one's diet.
Drinking coffee or tea may help[3分]
lower the incidence of being overweight.
lower the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer.
increase the incidence of endometrial cancer.
increase the incidence of liver cancer.
Caffeine is used to[3分]
reduce high blood pressure.
Some athletes use caffeine to[3分]
increase their endurance.
maintain their alertness.
Caffeine withdrawal symptoms[3分]
can become an ongoing problem.
may last as long as a week.
are weight loss and mental disorder.
Drinking three cups of coffee a day[3分]
may not be recommended by most doctors.
is harmful to healthy people.
will probably not cause problems.
may benefit sensitive people.
Some People Do Not Taste Salt Like Others
Low-salt foods may be harder for some people to like than others, according to a study by a Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences food scientist. The research indicates that genetic factors influence some of the difference in the levels of salt we like to eat.
Those conclusions are important because recent, well-publicized efforts to reduce the salt content in food have left many people struggling to accept fare that simply does not taste as good to them as it does to others, pointed out John Hayes, assistant professor of food science, who was lead investigator on the study.
Diets high in salt can increase the risk of high blood pressure and stroke. That is why public health experts and food companies are working together on ways to help consumers lower salt intake through foods that are enjoyable to eat. This study increases understanding of salt preference and consumption.
The research involved 87 carefully screened participants who sampled salty foods such as soup and chips, on multiple occasions, spread out over weeks. Test subjects were 45 men and 42 women, reportedly healthy, ranging in age from 20 to 40 years. The sample was composed of individuals who were not actively modifying their dietary intake and did not smoke cigarettes. They rated the intensity of taste on a commonly used scientific scale, ranging from barely detectable to strongest sensation of any kind.
"Most of us like the taste of salt. However, some individuals eat more salt, both because they like the taste of saltiness more, and also because it is needed to block other unpleasant tastes in food.” said Hayes. "Supertasters, people who experience tastes more intensely, consume more salt than do nontasters. Snack foods have saltiness as their primary flavor, and at least for these foods, more is better, so the supertasters seem to like them more.”
However, supertasters also need higher levels of salt to block unpleasant bitter tastes in foods such as cheese, Hayes noted. "For example, cheese is a wonderful blend of dairy flavors from fermented milk, but also bitter tastes from ripening that are blocked by salt," he said. "A supertaster finds low-salt cheese unpleasant because the bitterness is too pronounced."
Hayes cited research done more than 75 years ago by a chemist named Fox and a geneticist named Blakeslee, showing that individuals differ in their ability to taste certain chemicals. As a result, Hayes explained, we know that a wide range in taste acuity exists, and this variation is as normal as variations in eye and hair color.
"Some people, called supertasters, describe bitter compounds as being extremely bitter, while others, called nontasters, find these same bitter compounds to be tasteless or only weakly bitter." he said. "Response to bitter compounds is one of many ways to identify biological differences in food preference because supertasting is not limited to bitterness.”
John Hayes points out in a recent study that[3分]
it is healthy to eat food without salt.
many people reject low-salt food completely.
food with less salt tastes better.
many people accept low-salt tasteless food reluctantly.
The fourth paragraph describes briefly[3分]
the purpose of the study.
the analysis of the research results.
the research methodology.
the conclusion of the study.
The article argues that supertasters[3分]
like snack foods as saltiness is their primary flavor.
like the taste of saltiness to block sweet tastes in food.
consume less salt because they don't like intensive tastes.
like to share salty cheese with nontasters.
In paragraph 6, the word "pronounced" is closest in meaning to[3分]
The last two paragraphs illustrate that taste acuity is[3分]
developed over time after birth.
related to one's eye and hair color.
still unknown to scientists.
The Mysteries of Nazca
In the desert of Peru, 300 kilometers from Lima, one of the most unusual artworks in the world has mystified (迷惑) people for decades.(46) But from high above, these marks are huge images of birds, fish, seashells, all beautifully carved into the earth.
The Nazca lines are so difficult to see from the ground that they weren’t discovered until the 1930s, when pilots spotted them while flying over the area. In all, there are about 70 different human and animal figures on the plain, along with 900 triangles, circles, and lines.
Researchers have figured out that the lines are at least 1,500 years old, but their purpose is still a mystery.
(47) However, it would probably be very tricky to land a spaceship in the middle of pictures of dogs and monkeys.
In the 1940s, an American explorer named Paul Kosok suggested that the drawings are a chronicle (记录) of the movement of the stars and planets.
(48) later, an astronomer tested his theory with a computer, but he couldn’t find any relation between the lines and movements in space.
Another explanation is that the lines may have been made for religious reasons. British researcher Tony Morrison investigated the customs of people in the Andes Mountain and learned that they sometimes pray by the side of the road. It’s possible that in the past, the lines of Nazca were created for a similar purpose.
(49) But the local people have never constructed anything this big.
Recently, two other scientists, David Johnson and Steve Mabee, have speculated that lines could have been related to water. Nazca is one of the driest places in the world and receives only 2cm of rain every year. While Johnson was searching for ancient water sources in the area, he noticed that some waterways built ancient people were connected with the lines. Johnson believes that the Nazca lines are a giant map of the underground water in the area. (50)
A.Other scientists are now searching for evidence to prove this.
B.A Swiss writer named Erich Von Daniken wrote that the Nazca lines were designed as a landing place for UFOs.
C.Scholars differ in interpreting the purpose of the designs.
D.The largest pictures may have been the sites for special ceremonies.
E.Seen from the ground, it looks like lines scratched into the earth.
F.He called Nazca “the largest astronomy book in the world”.
Everyone can dream. Indeed, everyone does dream. Those who ______ (51) that they never dream at all actually dream ______ (52) as frequently as the rest of us, ______ (53) they may not remember anything about it. Even those of us who are perfectly ______ (54) of dreaming night after night very seldom remember those dreams in ______ (55) detail but merely retain an untidy mixture of seemingly unrelated ______ (56)(变化). Dreams are not simply visual -we dream with all our ______ (57), so that we appear to experience sound, touch, smell, and taste.
One of the world's oldest ______ (58) written documents is the Egyptian Book of Dreams. This volume is about five thousand years old, so you can see ______ (59) (变化)dreams were believed to have a special significance even then. Many ancient civilizations believed that you ______ (60) never wake a sleeping person as, during sleep, the soul had left the body and might not be able to return ______ (61) time if the sleeper were suddenly awoken.
From ancient times to the present ______ (62), people have been making attempts to interpret dreams and to ______(63)(变化)their significance. There are many books available on the ______(64)(变化)of dream interpretation, although unfortunately there are almost as many meanings for a particular dream ______ (65) there are books.