He shifted his position a little in order to (alleviate) the pain in his leg.[1分]
Our aim was to (update) the health service, and we succeeded.[1分]
She moves from one (exotic) location to another.[1分]
Nothing would (induce) me to vote for him again.[1分]
The photographs (evoked) strong memories of our holiday in France.[1分]
The weather was (crisp) and clear and you could see the mountains fifty miles away.[1分]
Every week the magazine presents the (profile) of a well-known sports personality.[1分]
Her comments about men are (utterly) ridiculous completely.[1分]
The walls are made of (hollow) concrete blocks.[1分]
We almost (ran into) a Rolls-Royce that pulled out in front of us without signaling.[1分]
When I heard the noise in the next room, I couldn’t resist having a (peep) look.[1分]
He has been granted (asylum) in France.[1分]
He was (weary) of the constant battle between them.[1分]
Newborn babies can (discriminate) between a man’s and a woman`s voice.[1分]
All the flats in the building had the same (layout) arrangement.[1分]
In Sports, Red is the Winning Color
When opponents of a game are equally matched, the team dressed in red is more likely to win, according to a new study.
British anthropologists Russell Hill and Robert Barton of the University of Durham reached that conclusion by studying the outcomes of one-on-one boxing, tae kwon do, Greco-Roman-wresting, and freestyle-wrestling matches at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece.
In each event Olympic staff randomly assigned red or blue clothing or body protection to competitors. When otherwise equally matched with their opponent in fitness and skill, athletes wearing red were more likely to win the bout.
"Where there was a large point difference—presumably because one contestant was far superior to the other—color had no effect on the outcome," Barton said. "Where there was a small point difference, the effect of color was sufficient to tip the balance."
In equally matched bouts, the preponderance of red wins was great enough that it could not be attributed to chance, the anthropologists say. Hill and Barton found similar results in a review of the colors worn at the Euro 2004 international soccer tournament. Their report will be published in tomorrow's issue of the journal Nature.
Joanna Setchell, a primate researcher at the University of Cambridge in England, has found similar results in nature. Her work with the large African monkeys known as mandrills shows that red coloration gives males an advantage when it comes to mating.
The finding that red also has an advantage in human sporting events does not surprise her, addding that "the idea of the study is very clever."
Hill and Barton got the idea for their study out of a mutual interest in the evolution of sexual signals in primates—"red seems to be the color, across species, that signals male dominance and testosterone levels," Barton said.
For example, studies by Setchell, the Cambridge primate researcher, show that dominant male mandrills have increased red coloration in their faces and rumps. Another study by other scientists shows that red plastic rings experimentally placed on the legs of male zebra finches increase the birds' dominance.
Barton said he and Hill speculated some speculated that "there might be a similar effect in humans. And if so, it could be apparent in sporting contests."
The pair say their results indicate that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of humans' response to color.
Setchell, the primatologist, agrees. "As Hill and Barton say, humans redden when we are angry and pale when we're scared. These are very important signals to other individuals," she said.
The advantage of red may be intuitively known, judging from the prevalence of red uniforms in sports—"though it is clearly not very widely appreciated, on a conscious level at least," Barton said.
He adds that the finding of red's advantage might have implications for regulations that govern sporting attire. In the Olympic matches he surveyed for the new study, for example, it is possible some medal winners may have reached the pedestal with an unintended advantage.
"That is the implication, though we cannot say that it made the difference in any one specific case," Barton said.
Meanwhile, Setchell noted—tongue-in-cheek—that a red advantage may not be limited to sports. "Going by the recent [U.S.] election results, red is indeed quite successful," she said.
Both Hill and Barton wanted to find out if color affects the outcome of sports matched.[1分]
Hill and Barton are both interested in primates.[1分]
Male mandrills use yellow coloration to attract a mate.[1分]
Red is not an advantage for zebra finches.[1分]
The red plastic rings were left on the finches permanently.[1分]
Hill and Barton believe athletes in red are more likely to win.[1分]
Many athletes oppose the new regulations on sports uniforms.[1分]
How technology pushes down price
The Treaty of Breda, signed in 1667 after a war between the English and Dutch in which the English were worsted, gave the Dutch the big prize: Run, a small island in the Indonesian archipelago which was the world's principal source of nutmeg. The margin on nutmeg at the time was around 3,200%. The English, as a consolation prize, got Manhattan. As an illustration of the long-term fall in food prices compared with other goods, that is a sharp one. But deflation has characterized the food business for centuries, because of continual advances in food production and distribution technology.
Consumers have benefited greatly from those advances. Malthusians, whose descendants until quite recently predicted that the world would run out of food, have thereby been confounded. More and more food is being produced by fewer and fewer people with less and less capital; it is therefore ever more plentiful and cheaper. Since demand is to some extent limited by the size of people's stomachs, spending on food compared with other goods has been falling for many years, and continues to drop (see chart 4).
Genetically modified (GM) seeds are the latest manifestation of a production revolution that started with Charles “Turnip” Townsend, who in the 18th century laid the basis for crop rotation. Organic fertilisers were replaced by chemical ones in the 19th century. The railway opened up the American mid-west. The horse replaced the cow, the combine harvester the horse. After the second world war, dwarf varieties of wheat and rice (which overcame the problem that heavily fertilised crops in hot countries grew too tall and fell over) boosted developing-country output. The “green revolution” helped trigger a more recent “livestock revolution”, documented by Chris Delgado, who works jointly for the International Food Policy Research Institute and the International Livestock Research Institute. Higher incomes and urbanisation, combined with falling food prices, have boosted meat and milk consumption in developing countries. By 1997, real beef prices were a third their level in 1971. Over that period, meat consumption in developing countries rose five-fold, three times as fast as in developed countries. Milk consumption rose three-fold.By the 1980s, advances in conventional plant breeding had tailed off, but GM made it possible to do things with DNA that conventional breeding could not do. Despite scaremongering in Europe, GM technology is spreading elsewhere: most of the world's soya is now GM.Producing lots of food is not much good unless you can distribute it, so advances in distribution technology have been as important as those in production technology. Salt, used to preserve food, which meant that it could be stored and traded, was an early aid to distribution. Canning arrived in the early 19th century, when a Frenchman discovered that food could be stored longer if it was heated before it was bottled, and a Briton worked out that tin cans were easier to transport than bottles; and both the British and the French armies used the technology to feed their troops in the Napoleonic wars.Francis Bacon, a British scientist and essayist, was an early victim of the struggle to develop refrigeration technology: he died in 1626 after eating some chicken that he had stuffed with snow as part of an experiment. In 1877 the first shipload of frozen beef was carried from Argentina to France. The impact on the food industry of the spread of the domestic refrigerator in the 20th century was rivalled only by that of the car, which changed the face of retailing by allowing supermarkets to develop. Supermarkets have helped push down prices principally because of their scale. Big businesses can invest in IT systems that make them efficient. And their size allows them to buy in bulk. The more concentrated the retail business becomes, the bigger supermarkets get, the further prices get pushed down until, of course, there is so much concentration that there is not enough competition. Britain's Competition Commission indicated earlier this year that the supermarket industry was moving towards that point: it refused to let any of the top three supermarket chains buy one of the smaller players. In America, however, where the size of the country means a more fragmented retail business, there is still scope for further concentration: the “black death”, as Wal-Mart is known in the trade, is expected to claim more victims. Wal-Mart's scale, the efficiency of its IT systems and the cheapness of its non-unionised labour force ($8-10 an hour compared with $17-18 for mid-sized players such as Albertsons, A hold, Safeway and Kroger), give it a massive advantage. It sells Colgate toothpaste for an average of 63% of its competitors' price, Tropicana orange juice for 58% and Kellogg's Corn Flakes for 56%. Analysts expect at least one of the mid-sized firms to disappear.The concentration of power among retailers has led to another stage in the shift in power down the food chain. Once upon a time, power lay with landlords. In the 20th century, as processing and distribution became more important, so did the food producers. Lord Haskins, Tony Blair's adviser on farming, recalls going to food industry conferences in the 1970s, when there would be a line of Rolls-Royces outside, all belonging to producers.
Retailer concentration has shifted power (and profits) further down the food chainNo longer. Retailer concentration has shifted power (and profits) further down the food chain. But the retailers are not the type to swank around in flash cars. They are ostentatiously parsimonious, advertising their determination to keep prices down. Wal-Mart's headquarters in Bentonville, Arkansas, is in a converted warehouse. Tesco, Britain's biggest private-sector employer, has its headquarters in a Stalinist bunker in a nasty bit of north-east London. Beside the main reception its share price is proudly displayed on one of those blackboards with white plastic letters stuck on to it that you see in the cheapest sandwich bars. One of the manifestations of retailers' power (which also reinforces it) is the growth of private-label (ie, supermarket- not producer-branded) goods. In 2002, according to the Boston Consulting Group, own-label made up 39% of grocery sales in Britain, 21% in France and only 16% in the United States, but everybody thinks that, as retailing becomes more concentrated, America is going the way of Britain. Retailers can sell private-label only if the price cuts they offer mean more to consumers than a producer's brand. As own-label has expanded, so supermarkets have been taking all but the most successful brands off their shelves. “If you are a must-have brand it's fine,” says Dido Harding, Tesco's commercial director. “If you're a sub-global brand, life's much harder.”The shift in power to retailers has put pressure on producers' margins, hence huge programmes of cuts. Since 2000, Uni-lever has cut its workforce by 33,000 to 245,000 and dropped lots of minor brands as part of its “path to growth” strategy. Cadbury is the latest to announce big cuts: in October it said that it will be shutting 20% of its 133 factories and cutting 10% of its 55,000 global workforce. These cuts should help keep costs, and thus the price of food, low.Does cheap food make people unhealthy? In some ways. Hydrogenated vegetable oil, for instance—vegetable fat made solid by adding hydrogen atoms—is the nutritionists' current bête noire. Widely used as a cheap substitute for butter and cream, it is the main dietary source of trans fats. Trans fats are heavily implicated in heart disease; companies are taking them out of products for fear of lawsuits.Cheap food may also make people eat more. In a paper entitled “Why have Americans become more obese?” David Cutler, Jesse Shapiro and Edward Glaeser, a group of Harvard economists, note that, among OECD countries, obesity is correlated to the level of regulation: the more food laws, the more protected local producers are, the harder it is to import technology, the slimmer people tend to be. They reckon that is because of price: the less regulated a country, the cheaper a Big Mac tends to be. But it could be another factor: heavily regulated countries might, for instance, be places with stronger family ties where real meals have survived and people eat fewer snacks and less fast food.
Giving people bigger portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better dealFood companies certainly think giving people more food for their money makes them buy more. That is why portions have been getting larger and larger. In America, soft drinks, which used to come in 8oz and then 12oz containers now come in 20oz ones. As Dennis Lombardi of Technomic, a food-industry consultancy in Chicago, points out, giving people bigger portions is an easy way of making them feel they have got a better deal. “If I can give you an 8oz portion for $7, I can give you a 12oz portion for $8. The only incremental cost to me is the food, which probably cost 25 cents.” Everybody, therefore, has done it.Scientists have shown that portion size partly determines how much people eat. Barbara Rolls, a nutrition professor at Pennsylvania State University, fed subjects macaroni cheese, some in 2.5-cup portions, some in 5-cup portions. The ones with the big portions ate 27% more, on average, than those with small portions but did not report feeling any fuller. Brian Wansink at the University of Illinois found that if you give movie-goers an extra-large bucket of popcorn, they eat nearly half as much again as if you give them the next size down, even if the popcorn is stale.Now companies are under pressure to stop selling people more for less. But it is a hard trend to reverse, as Mr Lombardi points out. “How about I give you a third less food for $1 less? I don't think so.”
A.Huge retailers force producers to cunt costs
B.Consumers like supermarkets
C.Technology helps reduce food prices
D.Food comes cheaper in larger portions
E.Chain stores provide better service
F.Bigger supermarkets offer lower prices
E.a good barging
Big supermarkets can offer food at lower prices because they can buy in___[1分]
Some food producers have reduced___[1分]
Besides cutting its workforce, unilever also abandoned its___[1分]
Buyers like bigger portion because they think they have got___[1分]
DNA testing reveals the genes of each individual person. Since the early twentieth century scientists have known that all human characteristics are contained in a person's genes and are passed from parents to children. Genes work as a chemical instruction manual for each part and each function of the body. Their basic chemical element is called DNA, a copy of which can be found in every cell. The existence of genes and the chemical structure of DNA were understood by the mid-1900s, but scientists have only recently been able to identify a person from just a drop of blood or a single hair.
One of the most important uses of DNA testing is in criminal investigation. The very first use of DNA testing in a criminal case was in 1985 in Great Britain, when a man confessed to killing a young woman in the English countryside. Because police had found samples of the killer's DNA at the scene of the crime, a biologist suggested that it might be possible to compare that DNA to some from the confessor's blood. To everyone's surprise, the tests showed that he was not the killer. Nor was he guilty of a similar murder that had happened some time earlier. At that point he admitted that he had confessed to the crimes out of fear and police pressure. The police then asked 5,000 local men for samples of their blood, and DNA testing revealed that one of them was the real murderer, so the first man was set free.
In 1992, two law professors, Peter Neufeld and Barry Scheck, decided to use DNA evidence to help set free such mistakenly convicted prisoners. With the help of their students, they created a not-for-profit organization called the Innocence Project. Most of their clients are poor men, many from racial and ethnic minorities. In fact, studies have shown that U.S. judges and juries are often influenced by racial and ethnic background, and that people from minority groups are more likely to be convicted. Some of these men had been sentenced to death, a form of punishment used in thirty eight states out of fifty (as of 2006)｡ For most of these prisoners, their only hope was another trial in which DNA testing could be used to prove their innocence.
Between 1992 and 2006, the Innocence Project helped free 100 men. Some of these prisoners had been in jail for ten, twenty years or more for crimes they did not commit. However, the goal of the Innocence Project is not simply to set free those who are wrongfully in jail. They also hope to bring about real changes in the criminal justice system.
Illinois in the late 1990s, a group of journalism students at Northwestern University were able to bring about such a change in that state. They began investigating some Illinois prisoners who claimed to be innocent. Through DNA testing, the students were able to prove that in fact the prisoners were not guilty of the crimes they had been accused of. Thirteen of these men were set free, and in 2000, Governor Ryan of Illinois decided to stop carrying out death sentences until further study could be made of the prisoners' cases.
The use of DNA in criminal cases is still being debated around the world. Some fear that governments will one day keep records of everyone's DNA, which could put limits on the privacy and freedom of citizens. Other people mistrust the science of DNA testing and think that lawyers use it to get their clients free whether or not they are guilty. But for those whose innocence has been proven and who are now free men, DNA testing has meant nothing less than a return to life. And with the careful use of DNA testing, no innocent person should ever be convicted again.
What is the main idea of this passage?[3分]
DNA testing has changed the American legal system.
DNA testing has helped innocent men go free in Illinois.
DNA testing uses genetics to identify a person.
DNA testing has played a key role in criminal investigation.
DNA testing was first used in a criminal case by[3分]
doctors in the United States
The innocence project uses DNA testing to[3分]
set free innocent prisoner
help the police put people in prison
find out which lawyer are incompetent
prove that suspects are guilty
Some students in Northwestern University[3分]
proved some prisoners were not guilty
believed some suspects were from ethnic groups
told the governors of Illinois not to free the prisoners
showed DNA testing was not always reliable
What is the author's attitude toward DNA testing?[3分]
Going Her Own Way
When she was twelve, Maria made her first important decision about the course of her life. She decided that she wanted to continue her education, Most girls from middle-class families chose to stay home after primary school,though some attended private Catholic "finishing" schools. There they learned a little about music,art,needlework,and how to make polite conversation. This was not the sort of education that interested Maria -or her mother. By this time,she had begun to take her studies more seriously. She read constantly and brought her books everywhere. One time she even brought her math book to the theater and tried to study in the dark.
Maria knew that she wanted to go on learning in a serious way. That meant attending the public high school,something that very few girls did. In Italy at the time,there were two types of high schools: the "classical" schools and the "technical" schools. In the classical schools,the students followed a very traditional program of studies,with courses in Latin and Greek language and literature,and Italian literature and history1. The few girls who continued studying after primary school usually chose these schools.
Maria,however,wanted to attend a technical school. The technical schools were more modem than the classical schools and they offered courses in modern languages,mathematics,science,and accounting2.Most people - including Maria's father - believed that girls would never be able to understand these subjects. Furthermore,they did not think it was proper for girls to study them.
Maria did not care if it was proper or not. Math and science were the subjects that interested her most. But before she could sign up for the technical school,she had to win her father' sapproval. She finally did,with her mother's help,though for many years after,there was tension in the family. Maria's father continued to oppose her plans,while her mother helped her.
In 1883,at age thirteen,Maria entered the "Regia Scuola Tecnica Michelangelo Buonarroti" in Rome. Her experience at this school is difficult for us to imagine. Though the courses included modern subjects,the teaching methods were very traditional. Learning consisted of memorizing long lists of facts and repeating them back to the teacher. Students were not supposed to ask questions or think for themselves in any way. Teachers were very demanding,discipline in the classroom was strict,and punishment was severe for those who failed to achieve or were disobedient.
Maria wanted to attend ______.[3分]
a private "finishing" school
a school for art and music
In those days, most Italian girls ______.[3分]
did not go to primary school
did not go to high school
went to "finishing" schools
went to technical schools
Maria's father probably ______.[3分]
had a traditional views about women
had a modem view about women
had no opinion about women
thought women could not learn Latin
High school teachers in Italy in those days were very ______.[3分]
We can infer from this passage that[3分]
Maria's parents liked her personality
Maria's mother paid for her education
Maria was a girl of strong will
Maria gave in under her father's pressure.
Gross National Happiness
In the last century, new technology improved the lives of many people in many countries. However, one country resisted these changes. High in the Himalayan mountains of Asia, the kingdom of Bhutan remained separate. Its people and Buddhist(佛教)culture had not been affected for almost a thousand years. Bhutan, however, was a poor country. People died at a young age. Most of its people could not read, and they did not know much about the outside world. Then, in 1972, a new ruler named King Jigme Singye Wangchuck decided to help Bhutan to become modern, but without losing its traditions.
King Wangchuck looked at other countries for ideas. He saw that most countries measured their progress by their Gross Natonal Product(GNP)｡ The GNP measures products and money. When the number of products sold increases, people say the country is making progress. King Wangchuck had a different idea for Bhutan. He wanted to measure his country's progress by people's happiness. If the people's happiness increased, the king could say that Bhutan was making progress. To decide if people were happier, he created a measure called Gross National Happiness(GNH)｡
GNH is based on certain principles that create happiness. People are happier if they have health care, education, and jobs. They are happier when they live in a healthy, protected environment. They are happier when they can keep their traditional culture and customs. Finally, people are happier when they have a good, stable government.
Now these is some evidence of increased GNH in Bhutan. People are healthier and are living longer. More people are educated and employed. Teenty-five percent of the land has become national parks, and the country has almost no pollution. The Bhutanese continue to wear their traditional clothing and follow their ancient Buddhist customs. Bhutan has also become a democracy. In 2008, King Wangchuck gave his power to his son. Although the country still had a king, it held its first democratic elections that year. Bhutan had political parties and political candidates for the first time. Finally, Bhutan has connected to the rest of the world through television and internet.
Bhutan is a symbol for social progress. Many countries are now interested in Bhutan's GNH. These countries are investigating their own ways to measure happiness. They want to create new policies that take care of their people, cultures, and land.
Brazil may be the nest country to use the principles of GNH. Brazilian leaders see the principles of GNH as a source of inspiration. Brazil is a large country with a diverse population. If happiness works as a measure of progress in Brazil, perhaps the rest of the world will follow.
Who was Jigme Singye Wangchuck?[3分]
Apart from modernizing Bhutan, what else did Wangchuck want to do for Bhutan?[3分]
To make its population grow.
To keep it separate from the world.
To encourage its people to get rich.
To keep its tradition and customs.
A country shows its progress with GNP by[3分]
According to GNH, people are happier if they[3分]
can change their religion.
have a good, stable government.
Today, many countries are[3分]
using the principles of GNH to measure their progress.
woking together to develop a common scale to measure GNH.
taking both Bhutan and Brazil as symbols for social progress.
trying to find their own ways to measure happiness.
The Mysteries of Nazca
In the desert of Peru, 300 kilometers from Lima, one of the most unusual artworks in the world has mystified (迷惑) people for decades. (46) But from high above, these marks are huge images of birds, fish, seashells, all beautifully carved into the earth.
The Nazca lines are so difficult to see from the ground that they weren't discovered until the 1930s, when pilots spotted them while flying over the area. In all, there are about 70 different human and animal figures on the plain, along with 900 triangles, circles, and lines.
Researchers have figured out that the lines are at least 1,500 years old, but their purpose is still a mystery. (47) However, it would probably be very tricky to land a spaceship in the middle of pictures of dogs and monkeys.
In the 1940s, an American explorer named Paul Kosok suggested that the drawings are a chronicle (记录) of the movement of the stars and planets. (48) later, an astronomer tested his theory with a computer, but he couldn't find any relation between the lines and movements in space.
Another explanation is that the lines may have been made for religious reasons. British researcher Tony Morrison investigated the customs of people in the Andes Mountain and learned that they sometimes pray by the side of the road. It's possible that in the past, the lines of Nazca were created for a similar purpose. (49) But the local people have never constructed anything this big.
Recently, two other scientists, David Johnson and Steve Mabee, have speculated that lines could have been related to water. Nazca is one of the driest places in the world and receives only 2cm of rain every year. While Johnson was searching for ancient water sources in the area, he noticed that some waterways built ancient people were connected with the lines. Johnson believes that the Nazca lines are a giant map of the underground water in the area. (50)
the mysteries of Nazca
A.Other scientists are now searching for evidence to prove this.
B.A Swiss writer named Erich Von Daniken wrote that the Nazca lines were designed as a landing place for UFOs.
C.Scholars differ in interpreting the purpose of the designs.
D.The largest pictures may have been the sites for special ceremonies.
E.Seen from the ground, it looks like lines scratched into the earth.
F.He called Nazca “the largest astronomy book in the world”.
The Old Gate【古老之门】
In the Middle Ages the vast majority of European cities had walls around them. This was partly for defensive__ (1) __but another factor was the need to keep out anyone regarded as undesirable, like people with contagious ___(2) __. The Old City of London gates were all ___(3) __by the end of the 18th century. The last of London's gates was removed a century ago, but by a ___(4) __ of luck, it was never destroyed.
This gate is, in ___(5) __fact, not called a gate at all; its name is Temple Bar, and it marked the ___(6) __between the Old City of London and Westminster. In 1878 the Council of London took the Bar down, numbered the stones and put the gate in ___(7) __ because its design was ___(8) __ it was expensive to___ (9) __ from www.wangxiao.cn and it was blocking the traffic.
The Temple Bar Trust was ___(10) __ in the 1970's with the intention of returning the gate home. The aim of the trust is the ___(11) __ of the nation's architectural heritage.
Transporting the gate will mean physically pulling it___ (12) __, stone by stone, removing and rebuilding it near St Paul's Cathedral. Most of the facade of the gate will probably be____ (13)__, though there is a good ___(14) __ that the basic structure will be sound. The hardest ___(15) __ of all, however, will be to recreate the statues of the monarchs that once stood on top of the gate.
contagious / k?n'teid??s / adj. 传染性的,会蔓延的 demolish / di'm?li? / vt.拆除,破坏
stroke / str?uk / n. 打击 preservation / ,prez?'vei??n / n. 保存,保留
boundary / 'baund?ri / n. 范围,分界线 cathedral / k?'θi:dr?l / n. 保留,保存
1.mark the boundary between ... and... : ……在……和……两者之间划定界限
2.there is a good chance that... : 很有可能发生某事,有……的机会