A new system of quality control was brought in to overcome the defects in the firm’s products.[1分]
It’s the chance of a lifetime. You shouldn’t miss it.[1分]
They have made marked achievements in all fields.[1分]
Experts generally agree that diet has an important bearing on one’s health.[1分]
I didn’t quite follow. Could you explain it again?[1分]
The house has a pleasant outlook over the valley.[1分]
The union representative put across her argument very effectively.[1分]
The fuel tanks had a capacity of 140 liters[1分]
The soldier avoided being captured for weeks by hiding underground.[1分]
He mocked John as a country boy.[1分]
It is not lawful to park in front of a hydrant.[1分]
It is annoying that there is no hot water.[1分]
He has a habit of scanning the morning papers while eating breakfast.[1分]
Investing in nothing but books over the years when he was at school, he has accumulated a library.[1分]
His illness diminished his strength.[1分]
Are You Getting Enough Sleep?
What happens if you don’t get enough sleep? Randy Gardner, a high school student in the United States, wanted to find out. He designed an experiment on the effects of sleeplessness for a school science project. With doctors watching him carefully, Gardner stayed awake for 264 hours and 12 minutes. That’s eleven days and nights without sleep.
What effect did sleeplessness have on Gardner? After 24 hours without sleep, Gardner started having trouble reading and watching television. The words and pictures were too blurry (模糊). By the third day, he was having trouble doing things with his hands. By the fourth day, Gardner was hallucinating(产生幻觉). For example, when he saw a feet sign, he thought it was a person. He also imagines he was a famous football player. After the next few days, Gardner’s speech became so slurred(不清楚)that people couldn’t understand him. He also had trouble remembering things. By the eleventh day, Gardner couldn’t pass a counting test. In the middle of the test he simply stopped. He couldn’t remember what he was doing.
Then Gardner finally went to bed, he slept for 14 hours and 45 minutes. The second day he slept twelve hours, the third night he slept for ten and one-half hours, and by the fourth night, he had returned to his normal sleep schedule.
Though Gardner recovered quickly, scientists believe that going without sleep gerous. They say that people should not repeat Randy’s experiment. Tests on Gardner have shown how serious sleeplessness can be. After a few weeks without-started losing their fur(皮毛). And even though the rats ate more food than weight. Eventually the rats died.
During your lifetime, you will probably spend 25 years or more sleeping.
But why purpose of sleep? Surprisingly, scientists don’t know for sure. Some sleep in order to replenish(补充)brain cells. Other scientists think body to grow and to relieve stress. Whatever the reason, we know enough sleep.
Randy Gardner studied the effects of over over-sleeping.[1分]
During the experiment, Gardner slept for two hours every night.[1分]
During the experiment, Gardner had trouble speaking clearly.[1分]
It took four days for Gardner to recover from the experiment.[1分]
Going without sleep is not dangerous for white rats.[1分]
Scientists are not sure why we need sleep.[1分]
People sleep less than they used to.[1分]
Exercising Your Memory
1.Aging does not mean a dramatic decline in memory power, unless you help it happen by letting your mind go.
2.That's not to say that memory doesn't change throughout life. Researchers divide memory into categories based on the length of time when memories are stored. One system divides it up as short-term (less than one minute; remembering a telephone number while you dial, for instance), long-term (over a period of years) and very long-term memory (over a lifetime).
3.Short-term memory isn't mastered until about age 7, but after that you never 10se it. Long-term memory, however, involves more effort and skill and changes more through life. It's not until the early teens (十几岁) that most people develop a mature long-term memory.
4.First, we must get information into our heads through learning. Learning strategies can get rusty (生锈) without constant use. High school and college students, who are forced to repeatedly exercise their long-term memory abilities (at least long-term enough to get them through a final exam), usually do well on memory tests. The longer you stay in school, the more chance you get to polish your learning skills. It's no wonder that more highly educated people have more effective memory skills throughout life.
5.Although older people in general learn somewhat more slowly than they did when younger, a dramatic difference exists between those who stay intellectually active m reading, discussing, taking classes, thinking —— and those who do not. Giving the brain daily workout (锻炼) is just as important as exercising your muscles. Brainwork keeps your learning strategies in shape, and this helps your memory to function at full capacity.
6.The next part of a healthy long-term memory is retention (记忆力), the ability to store what you have learned. Memory researchers still do not know whether memories are lost ——whether they still exist in the brain but our mental searching cannot turn them up, or have disappeared entirely as our brain ages.
7.The third necessity for memory is recall, the ability to bring to mind the memories we have stored. Again, while aging has widely different effects on the recall abilities of different people, research indicates that the older we get, the longer it takes to recall facts But slower recall is still recall, in fact, aging does not seem to have any effect on forgetting at all, which takes place at the same rate in younger and older people.
Paragraph 4 _________.[1分]
Paragraph 5 _________.[1分]
Paragraph 6 _________.[1分]
A.Importance of staying intellectually active
B.Effects of aging on a person's recall ability
C.Short-term memory versus long-term memory
D.Retention as the second necessity for memory
E.Link between learning strategies and effective memory skills
F.Significance of exercising your muscles
Retention refers to _________.[1分]
The rate of forgetting is the same _________.[1分]
Remembering something all your life _________.[1分]
Exercising your brain every day is beneficial _________.[1分]
A.for younger and older people
B.to the proper function of your memory
C.is called long-term memory
D.the capacity to store what you have learned
E.belongs to very long-term memory
F.the ability to remain mentally healthy
第一篇 Eat Healthy
"Clean your plate!" and "Be a member of the clean-plate club!" Just about every kid in the US has heard this from a parent or grandparent. Often, it's accompanied by an appeal: "Just think about those starving orphans in Africa!" Sure, we should be grateful for every bite of food. Unfortunately, many people in the US take too many bites. Instead of staying "clean the plate", perhaps we should save some food for tomorrow.
A.ccording to news reports, US restaurants are partly to blame for the growing bellies. A waiter puts a plate of food in front of each customer, with two to four times the amount recommended by the government, according to a USA Today story. Americans traditionally associate quantity with value and most restaurants try to give them that. They prefer to have customers complain about too much food rather than too little.
Barbara Rolls, a nutrition professor at Pennsylvania State University, told USA Today that restaurant portion sizes began to grow in the 1970s, the same time that the
American waistline began to expand.
Health experts have tried to get many restaurants to serve smaller portions. Now, apparently, some customers are calling for this too. The restaurant industry trade magazine QSR reported last month that 57 percent of more than 4,000 people surveyed believe restaurants serve portions that are too large; 23 percent had no opinion; 20 percent disagreed. But a closer look at the survey indicates that many Americans who can't afford fine dining still prefer large portions. Seventy percent of those earning at least $150,000 per year prefer smaller portions; but only 45 percent of those earning less than $25,000 want smaller.
It's not that working class Americans don't want to eat healthy. It's just that, after long hours at low-paying jobs, getting less on their plate hardly seems like a good deal. They live from paycheck to paycheck, happy to save a little money for next year's Christmas presents.
Parents in the United States tend to ask their children[3分]
Why do American restaurants serve large portions?[3分]
Because Americans associate quantity with value.
Because Americans have big bellies.
BecauseAmericans are good eaters.
Bcause Americans are greedy.
What happened in the 1970s?[3分]
The US government recommended the amount of food a restaurant gave to a customer.
Health experts persuaded restaurants to serve smaller portions.
The United States produced more grain than needed.
The American waistline started to expand.
What does the survey indicate?[3分]
Many poor Americans want large portions.
Twenty percent Americans want smaller portions.
Fifty seven percent Americans earn $150,000 per year.
Twenty three percent Americas earn less than $25,000 per year.
Which of the following is NOT true of working class Americans?[3分]
They live from paycheck to paycheck.
They don’t want to be healthy eaters.
They want to save money for their children.
One of the most common injuries teenagers and adults experience is a sprained ankle. A sprain occurs when the ligaments(韧带) of a joint are twisted(扭伤) and possibly torn. Ligaments are bands of fibers that hold the bones of a joint in position. A sprain can occur from a sudden twisting at the joint, or a stretching or tearing of the fibers of the ligaments. The injured area usually swells(肿胀) and becomes black and blue. Stepping off the sidewalk at the wrong angle or having one foot land in a hole while walking or running can leave you rolling on the ground in pain with an ankle on fire! If you cannot walk without experiencing intense pain, you must seek medical help. If the pain is manageable, and you can walk, here are three words to help you remember how to treat yourself:
As soon as there is injury to that ligament, there will be a certain amount of bleeding under the skin. Once the blood pools around the damaged blood vessels, swelling occurs. The pressure from the swelling results in additional stress and tenderness to the region. In order to reduce the degree of swelling, lie down as soon as possible and keep the ankle elevated so that it is actually higher than your heart. Next, to reduce blood distribution and keep bleeding(流血) to minimum, apply a cold pack. After 20 minutes, take the pack off, wait half an hour, and then reapply. This can be several times a day for a total of three days.
Never leave a cold pack on for more than 20 minutes at a time. Reducing the temperature in that area for an extended period of time signals the body to increase blood flow to raise the body temperature! Therefore, one accidentally triggers(引起) more blood distribution to the affected area by leaving a cold pack on for too long! Finally, bandage the angle. Be careful not to wind it too tightly; doing so can restrict blood flow and cause harm to the entire foot.
A sprain is caused by[3分]
blood vessels being hurt in the foot
ligament fibers of a joint being twisted
constantly changing body temperature
The black-and –blue symptom of a sprain means[3分]
The word “it” in paragraph 2 (line 15) refers to[3分]
Once the initial cold pack is removed, what is to be done?[3分]
Begin bandaging the ankle
Wait 30 minutes and then reapply the pack for 20 minutes
Keep the ankle in a position lower than your heart
Wait 20 minutes and then reapply the ice pack for 30 minutes
The main idea of the passage is to explain[3分]
how to treat a sprained ankle
how to bandage an injured foot
how to reduce the temperature of a wounded area
第三篇 Thirst for Oil
Werldwide every day,we devour the energyequivalent of about 200 million barrels of Oil.MoHt of the energy on Earth comes from the Sun.In fact enough energy from the Sun hits the planet’s surface each minute to cover our needs for an entire year,we just need to find an efficient way to use it.So far the energy in oil has been cheaper and easier to get at.But as supplies dwindle,this will change,and we will need to cure our addiction to oil.
Burning wood satisfied most energy needs until the steam-driven industrial revolution,when energy-dense coal became the fuel of choice.
Coal is still used,mostly in power stations,to cover orle quarter of our energy needs,but its use has been declining since wc Staned pumping up oil.
Coal is the least efficient,unhealthiest and most environmentally damaging fossil fuel,but could make a comeback,as supplies are still plentiful; its reserves are five times larger than oil’s.
Today petroleum,a mineral oil obtained from below the surface of the Earth and used to produce petrol,diesel oil and various other chemical substances,provides around 40% of the world’s energy needs,mostly fuelling automobiles.The US consumes a quarter of all oil,and generates a similar proportion of greenhouse gas emissions.
The majority of oil Comes from the Middle East,which has half of known reserves.But other significant sources include Russia,North America,Norway,Venezuela and the North Sea.Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge1 could be a major new US source,to reduce reliance on foreign imports.
Most experts predict we will exhaust easily accessible reserves within 50 years,though opinions and estimates vary.We could fast reach an energy crisis in the next few decades,when demand exceeds supply. As conventional reserves become more difficuh to access.others such as oil shales and tar sands may be used instead.Petrol could also be obtained from coal.
Since we started using fossil fuels,we have released 400 billion tonnes2 of carbon,and burning the entire reserves could eventually raise world temperatures by 13℃.Among other horrors,this would result in the destruction of all rainforests and tile inching of all Arctic ice.
“...we will need to cure our addiction to oil.” Why does the author say so?[3分]
Most of the energy on Earth comes from the Sun.
Oil supply is increasing all the time.
Demand for oil is increasing all the time.
Oil supply is decreasing.
Which of the following statements is NOT meant by the author,according to the second paragraph?[3分]
Wood wets the fuel of choice before coal.
The use of coal is declining.
Coal is the most environmentally unfriendly fuel next to oil.
Coal reserves are plentiful and will be likely to become the major fuel of choice.
Which country is the biggest consumer of petroleum?[3分]
What do experts say about the earth’s fuel reserves?[3分]
The earth’s fuel reserves will be accessible for the next 50 years.
There will soon be an energy crisis.
Conventional reserves will soon become inaccessible.
Fuel demand will decline.
What is NOT the result of consuming fossil fuels according to the last paragraph?[3分]
Rainforests will be destroyed.
Arctic ice will be melted.
The earth’s temperature will be raised.
The sea level will go up.
Some Unusual Celebrations
Some holidays are well-known all around the world. Among them are New Year’s Eve celebrations. Also common are days in honor of love and friendship, like Valentine’s Day. Each country has its own special holidays, too, often to mark important events in its schools, banks, and governments offices all close on days like these, ____(46). A few of them are really very strange.
Of course, they are not strange to the people who celebrate them. Perhaps that is because the celebrations have long traditions. Consider April Fool’s Day, for example. No one knows when or why it began. Today it is celebrated in many countries—France, England and Australia, among others. On this day, people play practical jokes ____(47). The ones who laugh are the ones playing the jokes. The people they got angry. Does celebrating this day make sense to you?
Day in Poland seems strange, too. On this day, it is traditional for boys to over the heads of girls. Here is the strangest part. They do it to girls they like. unusual celebrations take place in a single city or town.
A holiday called La is celebrated in Bunol, Spain. Every year, in late
August, big trucks carry more pounds of tomatoes into this little town. _____(48). For two hours, streets throw tomatoes at each other. Everyone ends up red from head to marks the start of the Puck Fair, an Irish festival with a very unusual from the town of Killorglin go up into the mountains and catch a wild ____(49).
also some celebrations that are really strange. In the United States, person gets an idea for a new holiday and tries to get others to accept it. Public Sleeping Day? That one is on February 28. It may seem strange, fun than the one on February 9. ____(50) of inventing a new holiday? If you do, then you will want to mark. That is Make Up Your Own Holiday Day.
A.Some people have fun imaging new holidays.
B.That is supposed to be ToothacheDay.
C.Then begins the world’s biggest food fight.
D.They bring him back to town, put a crown on his head and make days.
E.Jokes are supposed to be funny, but these jokes do not make everything
F.Some of the days people celebrate, however, are less serious.
Going on a diet
Atypical person needs about 1, 800 calories per day to stay alive. These calories keep your heart beating and your lungs51. They keep your organs operating properly and your brain running. They also keep your body52. A person gains weight because he or she consumes more calories per day than needed. The only53to lose fat is to reduce the number of calories that you consume per day. This is the basic principle54going on a diet. Unfortunately, diets don’t55for most people. They do lose weight but then go off the diet and put it back.
Building a56diet and exercise plan is the key to maintaining a57weight. You need to58how many calories you need in a day and how many you actually59. The next step is to60exercise so that you can raise the number of calories you can consume per day.
Exercise61can show you how many calories different forms of exercise can burn.
Burning 250 or 500 calories per day can make a big62. You can ride an exercise bike while you are watching TV or you can climb the stairs instead of the elevator.
Find an exercise partner.
Exercise can be a lot63if there is someone to talk to. It’s a good idea to wear64clothes if you are on a diet. Tight clothing acts as a reminder of what you are trying to65.