Many fine cooks insist on ingredients of the highest quality.[1分]
Since the Great Depression, the United States government has protected farmers from damaging drops in grain prices.[1分]
Cement was seldom used in building during the Middle Ages.[1分]
Nerve signals may travel through nerve or muscle fibers at speeds as high as two hundred miles per hour.[1分]
The poet William Carols Williams was a New Jersey physician.[1分]
Medicine depends on other fields for basic information, particularly some of their specialized branches.[1分]
We shall take the treasure away to a safe place.[1分]
An important part of the national government is the Foreign Service, a branch of their specialized branches.[1分]
The child’s abnormal behavior puzzled the doctor.[1分]
There is an abundant supply of cheap labor in this country.[1分]
In order to improve our standard of living, we have to accelerate production.[1分]
Gas does accumulate in the mines around here.[1分]
Our plan is to allocate one member of staff to handle appointments.[1分]
Her behavior is extremely childish.[1分]
We also want to use the water to irrigate barren desert land.[1分]
Relieving the Pain
"Exercise may be the best treatment of chronic pain, "say doctors at a new clinic for dealing with pain."People with chronic pain need to stop lying around, go out more, and start exercising." The instinctive reaction to acute pain is to stop moving and try to protect the source of pain. But it seems that this is often not productive, especially in the case of back pain. Back pain, after headaches and tiredness, has become the third most common reason for people to visit their doctors. Painful backs now account for millions of days off work.
Lumbar(腰部) pains are partly the price humans pay for taking their forelimbs off the ground, but they are made worse by a sedentary(久坐不动的) lifestyle. Lack of exercise slowly decreases the flexibility and strength of muscles, so that it is more difficult to take pressure off the site of the pain. Exercise is essential. It releases endorphins(内啡肽), the body’s “feel-good” chemicals, which are natural painkillers. In fact, these are so important that researchers are now looking for drugs that can maintain a comfortable level of endorphins in the body.
Most people who go to a family doctor complaining of pain are prescribed pain-killing drugs rather than exercise. Since finding the cause of backache is not so easy, doctors frequently do not know the precise cause of the discomfort, and as the pain continues, sufferers end up taking stronger doses or a series of different drugs. “It’s crazy,”says Dr. Brasseur, a therapist at the International Association for the Study of Pain. “Some of them are taking different drugs prescribed by different doctors I’ve just seen a patient who was taking two drugs which turned out to be the same thing under different names.”
A generation of new pain clinics now operates on the basis that drugs are best avoided. Once patients have undergone the initial physical and psychological check up, their medication is cut down as much as possible. Taking patients off drugs also prepares them for physical activity.
In some pain-relief clinics, patients begin the day muscle contraction and relaxation exercises followed by an hour on exercise bikes. Later in the day, they practice t'ai chi(太极),self-defense, and deep thought. This compares with an average of two-and-a-half hours physiotherapy(理疗) a week in a traditional hospital program. "The idea is to strengthen and to increase long-lasting energy, flexibility, and confidence." explains Bill Wiles, A consultant pain doctor in Liverpool."Patients undergoing this therapy get back to work and resume healthy active lifestyles much sooner than those subjected to more conservative treatment."
To treat pain,patients should stop moving around.[1分]
Headaches are partly caused by lack of exercise.[1分]
Exercise helps to take the pressure off the site of pain.[1分]
Doctors often use drugs such as endorphins to treat patients.[1分]
Backache sufferers often end up taking more than one drug to kill pain.[1分]
Exercise helps pain sufferers to recover more quickly than traditional treatment.[1分]
New pain clinics ask patients to give up drugs completely.[1分]
Depression and the Elderly
1We all feel sad at times. However, clinical depression is a serious matter. Clinical depression, sometimes called major depression, is a biologically based brain disorder that affects one’s thoughts, feelings, behavior, and physical health. When people complain that they feel terrible, they have no interest or take no pleasure in things, have trouble sleeping. 1ack energy, have poor appetite, or cannot concentrate, depression Is a definite possibility.
2Depression in its many forms affects more than 6.5 million of the 35 million Americans who are 65 years or older. Most older people with depression have been suffering from episodes(发作)of the illness during much of their lives. For others, depression has a first onset(起病)in late life--even for those in their 80s and 90s. Depression in older persons is closely associated with dependency and disability and causes great suffering for the individual and the family.
3Many older people and their families don’t recognize the symptoms of depression, aren’t aware that it is a medical illness, and don’t know how it is treated. Others may mistake the symptoms of depression as signs of dementia(痴呆)｡Also, many older people think that depression is a character flaw(缺陷)and are worried about being stigmatized(给…带来耻辱), SO they blame themselves for their illness and are too ashamed(羞耻的)to get help, Others worry that treatment would be too costly.
4Older persons with depression rarely seek treatment for the illness. Unrecognized and untreated depression has fatal consequences in terms of both suicide and non-suicide mortality(死亡率). The highest rate of suicide in the US is among older white men. Depression is the single most significant risk factor for suicide in that population. Tragically, many of those people who go on to commit suicide have reached 0ut for help--20%see a doctor the day they die, 40%the week they die, and 70%in the month they die. Yet depression is frequently missed.
A.What are the consequences of untreated depression in older people?
B.How common is depression in later life?
C.What is depression?
D.What relieves depression in older people?
E.Why does depression in older people often go untreated?
F.Can depression in older people be treated?
Clinical depression is different from--------------[1分]
Depression in older people is strongly linked with--------------[1分]
Depression is regarded by many older people as--------------[1分]
Many older people commit suicide as a result of--------------[1分]
A.unrecognized and untreated depression
B.a character flaw
C.normal sadness and grief
D.a definite possibility
E.dependency and disability
F.a significant risk factor
第一篇 Prolonging Human Life
Prolonging human life has increased the size of the human population. Many people alive today would have died of childhood diseases if they had been born 100 years ago. Because more people live longer, there are more people around at any given time. In fact, it is a decrease in death rates, not an increase in birth rates, that has led to the population explosion.
Prolonging human life has also increased the dependency (依赖) load. In all societies, people who are disabled or too young or too old to work are dependent on the rest of society to provide for them. In hunting and gathering cultures, old people who could not keep up might be left behind to die. In times of famine (饥荒., infants might be allowed to die because they could not survive if their parents starved, whereas if the parents survived they could have another child. In most contemporary societies, people feel a moral obligation to keep people alive whether they can work or not. We have a great many people today who live past the age at which they want to work or are able to work; we also have rules which require people to retire at a certain age. Unless these people were able to save money for their retirement, somebody else must support them. I the United States many retired people love on social security checks which are so little that they must live in near poverty. Older people have more illness than young or middle-aged people; unless they have wealth or private or government insurance, they must often go on welfare if they have a serious illness.
When older people become senile (年老的) or too weak and ill to care for themselves, they create grave problems for their families. In the past and in some traditional cultures, they would be cared for at home until they died. Today, with most members of a household working or in school, there is often no one at home who can care for a sick or weak person. To meet this need, a great many nursing homes and convalescent hospitals (康复医院) have been built. These are often profit-making organizations, although some are sponsored by religious and other nonprofit groups. While a few of these institute ones are good, most of them are simply dumping grounds for the dying in which care is given by poorly paid, overworked and underskilled personnel.
The writer believes that the population explosion results from[3分]
an increase in birthrates.
the industrial development
a decrease in death rates.
It can be inferred from the passage that in hunting and gathering cultures[3分]
it was a moral responsibility to keep old-aged people alive.
infants could be left dead in times of starvation.
parents had to impact the cultural wisdom of the tribe their children.
death was considered to be freedom from hardships.
According to the passage, which of the following statements about retired people in the United States is true?[3分]
Many of them have a very hard life.
They cannot live a decent life without enough bank savings.
They rely mainly on their children for financial support.
Most of them live with their childre and therefore are well looked after.
In Paragraph 3, the phrase “ this need” refers to[3分]
the need to prolong the lives of old people.
the need to enrich the life of the retired people.
the need to build profit-making nursing homes.
the need to take care of a sick and weak people.
Which of the following best describes the writer’s attitude toward most of the nursing homes, and convalescent hospitals?[3分]
第二篇 When Fear Takes Control of the Mind
A panic attack is a sudden feeling of terror. Usually it does not last long, but it may feel like forever. The cause can be something as normally uneventful as driving over abridge or flying in an airplane. And it can happen even if the person has driven over many bridges or flown many times before. A fast heartbeat, sweaty hands, difficulty breathing, a dizzy feeling. At first a person may have no idea what is wrong. But these can all be signs of what is known as panic disorder. The first appearance usually is between the ages of 1 8 and 25. In some cases it develops after a tragedy, like the death of a loved one, or some other difficult situation.
In the United States, the National Institute of Mental Health says more than two million people are affected in any one-year period. The American Psychological Association says panic disorder is two times more likely in women than men. And it can last anywhere from a few months to a lifetime.
Panic attacks can be dangerous-for example, if a person is driving at the time. The Chesapeake Bay Bridge in the state of Maryland is so long and so high over the water, it is famous for scaring motorists. There is even a driver assistance program to help people get across. Some people who suffer a panic attack develop a phobia(恐惧病), a deep fear of ever repeating the activity that brought on the attack.
But expels say panic disorder can be treated. Doctors might suggest anti-anxiety or antidepressant(抗抑郁的)medicines. Talking to a counselor could help a person learn to deal with or avoid a panic attack. There are breathing methods, for example, that might help a person calm down. Panic disorder is included among what mental health professionals call anxiety disorders. A study published last week reported a link between anxiety disorders and several physical diseases. It says these include thyroid(甲状腺的)disease, lung and stomach problems, migraine headaches(偏头痛)and allergic(过敏的)conditions. Researchers at the University of Manitoba in Canada say that in most cases the physical condition followed the anxiety disorder. But, they say, exactly how the two are connected remains unknown.
Which is NOT a possible sign of panic disorder?[3分]
Which is NOT mentioned as a possible cause of panic disorder?[3分]
Being between the ages of 1 8 and 25.
Panic disorder is said to extend from.[3分]
a few months to a lifetime.
a few months to a few years.
a few days to a few months.
a few minutes to a few days.
Which is NOT a possible treatment for panic disorder?[3分]
Taking anti-anxiety or antidepressant medicines.
Repeating the activity that brought. or the attack.
Learning special breathing methods
Panic disorder is a kind of.[3分]
lung and stomach problem.
第三篇 Sleep Lets Brain File Memories
To sleep. Perchance to file? Findings published online this week by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences further support the theory that the brain organizes and stows memories formed during the day while the rest of the body is catching zzz’s.
Gyorgy Buzsaki of Rutgers university and his colleagues analyzed the brain waves of sleeping rats and mice. Specifically, they examined the electrical activity emanating from the somatosensory neocortex (an area that processes sensory information. and the hippocampus, which is a center for learning and memory. The scientists found that oscillation in brain waves from the two regions appear to be intertwined. So-called sleep spindles (bursts of activity from the neocortex. were followed tens of milliseconds later by beats in the hippocampus known as ripples. The team posits that this interplay between the two brain regions is a key step in memory consolidation.
A second study, also published online this week by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Links age-associated memory decline to high glucose levels.
Previous research had shown that individuals with diabetes suffer from increased memory problems. In the new work, Antonio Convit of New York University School of Medicine and his collaborators studied 3 people whose average age was 69 to investigate whether sugar levels, which tend to increase with age, affect memory in healthy people as well. The scientists administered recall tests, brain scans and glucose tolerance tests, which measure how quickly sugar is absorbed from the blood by the body’s tissues. Subjects with the poorest memory recollection, the team discovered, also displayed the poorest glucose tolerance. In addition, their brain scans showed more hippocampus shrinkage than those of subjects better able to absorb blood sugar.
“Our study suggests that this impairment may contribute to the memory deficits that occur as people age.” Convit says. “And it raises the intriguing possibility that improving glucose tolerance could reverse some age-associated problems in cognition” Exercise and weight control can help keep glucose levels in check, so there may be one more reason to go to the gym.
Which of the following statements is nearest in meaning to the sentence “To sleep. Perchance to file?”[3分]
Does brain arrange memories in useful order during sleep?
Does brain have memories when one is sleeping?
Does brain remember files after one falls asleep?
Does brain work on files in sleep?
What is the result of the experiment with rats and mice carried out at Rutgers University?[3分]
The electrical activity is emanating from the somatosensory neocortex.
Oscillations in brain waves are from hippocampus.
Somatosensory neocortex and hippocampus work together tin memory consolidation.
Somatosensory neocortex plays a primary role in memory consolidation.
What is the relation of memory to glucose tolerance, as is indicated by a research mentioned in paragraph 4?[3分]
People with poor memory have high glucose tolerance.
People with good memory have low glucose tolerance.
Memory level has nothing to do with glucose tolerance.
The poorer the memory, the poorer glucose tolerance.
In what way is memory related to hippocampus shrinkage?[3分]
There is no relation between memory and hippocampus shrinkage.
The more hippocampus shrinks, the poorer one’s memory.
The more hippocampus shrinks, the better one’s memory.
The less hippocampus shrinks, the poorer one’s memory.
According to the last paragraph, what is the ultimate reason for going to the gym?[3分]
To prevent hippocampus shrinkage.
To control glucose levels.
Flying into History
When you turn on the television or read a magazine, celebrities(名人)are everywhere. Although fame and the media play such major roles in our lives today, it has not always been that way. _______ (46) Many historians agree that Charles Lindbergh was one of the first major celebrities, or superstars.
Lindbergh was born in Detroit, Michigan, in1902, but he grew up in Little Falls, Minnescta. As a child, he was very interested in how things worked, so when he reached college, he pursued a degree in engineering. At the age of 20, however, the allure(诱惑)imagination. _______(47) Soon after, Lindbergh bought his own plane and traveled across the nation performing aerial stunts(空中特技).
In 1924, Lindbergh became more serious about flying. He joined the United States military and graduated first in his pilot class. _______ (48)
During the same time, a wealthy hotel owner named Raymond Orteig was offering a generous award to the first pilot who could fly nonstop from New York City to Paris, France. The Orteig Prize was worth $25,000—a large amount even by today’s standards.
Lindbergh knew he had the skills to complete the flight, but not just any plane was capable of flying that far for that long. _______(49) On may 20, 1927, Charles Lindbergh took off from Roosevelt Field in New York City and arrived the next day at an airstrip(简易机场)outside Paris. Named in honor of the sponsor. The Spirit of St. Louis carried Lindbergh across the Atlantic Ocean and into the record books. He became a national hero and a huge celebrity.
When he returned to the United States, Lindbergh rode in a ticker-tape(热烈的)parade held to celebrate his accomplishment. _______(50) A very popular dance was even named for Charles Lindbergh—the Lindy Hop. Today, The Spirit of St.Louis is pt at the Smithsonian Institute’s National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.
A.Eighty years ago,radio and movies were just beginning to have that kind of effect on Americans.
B.Working with an aviation company from San Diego,California,and with financial help from the city of St.Louis,Lindbergh got a customized(定制的)airplane that could make the journey.
C.He also received a Medal of Honor,the highest United States military decoration.
D.He quit school and moved to Nebraska where he learned to be a pilot.
E.His childhood was not full of fond memories.
F.Lindbergh used this additional training to get a job as an airmail pilot,flying out of St.Louis, Missouri.
Old And Active
It is wellknown that life expectancy is longer in Japan than in most other countries. A recent51also shows that Japan has the longest health expectancy in the world. A healthy long life is the result of the52in social environment. Scientists are trying to53out exactly what keeps elderly Japanese people so healthy, and whether there is a54to be learnt from their lifestyles for the rest of us. Should we make any55to our eating habits, for instance, or go jogging each day before breakfast? Is there some secret56in the Japanese diet that is particularly beneficial57the human body? Another factor contributing to the rapid population aging in Japan is a58in birthrate. Although longer life should be59, it is actually considered a social problem. The number of older people had doubled in the last half century and that has60pension and medical costs. The country could soon be61an economic problem, if there are so many old people to be looked after, and relatively few younger people working and paying62to support them. Raising the retirement age from 65 to 70 could be one63to the problem. Work can give the elderly a64of responsibility and mission in life. It’s important that the elderly play active65in the society and live in harmony with all generations.