So far no one has been able to account for the cause of the accident.[1分]
All those present noticed the minute change in his look.[1分]
The war was over, but the whole country was in a state of disorder.[1分]
The young man was accused of theft in the supermarket.[1分]
The cause of the fire is being investigated.[1分]
Numerous attempts have been made to hide the truth.[1分]
It is obvious that there is difference in the way they view the matter.[1分]
It is odd that so little is known about the talented painter.[1分]
Everyone in the class participated in the farewell party.[1分]
Since ancient times people have found various ways to preserve meat.[1分]
To understand what we are going to talk about today, you have to rely on what you have read previously.[1分]
At the policeman's signal, the vehicle pulled up.[1分]
Not everyone can perceive the gradual change in the writer's style.[1分]
It was said that after his father's death, he possessed nearly half of his father's wealth.[1分]
They all agreed that the changes that have taken place are substantial.[1分]
Relieving the Pain
"Exercise may be the best treatment of chronic pain, "say doctors at a new clinic for dealing with pain."People with chronic pain need to stop lying around, go out more, and start exercising." The instinctive reaction to acute pain is to stop moving and try to protect the source of pain. But it seems that this is often not productive, especially in the case of back pain. Back pain, after headaches and tiredness, has become the third most common reason for people to visit their doctors. Painful backs now account for millions of days off work.
Lumbar(腰部) pains are partly the price humans pay for taking their forelimbs off the ground, but they are made worse by a sedentary(久坐不动的) lifestyle. Lack of exercise slowly decreases the flexibility and strength of muscles, so that it is more difficult to take pressure off the site of the pain. Exercise is essential. It releases endorphins(内啡肽), the body’s “feel-good” chemicals, which are natural painkillers. In fact, these are so important that researchers are now looking for drugs that can maintain a comfortable level of endorphins in the body.
Most people who go to a family doctor complaining of pain are prescribed pain-killing drugs rather than exercise. Since finding the cause of backache is not so easy, doctors frequently do not know the precise cause of the discomfort, and as the pain continues, sufferers end up taking stronger doses or a series of different drugs. “It’s crazy,”says Dr. Brasseur, a therapist at the International Association for the Study of Pain. “Some of them are taking different drugs prescribed by different doctors I’ve just seen a patient who was taking two drugs which turned out to be the same thing under different names.”
A generation of new pain clinics now operates on the basis that drugs are best avoided. Once patients have undergone the initial physical and psychological check up, their medication is cut down as much as possible. Taking patients off drugs also prepares them for physical activity.
In some pain-relief clinics, patients begin the day muscle contraction and relaxation exercises followed by an hour on exercise bikes. Later in the day, they practice t'ai chi(太极),self-defense, and deep thought. This compares with an average of two-and-a-half hours physiotherapy(理疗) a week in a traditional hospital program. "The idea is to strengthen and to increase long-lasting energy, flexibility, and confidence." explains Bill Wiles, A consultant pain doctor in Liverpool."Patients undergoing this therapy get back to work and resume healthy active lifestyles much sooner than those subjected to more conservative treatment."
To treat pain,patients should stop moving around.[1分]
Headaches are partly caused by lack of exercise.[1分]
Exercise helps to take the pressure off the site of pain.[1分]
Doctors often use drugs such as endorphins to treat patients.[1分]
Backache sufferers often end up taking more than one drug to kill pain.[1分]
Exercise helps pain sufferers to recover more quickly than traditional treatment.[1分]
New pain clinics ask patients to give up drugs completely.[1分]
D.epression and the
1.We all feel sad at times.However,clinical depression is a serious matter.Clinical depression, sometimes called major depression,is a biologically based brain disorder that affects one’s thoughts,feelings,behavior,and physical health.When people complain that they feel terrible,they have no interest or take no pleasure in things,have trouble sleeping,lack energy,have poor appetite,or cannot concentrate,depression is a definite possibility.
2.Depression in its many forms affects more than 6.5 million of the 35 million Americans who are 65 years or older.Most older people with depression have been suffering from episodes(发作)of the illness during much of their lives｡For others.depression has a first onset(起病)in late life—even for those in their 80s and 90s. Depression in older persons is closely associated with dependency and disability and causes great suffering for the individual and the family
3.Many older people and their families don’t-recognize the symptoms of depression,aren’t aware that it is a medical illness,and don’t know how it is treated Others may mistake the symptoms of depression as sighs of dementia(痴呆).Also,many older people think that depression is a character flaw(缺陷)and are worried about being stigmatized(给…带来耻辱),SO they blame themselves for their illness and are too ashamed(羞耻的)to get help,Others worry that treatment would be too costly.
4.Older persons with depression rarely seek treatment for the illness｡Unrecognized and untreated depression has fatal consequences in terms of both suicide and non-suicide mortality(死亡率).The highest rate of suicide in the US is among older white men•Depression IS the single most significant risk factor for suicide in that population｡Tragically,many of those people who go on to commit suicide have reached out for help -20%see a doctor the day they die,40%the week they die,and 70%in the month they die. Yet depression is frequently missed.
A.How common is depression in later life?
B.What is depression?
C.What relieves depression in older people?
D.Why does depression in older people often go untreated?
E.Can depression in older people be treated?
F.What are the consequences of untreated depression in older people?
Clinical depression is different from-------------[1分]
Depression in older people is strongly linked with--------------[1分]
Depression is regarded by many older people as--------------[1分]
Many older people commit suicide as a result of----------------[1分]
A.a character flaw
B.normal sadness and grief
C.a definite possibility
D.dependency and disability
E.a significant risk factor
F.unrecognized and untreated depression
第一篇 Some People Do Not Taste Salt Like Others
Low-salt foods may be harder for some people to like than others, according to a study by a Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences1 food scientist. The research indicates that genetic factors influence some of the difference in the levels of salt we like to eat.
Those conclusions are important because recent, well-publicized efforts to reduce the salt content in food2 have left many people struggling to accept fare that simply does not taste as good to them as it does to others3, pointed out John Hayes, assistant professor of food science, who was lead investigator? on the study.
Diets high in salt can increase the risk of high blood pressure and stroke. That is why public health experts and food companies are Working together on ways to help consumers lower salt intake through foods that are enjoyable to eat. This study increases understanding of salt preference and consumption.
The research involved 87 carefully screened participants who sampled salty foods such as soup and chips, on multiple occasions, spread out over weeks5. Test subjects were 45 men and 42 women, reportedly healthy, ranging in age from 20 to 40 years. The sample was composed of individuals who were not actively modifying their dietary intake and did not smoke cigarettes. They rated the intensity of taste on a commonly used scientific scale, ranging from barely detectable to strongest sensation of any kind.
"Most of us like the taste of salt. However, some individuals eat more salt, both because they like the taste of saltiness more, and also because it is needed to block other unpleasant tastes in food," said Hayes. "Supertasters, people who experience tastes more mtensely, consume more salt than nontasters do. Snack foods have saltiness as their primary flavor, and at least for these foods, more is better, so the supertasters seem to like them more. "
However, supertasters also need higher levels of salt to block unpleasant bitter tastes in foods such as cheese, Hayes noted. "For example, cheese is a wonderful blend of dairy flavors from fermented, milk, but also bitter tastes from ripening that are blocked by salt," he said. "A supertaster finds low-salt cheese unpleasant because the bitterness is too pronounced6.
Hayes cited research done more than 75 years ago by a chemist named Fox and a geneticist named Blakeslee, showing that individuals differ in their ability to taste certain chemicals. As a result, Hayes explained, we know that a wide range in taste acuity exists, and this variation is as normal as variations in eye and hair color.
"Some people, called supertasters, describe bitter compounds as being extremely bitter, while others, called nontasters, find these same bitter compounds to be tasteless or only weary bitter," he said. "Response to bitter compounds is one of many ways to identify biological differences in food preference because supertasting7 is not limited to bitterness.
In paragraph 2, John Hayes points out that[3分]
it is good to health to eat food without salt.
many people reject low-salt food completely.
many people accept low-salt tasteless food reluctantly
food with reduced salt tastes better.
The fourth paragraph describes briefly[3分]
how to select subjects and what to do in the research.
how to identify supertasters and nontasters.
why to limit the number of subjects to 87 persons.
why to select more male subjects than female ones.
The article argues that supertasters[3分]
like the taste of saltiness to block sweet tastes in food.
like snack foods as saltiness is their primary flavor.
consume less salt because they don't like intensive tastes.
like to share salty cheese with nontasters.
Which of the following applies to supertasters in terms of bitter taste?[3分]
They like bitterness in foods as well as saltiness.
They like high-salt cheese as it has intense bitter taste.
They prefer high-salt cheese, which tastes less bitter.
They prefer high-salt cheese as it is good to health.
What message do the last two paragraphs carry'?[3分]
Taste acuity is genetically determined.
Taste acuity is developed over time after birth.
Taste acuity is related to one's eye and hair color.
Taste acuity is still a mysterious subject in science.
第二篇 Who Wants to Live Forever?
If your doctor could give you a drug that would let you live a healthy life for twice as long, would you take it?
The good news is that we may be drawing near to that date. Scientists have already extended the lives of flies, worms and mice in laboratories. Many now think that using genetic treatments we will soon be able to extend human life to at least 140 years.
This seems a great idea. Think of how much more time we could spend chasing our dreams, spending time with our loved ones, watching our families grow and have families of their own.
"Longer life would give us a chance to recover from our mistakes and promote long term thinking," says Dr Gregory Stock of the University Of California School Of Public Health. "It would also raise productivity by adding to the year we can work."
Longer lives don't just affect the people who live them. They also affect society as a whole. "We have war, poverty, all sorts of issues around, and I don't think any of them would be at all helped by having people live longer," says US bioethicist Daniel Callahan. "The question is ‘What will we get as a society?' I suspect it won't be a better society."
It would certainly be a very different society. People are already finding it more difficult to stay married. Divorce rates are rising. What would to marriage in a society where people lived for 140 years? 'And what would happen to family life if nine or 10 generations of the same family were all alive at the same time?
Research into ageing may enable women to remain fertile for longer. And that raises the prospect of having 100-year-old parents, or brothers and sisters born 50 years apart1. We think of an elder sibling as someone, who can protect us and offer help and advice. That would be hard to do if that sibling came from a completely different generation.
Working life would also be affected, especially if the retirement age was lifted. More people would stay in work for longer. That would give us the benefits of age - skill, wisdom and good judgment.
On the other hand, more people working for longer would create greater competition for jobs. It would make it more difficult for younger people to find a job. Top posts would be dominated by the same few individuals, making career progress more difficult. And how easily would a 25-year-old employee be able to communicate with a 125-year-old boss?
Young people would be a smaller part of a society in which people lived to 140. It may be that such a society would place less importance on guiding and educating young people, and more on making life comfortable for the old.
And society would feel, very different if more of its members were older. There would be more wisdom, but less energy: Young people like to move about. Old people like to sit still. Young people tend to act without thinking. Old people tend to think without acting. Young people are curious and like to experience .different things. Old people are less enthusiastic about change. In fact, they are less enthusiastic about everything.
The effect of anti-ageing technology is deeper than we might think. But as the science advances, we need to think about these changes now.
"If this could ever happen, then we'd better ask what kind of society we want to get," says Daniel Callahan. "'We had better not go anywhere near it until we have figure those problems out."
Which of the following is NOT mentioned as one of the things that living longer might enable an individual to do?[3分]
Spending more time with his family.
Which of the following is implied in the sixth paragraph?[3分]
Marriages in the US today are quite unstable.
More and more people in the US today want to get married.
Living longer would make it easier for people to maintain their marital ties.
If people live longer~ they would stay in marriage longer.
All of the following are possible effects living longer might have on working life EXCEPT[3分]
Communication between employers and employees would be more difficult.
More money would be used by employees in payment of their employees.
The job market Would be more competitive.
It would be more difficult for young people to be promoted to top positions.
An important feature of a society in which people live a long life is that[3分]
it places more emphasis on educating the young.
it is both wise and energetic.
it lacks the curiosity to experiment what is new
Which of the following best describes Callahan's attitude to anti-ageing technology ?[3分]
第三篇 Be Alert to Antimicrobial Resistance
The ability of micro--organisms to find ways to evade the action of the drugs used to cure the infections they cause is increasingly recognized as a global public health issue.Some bacteria have developed mechanisms which make them resistant to many of the antibiotics normally used for their treatment(multi-drug resistant bacteria),so pose particular difficulties,as there may be few or no alternative options for therapy.They constitute a growing and global public health problem.WHO suggests that countries should be prepared to implement hospital infection control measures to limit the spread of multi-drug resistant strains and to reinforce national policy on prudent use of antibiotics.reducing the generation of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
An article punished in The Lancet Infectious
Diseases2 on 11
August 2010 identified a new gene that enables some types of bacteria to be highly resistant to almost all antibiotics.The article “has drawn attention to the issue of
AMR3(antimicrobial resistance)｡and,in particular,has raised awareness of infections caused by multi.drug resistant bacteria.
While multi-drug resistant bacteria are not new and will continue to appear, this development requires monitoring and further study to understand the extent and modes of transmission, and to define the most effective measures for control.
Those called upon to be alert to the problem of antimicrobial resistance and take appropriate action include consumers,managers of hospitals,patients,as well as national governments,the pharmaceutical industry.and international agencies.
WHO strongly recommends that governments focus control and prevention efforts in the following areas like surveillance for antimicrobial resistance; rational antibiotic use, including , education of healthcare workers and the public in the appropriate use of antibiotics; introducing or enforcing legislation related to stopping the selling of antibiotics without prescription;and strict adherence to infection prevention and control measures,including the use of hand-washing measures.particularly in healthcare facilities.
Successful control of multidrug-resistant microorganisms has been documented in many countries,and the existing and well-known infection prevention and control measures can effectively reduce transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms if systematically implemented.
WHO will continue to support countries to develop relevant policies, and to coordinate international efforts to combat antimicrobial resistance.Antimicrobial resistance will be the theme of WHO’s World Health Day 2011.
Antimicrobial resistance has become a global public health issue because[3分]
there may be few or no treatment to infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria.
new antibiotics are too expensive for poor countries.
infections caused by multi—drug resistant bacteria have killed a lot of people.
scientists know nothing about multi-drug resistant bacteria.
The word “prudent’’ in paragraph I is closest in meaning to[3分]
The article published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases found that[3分]
some bacteria have developed a new gene to resist almost all antibiotics.
a new multi—drug resistant bacterium has appeared.
some infections are caused by antibiotics.
some countries are successful in controlling multi—trug resistant microorganisms.
WHO recommends governments to focus on the following areas EXCEPT[3分]
keeping hospitals from storing more antibiotics than they can use.
education on the use of antibiotics.
control of antibiotic use.
introduction of new regulations on the sale of antibiotics.
We learn from the passage that[3分]
antimicrobial resistance was not noticed until 2010.
further study is needed to deal with the transmission of multi—drug resistant bacteria.
without WHO,no country will be safe in the war against antimicrobial resistance.
WHO will focus its prevention and control efforts in poor countries.
Pressure increased recently on British supermarkets and retailers to reduce packaging as part of an anti-waste campaign. ________________(46). Britain generates 4.6 million tons of household waste every year by packaging.
D.ozens of people have expressed anger at the excess of plastic wrapping.
C.ampaigners has called on
B.ritain to learn from other European countries. __________________(47). When returned bottles are put in a vending machines(自动售货机), the deposit is refunded. Environmentalists warn that
B.ritain lags behind in this.
There were reports of growing unease among consumers over the amount of packaging they have to deal with. Trade standards officers also object to excessive packaging. _________________(48)
In response to a campaign by Britain's The Independent newspaper, leading supermarkets have pointed to various initiatives to win the public confidence. __________________(49)
B.ut campaigners said retailers and the government could learn much from anti-waste practices on the
C.ontinent. In Sweden, non-recyclable batteries have been taxed since 1991 to encourage a switch to alternatives. _____________(50) In
G.ermany, plastic bags are unheard of in supermarkets and deposits are paid for reusable plastic and glass beverage bottles.
A.If a product is over packaged, don't buy it.
B.In Belgium, when you buy something in a plastic or glass container, you make a deposit.
C.This is because too much padding can give buyers a false impression of what they are buying.
D.This has resulted in a 74 percent reduction in sales.
E.Tesco said it was saving 112,000 tons of cardboard a year by switching to reusable plastic crates(装货箱) for transporting its fresh produce.
F.The campaign was initiated by The Independent newspaper.
Everyone can dream. Indeed, everyone does dream. Those who51that they never dream at all52dream just as53as the rest of us, thought they may not remember anything about it. Even those of us who are perfectly aware of dreaming night after night very54remember those dreams in great55but merely56an untidy mixture of seemingly unrelated impressions.
Dreams are not simply visual—we dream with all our senses, 57we appear to experience sound, touch, smell, and taste. One of the world’s oldest58written documents is the Egyptian
Book of Dreams. This volume is about five thousand years old, so you can see that dreams were believed to have a special59even then. Many ancient civilisations believed that you should never60a sleeping person as, during sleep, the soul had left the body and might not be able to return61time if the sleeper62suddenly awoken. From ancient times to the present63, people have been64attempts to interpret dreams and to explain their significance. There are many books available on the subject of dream interpretation, 65unfortunately there are almost as many meanings for a particular dream as there are books.