These are their motives for doing it.[1分]
The river widens considerably as it begins to turn west.[1分]
Henry cannot resist the lure of drugs.[1分]
These programmes are of immense value to old people.[1分]
A great deal has been done to remedy the situation.[1分]
John is collaborating with Mary in writing an article.[1分]
He is determined to consolidate his power.[1分]
Many scientists have been probing psychological problems.[1分]
Hearing problems may be alleviated by changes in diet and exercise habits.[1分]
All the cars are tested for defects before leaving the factory.[1分]
The food is insufficient for three people.[1分]
Thousands of people perished in the storm.[1分]
But in the end he approved of our proposal.[1分]
For young children, getting dressed is a complicated business.[1分]
In Britain and many other countries appraisal is now a tool of management.[1分]
Stem Cell Therapy May Help Repair the Heart
According to scientists in the USA, stem cell therapy may one day be able to repair the hearts of people with heart failure. Researchers at Pittsburgh University School of Medicine examined 20 patients who had severe heart failure and were going to have surgery.
They injected stem cells into the parts of their hearts that were damaged. They then compared their hearts with those of people who had undergone surgery without having the stem cells injected into them (they had also suffered from severe heart failure). The patients who had had the stem cells injected had hearts that were able to pump (用泵抽运) more blood than the others.
According to Professor Robert Kormos, one of the researchers, these results could revolutionize heart treatment. Although previous studies had indicated that there might be a benefit, this is the first study that has actually proved that stem cell therapy can help the failing heart work better.
All the patients in this study had hearts that could not pump blood properly. The scientists measured their ejection fraction (射血分数). This is a measure of heart performance; you measure how much blood is being pumped out by the left ventricle (心室).
Healthy people's ejection fraction is about 55%. These patients had ejection fraction of under 35%. They all had by-pass surgery (搭桥手术) performed on them. Some of the patients had stem cells taken from their hip bones and injected into 25-30 sites in the damaged heart muscle. Six months later their ejection fraction rate was 46.1% while those who just had surgery but no stem cell injections averaged 37.2%.
No side effects were reported.
Heart failure is a common problem all over the world. In the UK alone about 650,000 people suffer from heart failure every year. As the number of people suffering from heart failure increases in the world in general these findings are particularly significant.
Current treatments relieve the symptoms. This new stem cell therapy actually repairs the damaged muscle in the heart and has the potential of curing the disease.
The 20 patients had stem cell injections instead of surgery.[1分]
The experiment proved to be satisfactory.[1分]
The control group patients regretted not having had stem cell injections.[1分]
The study actually proved for the first time the benefit of stem cell therapy.[1分]
The ejection fraction rate of the patients with stem cell injections decreased.[1分]
Heart failure is more common in the UK than anywhere else in the world.[1分]
Stem cell therapy seems to have great prospects.[1分]
The Drink Your Body Needs Most
1 Our bodies are estimated to be about 60 to 70% water. Blood is mostly water, and our muscles, lungs, and brain all contain a lot of water. Water is needed to regulate body temperature and to provide the means for nutrients (滋养物) to travel to all our organs. Water also transports oxygen to our cells, removes waste, and protects our joints and organs.
2 We lose water through urination (排尿), respiration (呼吸), and by sweating. If you are very active, you lose more water than if you do not take much exercise. Symptoms of mild dehydration (脱水) include chronic pains in joints and muscles, lower back pain, headaches, and constipation (便秘). A strong smell to your urine, along with a yellow color indicates that you are not getting enough water. Thirst is an obvious sign of dehydration and in fact, you need water long before you feel thirsty.
3 A good rule of thumb (好的做法) is to take your body weight in pounds and divide that number in half. That gives you the number of ounces (盎司) of water per day that you need. For example, if you weigh 160 pounds, you should drink at least 80 ounces of water per day. If you exercise you should drink another 8-ounce glass of water for every 20 minutes you are active. If you drink coffee or alcohol, you should add at least an equal amount of water. When you are traveling on an airplane, it is good to have 8 ounces of water for every hour you are on board the plane.
4 It may be difficult to drink enough water on a busy day. Be sure you have water handy at all times by keeping a bottle for water with you when you are working, traveling, or exercising. If you get bored with plain water, add a bit of lemon for a touch of flavor. There are some brands of flavored water available, but some of them have sugar or artificial sweeteners that you don't need.
A Ounces of water needed per day
B Importance of water
C Composition of water
D Signs of dehydration
E Supply of water
F Necessity for bringing a bottle for water with you
Dehydration may occur if there is a shortage of water .[1分]
The amount of water your body needs per day is closely related .[1分]
Don't forget to drink enough water even .[1分]
More Than a Ride to School
The National Education Association claims, “The school bus is a mirror of the community.” They further add that, unfortunately, what appears on the exterior does not always reflect the reality of a chosen community. They are right — sometimes it reflects more! Just ask Liesl Denson. Riding the school bus has been more than a ride to school for Liesl.
Bruce Hardy, school bus driver for Althouse Bus Company has been Liesl's bus driver since kindergarten. Last year when Liesl's family moved to Parkesburg, knowing her bus went by her new residence, she requested to ride the same bus.
This year Liesl is a senior and will enjoy her last year riding the bus. She says, “It's been a great ride so far! My bus driver is so cool and has always been a good friend and a good listener. Sometimes when you're a child adults do not think that what you have to say is important. Mr. Hardy always listens to what you have to say and makes you feel important.” Her friends Ashley Batista and Amanda Wolfe agree.
Bruce Hardy has been making Octorara students feel special since 1975. This year he will celebrate 30 years working for Althouse Bus Company. Larry Althouse, president of the company, acknowledges Bruce Hardy's outstanding record: “You do not come by employees like Bruce these days. He has never missed a day of work and has a perfect driving record. He was recognized in 2000 by the Pennsylvania School Bus Association for driving 350,000 accident free miles. Hardy's reputation is made further evident through the relationships he has made with the students that ride his bus.”
Althouse further adds, “Althouse Bus Company was established 70 years ago and has been providing quality transportation ever since. My grandfather started the business with one bus. Althouse Bus Company is delighted to have the opportunity to bring distinctive and safe service to our local school and community and looks forward to continuing to provide quality service for many more years to come.”
Three generations of business is not all the company has enjoyed. Thanks to drivers like Bruce Hardy, they have been building relationships through generations. Liesl's mother Carol also enjoys fond memories of riding Bruce Hardy's bus to the Octorara School District.
The word “mirror” in the first line could be best replaced by[3分]
Bruce Hardy has been working with Althouse Bus Company[3分]
Which of the following statements is NOT true of Bruce Hardy?[3分]
He is popular with his passengers.
He has never missed a day of work.
He is an impatient person.
He has driven 350,000 accident free miles.
Althouse Bus Company was founded by[3分]
Althouse Bus Company pays much attention to[3分]
providing free driving lessons.
building sound relationships.
Diabetes (糖尿病) and Eye Damage
Over 2 million Canadians have diabetes. It is the leading cause of blindness in North Americans under 65 years of age. Diabetes is a condition where the body either cannot produce enough insulin (胰岛素) or cannot respond properly to insulin. Insulin is important because it moves glucose (葡萄糖), a simple sugar, into the body's cells from the blood. The food people eat provides the body with glucose, which is used by the cells as a source of energy. If insulin isn't available or doesn't work correctly to move glucose from the blood into the cells, glucose will stay in the blood, leading to high blood sugar levels.
High blood sugar levels damage the blood vessels, including the tiny blood vessels in the eye. This leads to an eye disease known as diabetic retinopathy (糖尿病型视网膜病). The retina (视网膜) is an area at the back of the eye that changes light into nerve signals. With diabetic retinopathy, some blood vessels in the retina are lost, and some of the other blood vessels begin to “leak” blood. This causes the retina to swell, and gradually cuts off its supply of oxygen and nutrients (滋养物). Eventually, the retina starts to grow new blood vessels to replace the damaged ones. Unfortunately, these new vessels are not as strong as the old ones. They are more likely to break, causing bleeding in the eye.
At first, people with diabetic retinopathy will not notice any symptoms. As the disease gets worse, they may notice blurred (模糊的) vision, black spots or flashing lights. As time goes on, it can progress to blindness. Everyone with diabetes is at risk for diabetic retinopathy, and the risk increases the longer you've had diabetes.
Fortunately, you can reduce your risk. If you do not have diabetes, but think you may be at risk for this condition, visit your doctor to be screened for diabetes. If you do have diabetes:
Have frequent eye check-ups.
Make sure that you monitor your blood sugar frequently and use your medications as recommended by your doctor. There is evidence to show that keeping your blood sugar under tight control can slow down eye damage.
If you have high blood pressure, follow your recommended diet and medications to keep it under control. If you are not sure whether you have high blood pressure, or whether your blood pressure is under control, discuss this with your doctor.
Glucose cannot be turned into energy in the body[3分]
The word “its” in the second paragraph refers to[3分]
With diabetic retinopathy, the damaged blood vessels in the retina[3分]
are stronger than what they used to be.
cannot be properly replaced.
are more likely to break than the new ones.
may return to normal again.
The worst eye damage induced by diabetes is[3分]
To slow down eye damage, people with diabetes should try to[3分]
use as many medications as they can.
eat as little as possible.
wear glasses as often as possible.
keep their blood sugar under tight control.
Milk That Paid a Medical Bill
One day, a poor boy who was selling goods from door to door to pay his way through school found he had only one thin dime (10分钱) left, and he was hungry.
He decided he would ask for a meal at the next house. However, he lost his nerve when a lovely young woman opened the door. Instead of a meal he asked for a drink of water. She thought he looked hungry so she brought him a large glass of milk. He drank it slowly, and then asked, “How much do I owe you?” “You don't owe me anything,” she replied. “Mother has taught us never to accept pay for a kindness.” He said, “Then I thank you from my heart.”
As Howard Kelly left that house, he not only felt stronger physically, but his faith in God and man was strong also. He had been ready to give up and quit.
Years later that young woman became critically ill. The local doctors were baffled (感到困惑). They finally sent her to the big city, where they called in specialists to study her rare disease. Dr. Howard Kelly was called in for the consultation. When he heard the name of the town she came from, a strange light filled his eyes. Immediately he rose and went down the hall of the hospital to her room. Dressed in his doctor's gown he went in to see her. He recognized her at once. He went back to the consultation room determined to do his best to save her life. From that day he gave special attention to the case. After a long struggle, the battle was won.
Dr. Kelly requested the business office to pass the final bill to him for approval. He looked at it; then wrote something on the edge and the bill was sent to her room. She feared to open it, for she was sure it would take the rest of her life to pay for it all. Finally she looked, and something caught her attention on the side of the bill. She read these words: “Paid in full with one glass of milk.” Tears of joy flooded her eyes as her happy heart prayed: “Thank You, God, that Your love has spread abroad through human hearts and hands.”
The boy sold goods from door to door because[3分]
he wanted to help support his family.
he needed money for school.
he had to pay back a student loan.
he did not have enough pocket money.
But for the young woman's kind deed, the boy could[3分]
When the boy and the young woman met again years later[3分]
they had both changed beyond recognition.
neither remembered their previous meeting.
the boy had become a medical specialist.
the woman had come to stay in the big city.
Dr. Kelly gave special attention to the case mainly because[3分]
he fell in love with the woman.
he was eager to distinguish himself.
he wanted to repay the woman for her great kindness.
Among other things, the story shows that[3分]
good will be rewarded with good.
it is okay to accept pay for a kindness.
it is wise neither to borrow nor to lend.
where there's a will there's a way.
Every Dog Has Its Say
Kimiko Fukuda, a Japanese girl, always wondered what her dog was trying to say. Whenever she put on makeup, it would pull at her sleeve. (46) When the dog barks, she glances at a small electronic gadget (装置). The following “human” translation appears on its screen: “Please take me with you.” “I realized that's how he was feeling,” said Fukuda.
The gadget is called Bowlingual, and it translates dog barks into feelings. People laughed when the Japanese toymaker Takara Company made the world's first dog-human translation machine in 2002. But 300,000 Japanese dog owners bought it. (47)
“Nobody else had thought about it,” said Masahiko Kajita, who works for Takara. “We spend so much time training dogs to understand our orders; what would it be like if we could understand dogs?”
Bowlingual has two parts.(48) The translation is done in the gadget using a database (资料库) containing every kind of bark.
Based on animal behaviour research, these noises are divided into six categories: happiness, sadness, frustration, anger, declaration and desire. (49) In this way, the database scientifically matches a bark to an emotion, which is then translated into one of 200 phrases.
When a visitor went to Fukuda's house recently, the dog barked a loud “bow wow”. This translated as “Don't come this way”. (50)
The product will be available in US pet stores this summer for about US$120. It can store up to 100 barks, even recording the dog's emotions when the owner is away.
A A wireless microphone is attached to the dog's collar, which sends information to the gadget held by the owner.
B Nobody really knows how a dog feels.
C It was followed by “I'm stronger than you” as the dog growled (嗥叫) and sniffed (嗅) at the visitor.
D More customers are expected when the English version is launched this summer.
E Now, the Japanese girl thinks she knows.
F Each one of these emotions is then linked to a phrase like “Let's play”, “Look at me”, or “Spend more time with me”.
What Is Anthrax (炭疽)?
There's been a lot of talk about anthrax on the news lately. Some people are worried that anthrax may be connected to terrorist attacks or that terrorists may spread the germ that (51) the disease. Federal officials and police are investigating this and taking (52) to protect us.
In the meantime, it's important not to panic over anthrax. The chances that you and your family(53) at risk are very tiny. One of the ways you can feel better is to learn about anthrax. When you know what it is and (54) you can get it, it doesn't seem quite as scary.
So, what (55) is anthrax?
Here are the facts on anthrax:
Anthrax is a bacterial infection caused by a germ. Although it's most common in farm (56), like sheep, cows, pigs, horses, and goats, there's a very small chance that people can get it, too.
Anthrax spores (孢子) (a version of the germ in a protective shell that can live in the soil for years) cause the disease.
People may get anthrax if they are exposed to anthrax (57). But here's the important part: just being exposed to these spores doesn't mean that a person will get (58).
For a person to get sick, he would have to breathe in thousands of these spores all the way into his (59). Or he'd have to eat meat contaminated with anthrax or handle (60) that has anthrax spores. This may sound scary, but even when a person comes (61) contact with the spores, it's unlikely that he'll get sick. (62) the bacteria do not get into the skin, digestive tract, or lung, the disease won't develop.
Anthrax is not spread from person to person the way the flu can spread from family member to (63) member or classmate to classmate.
Anthrax can almost always be successfully treated with antibiotics (抗生素).
Anthrax is very rare. Until recently, anthrax wasn't even talked about because it was so rare — and it still (64)! Even with all of the anthrax cases you are hearing about right now, a person's chances of getting anthrax are about the (65) as they were before you heard about anthrax on the news — very, very low.