It is obvious that he will win the game.[1分]
There is no risk to public health.[1分]
Did anyone call me when I was out?[1分]
It took us a long time to mend the house.[1分]
I don't quite follow what she is saying.[1分]
We can no longer put up with his actions.[1分]
Loud noises can be irritating.[1分]
That player is eternally arguing with the referee.[1分]
The governor gave a rather vague outline of his tax plan.[1分]
Gambling is lawful in Nevada.[1分]
These are their motives for doing it.[1分]
The river widens considerably as it begins to turn west.[1分]
Henry cannot resist the lure of drugs.[1分]
These programmes are of immense value to old people.[1分]
A great deal has been done to remedy the situation.[1分]
Studies show that children who eat breakfast do better in school. It doesn't take much further thought to believe that adults will feel better and perform better at work as well. Whether you work at home, on the farm, at the office, at school, or on the road, it is not a good idea to skip (故意略去) breakfast.
If we don't eat breakfast, we are likely to become tired when our brains and bodies run low on fuel. By mid-morning, a lot of us grab a cup of coffee, or wolf down a sugary candy bar to wake up again. This might work for a few minutes, but by lunchtime we are hungry, bad-tempered, and perhaps our mood might make us a little more likely to make unhealthy choices at lunch. Eating a good breakfast sets the tone for the rest of the day.
People who eat breakfast are generally more likely to maintain a healthy weight. Many people believe that they will lose weight if they skip meals, but that isn't a good idea. The body expects to be refueled a few times a day, so start with a healthy breakfast.
A healthy breakfast should contain some protein (蛋白质) and some fiber (纤维). Protein can come from meat, eggs, beans, or soy (大豆). Fiber can be found in whole cereals (谷物), grains or in fruits. A good example of a healthy breakfast might be something simple like a hard boiled egg, an orange, and a bowl of whole grain cereal with soy milk.
Adults who eat breakfast will perform better at work.[1分]
It is okay to skip breakfast if you work at home.[1分]
Men are more likely to skip breakfast than women.[1分]
A person who skips breakfast is more likely to eat unhealthily at lunch.[1分]
Skipping breakfast is a good strategy for losing weight.[1分]
A simple breakfast cannot be a healthy breakfast.[1分]
People who eat breakfast are seldom in a bad mood.[1分]
The Drink Your Body Needs Most
1 Our bodies are estimated to be about 60 to 70% water. Blood is mostly water, and our muscles, lungs, and brain all contain a lot of water. Water is needed to regulate body temperature and to provide the means for nutrients (滋养物) to travel to all our organs. Water also transports oxygen to our cells, removes waste, and protects our joints and organs.
2 We lose water through urination (排尿), respiration (呼吸), and by sweating. If you are very active, you lose more water than if you do not take much exercise. Symptoms of mild dehydration (脱水) include chronic pains in joints and muscles, lower back pain, headaches, and constipation (便秘). A strong smell to your urine, along with a yellow color indicates that you are not getting enough water. Thirst is an obvious sign of dehydration and in fact, you need water long before you feel thirsty.
3 A good rule of thumb (好的做法) is to take your body weight in pounds and divide that number in half. That gives you the number of ounces (盎司) of water per day that you need. For example, if you weigh 160 pounds, you should drink at least 80 ounces of water per day. If you exercise you should drink another 8-ounce glass of water for every 20 minutes you are active. If you drink coffee or alcohol, you should add at least an equal amount of water. When you are traveling on an airplane, it is good to have 8 ounces of water for every hour you are on board the plane.
4 It may be difficult to drink enough water on a busy day. Be sure you have water handy at all times by keeping a bottle for water with you when you are working, traveling, or exercising. If you get bored with plain water, add a bit of lemon for a touch of flavor. There are some brands of flavored water available, but some of them have sugar or artificial sweeteners that you don't need.
A Ounces of water needed per day
B Importance of water
C Composition of water
D Signs of dehydration
E Supply of water
F Necessity for bringing a bottle for water with you
Dehydration may occur if there is a shortage of water .[1分]
The amount of water your body needs per day is closely related .[1分]
Don't forget to drink enough water even .[1分]
Exercise Lowers Employers' Health Costs
Companies can save millions in health-care costs simply by encouraging their employees to exercise a little bit, researchers reported on Friday.
They said obese (肥胖的) employees had higher health-care costs, but lowered those expenses by exercising just a couple of times a week — without even losing any weight.
Feifei Wang and colleagues at the University of Michigan studied 23,500 workers at General Motors.
They estimated that getting the most sedentary (惯于久坐的) obese workers to exercise would have saved about $790,000 a year, or about 1.5 percent of health-care costs for the whole group.
Company-wide, the potential savings could reach $7.1 million per year, they reported in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
Of the whole group of workers, about 30 percent were of normal weight, 45 percent were overweight (超重的), and 25 percent were obese. Annual health-care costs averaged $2,200 for normal weight, $2,400 for the overweight, and $2,700 for obese employees.
But among workers who did no exercise, health-care costs went up by at least $100 a year, and were $3,000 a year for obese employees who were sedentary.
But adding two or more days of light exercise — at least 20 minutes of exercise or work hard enough to increase heart rate and breathing — lowered costs by on average $500 per employee a year, the researchers found.
“This indicates that physical activity behavior could reduce at least some of the harmful effects of excess body fat, and in consequence, help lower the health-care costs,” Wang and colleagues wrote.
How can employees help lower the health-care costs?[3分]
By exercising a little bit.
By encouraging its employees to exercise General Motors could save[3分]
How many workers in General Motors were NOT of normal weight?[3分]
For which group of the workers were the health-care costs the highest?[3分]
The employees of normal weight.
The overweight employees.
The sedentary obese employees.
How often should the employees exercise to help lower the health-care costs?[3分]
At least seven days a week.
At least twenty minutes a week.
In 18th-century colonial America, those who wanted to become physicians either learned as personal students from established professionals or went abroad to study in the traditional schools of London, Paris, and Edinburgh. Medicine was first taught formally by specialists at the University of Pennsylvania, beginning in 1765, and in 1767 at King's College (now Columbia University), the first institution in the colonies to give the degree of doctor of medicine. Following the American Revolution, the Columbia medical faculty (formerly of King's College) was combined with the College of Physicians and Surgeons, chartered in 1809, which survives as a division of Columbia University.
In 1893 the Johns Hopkins Medical School required all applicants to have a college degree and was the first to afford its students the opportunity to further their training in an attached teaching hospital. The growth of medical schools attached with established institutions of learning went together with the development of proprietary (私营的) schools of medicine run for personal profit, most of which had low standards and poor facilities. In 1910 Abraham Flexner, the American education reformer, wrote Medical Education in the United States and Canada, exposing the poor conditions of most proprietary schools. Subsequently, the American Medical Association (AMA) and the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) laid down standards for course content, qualifications of teachers, laboratory facilities, connection with teaching hospitals, and licensing of medical practitioners (开业医师) that survive to this day.
By the late 1980s the U.S. and Canada had 142 4-year medical colleges recognized by the Liaison (联络) Committee on Medical Education to offer the M.D. degree; during the 1987-88 academic year, 47,262 men and 25,686 women entered these colleges and an estimated 11,752 men and 5,958 women were graduated. Graduates, after a year of internship (实习期), receive licenses to practice if they pass an examination given either by a state board or by the National Board of Medical Examiners.
In 18th-century America, higher institutions of learning that taught medicine[3分]
were better than those in Europe.
were known for their teaching hospitals.
Initially most proprietary schools of medicine in America[3分]
had established professionals.
The AMA and AAMC established standards so as to[3分]
set up more schools of medicine.
ensure the quality of medical teaching and practice.
prevent medical schools from making huge profits.
After a year of internship medical graduates can start to practice[3分]
if they have worked in a laboratory.
if they have studied abroad for some time.
if they have obtained an M.D. degree.
if they have passed an examination.
This passage is mainly about[3分]
how medicine is taught in America.
how medical education has developed in America..
how the American educational system works.
how one can become a good doctor.
More Than a Ride to School
The National Education Association claims, “The school bus is a mirror of the community.” They further add that, unfortunately, what appears on the exterior does not always reflect the reality of a chosen community. They are right — sometimes it reflects more! Just ask Liesl Denson. Riding the school bus has been more than a ride to school for Liesl.
Bruce Hardy, school bus driver for Althouse Bus Company has been Liesl's bus driver since kindergarten. Last year when Liesl's family moved to Parkesburg, knowing her bus went by her new residence, she requested to ride the same bus.
This year Liesl is a senior and will enjoy her last year riding the bus. She says, “It's been a great ride so far! My bus driver is so cool and has always been a good friend and a good listener. Sometimes when you're a child adults do not think that what you have to say is important. Mr. Hardy always listens to what you have to say and makes you feel important.” Her friends Ashley Batista and Amanda Wolfe agree.
Bruce Hardy has been making Octorara students feel special since 1975. This year he will celebrate 30 years working for Althouse Bus Company. Larry Althouse, president of the company, acknowledges Bruce Hardy's outstanding record: “You do not come by employees like Bruce these days. He has never missed a day of work and has a perfect driving record. He was recognized in 2000 by the Pennsylvania School Bus Association for driving 350,000 accident free miles. Hardy's reputation is made further evident through the relationships he has made with the students that ride his bus.”
Althouse further adds, “Althouse Bus Company was established 70 years ago and has been providing quality transportation ever since. My grandfather started the business with one bus. Althouse Bus Company is delighted to have the opportunity to bring distinctive and safe service to our local school and community and looks forward to continuing to provide quality service for many more years to come.”
Three generations of business is not all the company has enjoyed. Thanks to drivers like Bruce Hardy, they have been building relationships through generations. Liesl's mother Carol also enjoys fond memories of riding Bruce Hardy's bus to the Octorara School District.
The word “mirror” in the first line could be best replaced by[3分]
Bruce Hardy has been working with Althouse Bus Company[3分]
Which of the following statements is NOT true of Bruce Hardy?[3分]
He is popular with his passengers.
He has never missed a day of work.
He is an impatient person.
He has driven 350,000 accident free miles.
Althouse Bus Company was founded by[3分]
Althouse Bus Company pays much attention to[3分]
providing free driving lessons.
building sound relationships.
Every Dog Has Its Say
Kimiko Fukuda, a Japanese girl, always wondered what her dog was trying to say. Whenever she put on makeup, it would pull at her sleeve. (46) When the dog barks, she glances at a small electronic gadget (装置). The following “human” translation appears on its screen: “Please take me with you.” “I realized that's how he was feeling,” said Fukuda.
The gadget is called Bowlingual, and it translates dog barks into feelings. People laughed when the Japanese toymaker Takara Company made the world's first dog-human translation machine in 2002. But 300,000 Japanese dog owners bought it. (47)
“Nobody else had thought about it,” said Masahiko Kajita, who works for Takara. “We spend so much time training dogs to understand our orders; what would it be like if we could understand dogs?”
Bowlingual has two parts.(48) The translation is done in the gadget using a database (资料库) containing every kind of bark.
Based on animal behaviour research, these noises are divided into six categories: happiness, sadness, frustration, anger, declaration and desire. (49) In this way, the database scientifically matches a bark to an emotion, which is then translated into one of 200 phrases.
When a visitor went to Fukuda's house recently, the dog barked a loud “bow wow”. This translated as “Don't come this way”. (50)
The product will be available in US pet stores this summer for about US$120. It can store up to 100 barks, even recording the dog's emotions when the owner is away.
A A wireless microphone is attached to the dog's collar, which sends information to the gadget held by the owner.
B Nobody really knows how a dog feels.
C It was followed by “I'm stronger than you” as the dog growled (嗥叫) and sniffed (嗅) at the visitor.
D More customers are expected when the English version is launched this summer.
E Now, the Japanese girl thinks she knows.
F Each one of these emotions is then linked to a phrase like “Let's play”, “Look at me”, or “Spend more time with me”.
What Should I Say to the Person Who Has Cancer?
It is normal to feel that you don't know what to say to someone who has cancer. You might only know the person casually, or you may have worked (51) or lived near each other for many years and have a closer relationship. The most important (52) you can do is to acknowledge the situation in some way — whatever is most comfortable for you. You can show interest and concern, you can express encouragement, or you (53) offer support. Sometimes the simplest expressions of concern are the (54) meaningful.
While it is good to be encouraging, it is also important (55) to show false optimism or to tell the person with cancer to always have a positive attitude. Doing (56) things may discount their fears, concerns, or sad feelings. It is also tempting to say that you know (57) the person feels. While you may know this is a difficult time, no one can know exactly how the person with (58) feels.
Humor can be an important way(59) coping. It is also another source of support and encouragement. Let the person with cancer (60) the lead; it is healthy if they find something funny about a side effect, like hair loss or increased appetite, and you can certainly join (61) in a good laugh. This can be a great way to relieve stress and to take a break from the (62) serious nature of the situation.
When the person with cancer looks good, let them know! Refrain (忍住)(63) comments when their appearance isn't as good, such as “You're looking pale,” or “You've lost weight.” Cancer and its treatment can be very unpredictable. Be prepared for good days and bad (64).
Refrain from telling the person with cancer stories about family members or friends who have had cancer. Everyone is different, and these stories may not be helpful. Instead, it is better simply to tell them you know (65) about cancer because you've been through it with someone else.