I'd very much like to know what your aim in life is[1分]
The policemen acted quickly because lives were at stake.[1分]
Practically all animals communicate either through sounds or through soundless codes.[1分]
Mary rarely speaks to Susan.[1分]
I'm working with a guy from London.[1分]
You'd better put these documents in a safe place[1分]
The courageous boy has been the subject of massive media coverage[1分]
The town is famous for its magnificent buildings[1分]
The great change of the city astonished all the visitors[1分]
Jack packed up all the things he had accumulated over the last ten years[1分]
Would you please call my husband as soon as possible?[1分]
We had a long conversation about her parents.[1分]
The chairman proposed that we stop the meeting[1分]
Obviously these people can be relied on in a crisis[1分]
There is always excitement at the Olympic Games when an athlete breaks a record[1分]
Importance of Children's Oral Health
February is National Children's Dental (牙齿的)Health Month,but in children good oral care is critical every day. The first comprehensive study on the nation's oral health,released recently by the Office of the U.S. Surgeon General,calls dental and oral diseases a “silent epidemic (流行病),” even in children. The report states that more than 51 million school hours are lost each year to dental-related illness. In fact,a recent study pointed to dental care as the most common unmet health need among American children.
To help counter this,the American Academy of Periodontology (牙周病学)(AAP)is launching an effort to educate children and parents about the prevention of dental diseases in children.
“This is important because oral problems can impact self-esteem for children and lead to problems of eating,speaking and attending to learning,” said Michael McGuire,president of the AAP.
Common dental problems seen in children are cavities (龋洞)and gingivitis (龈牙),which are found in the majority of U.S. children. “When these problems are not caught early and treated,they can develop into more severe problems and cause unnecessary suffering,” said McGuire “However,much of the time,oral problems are avoidable problems.”
In the Rio Grande Valley in Texas,a group of more than 120 dentists volunteers to deliver dental care to thousands of low-income children each year with its Mobile Dental Unit that travels from school to school.
“According to the Surgeon General's Report,about 37 percent of children have not had a dental visit before starting school,” said McGuire. “When children don't see dentists they miss the opportunity to have problems caught early before they develop into larger,more expensive problems to treat,and parents miss the opportunity to learn how to promote good oral habits in their children.”
Only in February should attention be paid to children's oral health[1分]
Dental and oral diseases are common in both adults and children[1分]
Boys miss more school hours each year due to dental-related illness[1分]
Oral problems in children can develop into more severe problems.[1分]
Oral problems can not be avoided in any way[1分]
The low-income children are very grateful to the dentists.[1分]
Some children have never seen a dentist before starting school.[1分]
1.Autism (孤独症)is a life-long developmental disability that prevents individuals from properly understanding what they see,hear,and otherwise sense. This results in severe problems of social relationships,communication,and behavior. Individuals with autism have to painstakingly '(费力地)learn normal patterns of speech and communication,and appropriate ways to relate to people,objects,and events,in a similar manner to those who have had a stroke.
2.The cause of autism is still unknown. Some research suggests a physical problem affecting those parts of the brain that process language and information coming in from the senses. There may be some imbalance of certain chemicals in the brain. Genetic (遗传的)factors may sometimes be involved. Autism may indeed result from a combination of several “causes”｡
3.Most people with mental retardation (智力迟钝的)show relatively even skill development. Individuals with autism,however,typically show uneven skill development,with deficits (~欠缺)in certain areas - most frequently in their ability to communicate and relate to others - and distinct skills in other areas. It is important to distinguish autism from mental retardation or other disorders,since diagnostic (诊断的)confusion may lead to inappropriate and ineffective treatment techniques.
4.In general,individuals with autism perform best at jobs which are structured and involve a degree of repetition. Some people who have autism are working as artists,piano tuners,painters,farm workers,office workers,computer operators,dishwashers,assembly line workers,or employees of sheltered workshops or other sheltered work settings.
A.What causes autism?
B.How common is autism?
C.Does autism occur together with other disabilities?
F.What kinds ofat is the difference between autism and mental retardation?
E.What is a jobs can individuals with autism do?
Individuals with autism are particularly weak at[1分]
It is possible that autism happens as a result of[1分]
Autism and mental retardation should be treated with[1分]
A typical feature of people with autism is their uneven[1分]
B.social relationships and communication
C.language and information
D.several causes working together
E.a degree of repetition
第一篇 Calling for Safe Celebrations
Last Fourth of July,Pete,a 14-year-old boy,was enjoying the lit-up skies and loud booms from the fireworks (烟花)being set off in his neighborhood. Suddenly,the evening took a terrible turn. A bottle rocket shot into his eye,immediately causing him terrible pain His family rushed him to the emergency room for treatment. As a result of the injury,Pete developed glaucoma (青光眼)and cataracts (白内障)｡ Today,Pete has permanent vision loss in his injured eye because of his bottle rocket injury.
June is Fireworks Eye Safety Awareness Month,and through its EyeSmart campaign the American Academy of Ophthalmology (眼科学)wants to remind consumers to leave fireworks to professionals (专业人员)｡ “There is nothing worse than a Fourth of July celebration ruined by someone being hit in the eye with a bottle rocket,” said Dr John C. Hagan,clinical correspondent for the Academy and an ophthalmologist at Discover Vision Centers in Kansas City. “A safe celebration means letting trained professionals handle fireworks while you enjoy the show.”
According to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission,more than 9,000 fireworks-related injuries happen each year. Of these,nearly-half are head-related injuries,with nearly 30 percent of these injuries to the eye. One-fourth of fireworks eye injuries result in permanent vision loss or blindness. Children are the most common victims of firework abuse (伤害),with those fifteen years old or younger accounting for 50 percent of fireworks eye injuries in the United States. Dr Hagan estimates that his practice sees more than 30 injuries each year from fireworks.
Even fireworks that many people consider safe represent a threat to the eyes. For children under the age of five,apparently harmless sparklers (花炮)account for one-third of all fireworks injuries. Sparklers can burn at nearly 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit (华氏)｡
What happened to Pete last Fourth of July?[3分]
He was burned in a house fire.
He was caught in a heavy rain.
The American Academy of Ophthalmology calls on consumers to[3分]
stop celebrating the Fourth of July
celebrate the Fourth of July with fireworks.
set off fireworks together with trained professionals.
leave fireworks to professionals in their celebrations.
How many fireworks eye injuries occur in the US each year?[3分]
Fireworks eye injuries can lead to all of the following EXCEPT[3分]
Which is NOT true of sparklers?[3分]
They are harmless to very young children.
They are considered safe by many people.
They are a threat to the eyes.
They can burn at very high degrees Fahrenheit
第二篇 Shopping at Second-hand Clothing Stores
When 33-year-old Pete Barth was in college,shopping at second-hand clothing stores was just something he did - “like changing the tires on his car.” He looked at his budget and decided he could save a lot of money by shopping for clothes at thrift shops.
“Even new clothes are fairly disposable (可丢掉的)and wear out after a couple of years,” Barth said. “In thrift shops,you can find some great stuff whose quality is better than new clothes.”
Since then,Barth,who works at a Goodwill thrift shop in the US state of Florida,has found that there are all kinds of reasons for shopping for second-hand clothing. Some people,like him,shop to save money. Some shop for a crazy-looking shirt. And some shop as a means of conserving energy and helping the environment.
Pat Akins,an accountant at a Florida Salvation Army (SA)(救世军)thrift shop,said that,for her,shopping at thrift shops is a way to help the environment.
“When my daughter was little,we looked at it as recycling,” Akins said. “Also,why pay 30 dollars for a new coat when you can get another one for a lot less?”
Akins said that the SA has shops all over the US - “some as big as department stores.” All of the clothes are donated (捐赠),and when they have a surplus (盈余),they'll have “stuff a bag” specials,where customers can fill a grocery sack With clothes for only 5 or 10 dollars.
Julia Slocum,22,points out,however,that the huge amount of second-hand clothing in the US is the result of American wastefulness.
I'd say that second-hand stores are the result of our wasteful,materialistic culture,“ said Slocum,who works for a pro-conservation organization,the Center for a New American Dream. ”Thrift shops prevent that waste from going to landfills (垃圾填埋场); they give clothing a second life,provide cheaper clothing for those who can't afford new ones and generate (生成)income for charities. They also provide a way for the wealthy and middle classes to shed (摆脱)some of the guilt for their level of consumption.“
Which statement about Barth is NOT true?[3分]
He works at a Goodwill thrift shop.
He works at a Salvation Army thrift shop.
He was a college student many years ago
When Barth was a college student,he often shopped at thrift shops[3分]
to make friends with poor people.
What does Akins do?[3分]
Thrift shops can do everything EXCEPT[3分]
give clothing a second life.
generate income for charities.
provide cheaper clothes for the poor
stop rich people from wasting money
The word “thrift ”in paragraph 1 could be best replaced by[3分]
第三篇 College Night Owls Have Lower Grades
College students who are morning people tend to get better grades than those who are night owls (晚睡的人),according to University of North Texas researchers.
They had 824 undergraduate(大学本科生的)students complete a health survey that included questions about sleep habits and daytime functioning,and found that students who are morning people had higher grade point averages (GPAs)than those who are night people.
“The finding that college students who are evening types have lower GPAs is a very important finding,sure to make its way into undergraduate psychology texts in the near future,along with the research showing that memory is improved by sleep,” study co-author Daniel J. Taylor said in a prepared statement.
“Further,these results suggest that it might be possible to improve academic performance by using chronotherapy (时间疗法)to help students retrain their biological clock to become more morning types,“ Taylor said.
The research was expected to be presented Monday at SLEEP,the annual meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies,in Baltimore.
In other findings expected to be heard at the meeting,University of Colorado researchers found a significant association .between insomnia (失眠)and a decline in college students' academic performance.
The study included 64 psychology,nursing and medical students,average age 27.4 years,who were divided into two groups - low GPAs and high GPAs.
Among those with low GPAs,69.7 percent had trouble falling asleep,53.1 percent experienced leg kicks or twitches (痉挛)at night,65.6 percent reported waking at night and having trouble falling back to sleep,and 72.7 percent had difficulty concentrating during the day.
“In college students,the complaint of difficulty concentrating during the day continues to have a considerable impact on their ability to succeed in the classroom,” study author Dr James F. Pagel said in a prepared statement. “This study showed that disordered sleep has significant harmful effects on a student's academic performance,including GPAs.”
In the first study,students who stay up late[3分]
performed equally well in their studies.
had little difficulty concentrating during the day
Mr. Taylor believed that the finding of their study would soon[3分]
be criticized by psychology students.
be confirmed by psychological studies.
be included in undergraduate psychology texts.
become the most popular psychology text.
The passage indicates that chronotherapy can be used to help people to[3分]
better their social relationships.
readjust their biological clock.
In the second study,students with low GPAs did NOT complain of[3分]
having trouble falling asleep.
waking at night and having trouble falling back to sleep.
having difficulty concentrating during the day.
being kicked in the leg at night.
According to Dr Pagel,the academic performance of a student will be affected[3分]
if he or she is not motivated.
if he or she is troubled by disordered sleep.
if he or she is a morning type.
if he or she is a lazy person.
A Bad Idea
Think you can walk,drive,take phone calls,e-mail and listen to music at the same time? Well,New York's new law says you can't.(46)The law went into force last month,following research and a shocking number of accidents that involved people using electronic gadgets (小巧机械)when crossing the street.
Who's to blame?(47)“We are under the impression that our brain can do more than it often can,” says Rene Marois,a neuroscientist (神经科学家)in Tennessee. “But a core limitation is the inability to concentrate on two things at once.”
The young people are often considered the great multi-taskers.(48),A group of 18- to 21-year-olds and a group of 35- to 39-year-olds were given 90 seconds to translate images into numbers,using a simple code.(49)But when both groups were interrupted by a phone call or an instant message,the older group matched the younger group in speed and accuracy.
It is difficult to measure the productivity lost by multitaskers. But it is probably a lot. Jonathan Spira,chief analyst at Basex,a business-research firm,estimates the cost of interruptions to the American economy at nearly $650 billion a year.(50)The surveys conclude that 28 percent of the workers' time was spent on interruptions and recovery time before they returned to their main tasks.
A.Talking on a cell phone while driving brings you joy anyway
B.The estimate is based on surveys with office workers
C.The younger group did 10 percent better when not interrupted
D.However,an Oxford University research suggests this perception is open to question.
E.Scientists say that our multitasking (多任务处理)abilities are limited
F.And you'll be fined $100 if you do so on a New York City street.
Exercise Cuts Cancer Deaths in Men
Men who exercise often are less likely to die from cancer than those who(51),new research published in the British Journal of Cancer revealed yesterday.
A.team of scientists from the Karolinska Institute in Sweden looked(52)the effect of physical activity and cancer risk in 40,708 men aged(53) 45 and 79.
The seven-year study found that men(54)walked or cycled for at least 30 minutes a day had a 34 per cent lower(55)of dying from cancer than the men who did less exercise or nothing at all.(56)the period studied,3,714 men developed cancer and 1,153 died from the disease. The researchers suggest that half an hour's walking(57) cycling a day increased survival among these men by 33 per cent.
The researchers surveyed men from two counties in central Sweden about their lifestyle and the amount of(58)activity they were usually doing. They then scored these responses and compared the results with data on cancer diagnosis and death officially recorded in a central cancer registry (登记簿)over a seven-year (59). Lead author,Professor Alicja Wolk,said:“These results clearly show for the first time the effect that very simple and basic daily(60)such as walking or cycling has in reducing cancer death risk in middle-aged and elderly (61)｡”
Dr Lesley Walker,director of cancer information at Cancer Research UK,said:“This study gives us a clear indication that men who exercise are less(62) to die from cancer,and that they are more likely to(63)the disease if they get it. It's not entirely clear from this study what role exercise plays in preventing(64)in men,but we do know that a healthy lifestyle can prevent up to half of all cancers - and (65)exercise forms a key part of this.”