Part I Writing(30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled The Way to Success by commenting on Abraham Lincoln's famous remark, "Give me six hours to chop down a tree, and I will spend, the first four sharpening the axe." You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
The Way to Success
【标准版】The Way to Success
Success is something everyone looks for, longs for and dies for. But have you ever considered what success is? Some may hold that success means one has beautiful life, like pretty house, cool cars and great power. It’s indeed one way to define success. But to me, success is doing something one really feels like doing.
To achieve this kind of success, one has to bear in mind three essential prerequisites, namely knowing where your interest really lies in, possessing the strong will to pursue your interest and having the diligence to realize your dream. In other words, they are “what” “why” and “how” of success. It’s really luckily good for one, especially for the younger generation of today to find their dreams, follow them and in the end, make them come true and become successful.
Although it’s never easy to succeed, progressing with the strong will and diligence towards the right direction, you’ll be the one!
这是一篇议论文。作者首先提出问题”what is success?”,但并没有在这个问题上着更多的笔墨，而是直接引出了自己的观点：success is doing something one really feels like doing. 算是立意较为新颖的地方。随后在第二段对这种成功背后的三种必要条件做出了阐述。整体看，行文流畅，用语规范地道。
Success is something everyone looks for, longs for and dies for.
…namely, knowing where your interest really lies in, possessing the strong will to pursue your interest and having the diligence to realize your dream.
2、 bear in mind
3、 lie in
4、 strong will to pursue your interest
The Way to Success First essay—stream of thought type
The Way to Success
"Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." And here comes our question, what is the way to success?
A strong will and great efforts are the most essential two keys to the door of success.
Why do people fail to achieve their goal? The reason is that most of them give up halfway due to their lack of a strong will once they encounter any difficulty. A man of a strong will always sticks to his cause no matter how tough it might be.
Would Thomas Edison be such a great man in history if he had done nothing but possessing a strong will? We are all familiar with his story that he had tried one thousand kinds of materials before he finally made his great bulb light up. Without hard effort, Edison might have been a nobody. Without efforts, no one can succeed.
To sum up, a strong will and great efforts can help one open up the way to success. Where there is a will with efforts, there is a way.
本次六级考试作文题为The way to success，与本次四级考试作文Nothing succeeds without a strong will遥相呼应，大同小异，都是在讨论成功这一话题。
最后一段，作者先以第一句话进行了总结，然后为了加强作文结尾的力度，作者还对名言“Where there is a will, there is way”进行了改编，换成了自己的观点，为我所用，这也是本篇范文的一个两点之处。注意，写作文时对名言进行恰当地改编，不仅能体现幽默创新的一面，同样也体现了作者不错的文字驾驭技巧，考官也是很欢迎这样的文章的。
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)(15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer thequestions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C.and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Google's Plan for World's Biggest Online Library: Philanthropy Or Act of Piracy?
In recent years, teams of workers dispatched by Google have been working hard to make digital copies of books. So far, Google has scanned more than 10 million titles from libraries in America and Europe - including half a million volumes held by the Bodleian in Oxford. The exact method it uses is unclear; the company does not allow outsiders to observe the process.
Why is Google undertaking such a venture? Why is it even interested in all those out-of-printlibrary books, most of which have been gathering dust on forgotten shelves for decades? Thecompany claims its motives are essentially public-spirited. Its overall mission, after all, is to "organise the world's information", so it would be odd if that information did not include books.
The company likes to present itself as having lofty aspirations. "This really isn't about making money. We are doing this for the good of society." As Santiago de la Mora, head of Google Books for Europe, puts it: "By making it possible to search the millions of books that exist today, we hope to expand the frontiers of human knowledge."
Dan Clancy, the chief architect of Google Books, does seem genuine in his conviction that thisis primarily a philanthropic (慈善的) exercise. "Google's core business is search and find, soobviously what helps improve Google's search engine is good for Google," he says. "But we havenever built a spreadsheet (电子数据表) outlining the financial benefits of this, and I have neverhad to justify the amount I am spending to the company's founders."
It is easy, talking to Clancy and his colleagues, to be swept along by their missionary passion. But Google's book-scanning project is proving controversial. Several opponents have recently emerged, ranging from rival tech giants such as Microsoft and Amazon to small bodies representing authors and publishers across the world. In broad terms, these opponents have levelled two sets of criticisms at Google.
First, they have questioned whether the primary responsibility for digitally archiving the world's books should be allowed to fall to a commercial company. In a recent essay in the New YorkReview of Books, Robert Darnton, the head of Harvard University's library, argued that because such books are a common resource – the possession of us all – only public, not-for-profit bodiesshould be given the power to control them.
The second related criticism is that Google's scanning of books is actually illegal. This allegation has led to Google becoming mired in (陷入) a legal battle whose scope and complexity makes the Jarndyce and Jarndyce case in Charles Dickens' Bleak House look straightforward.
At its centre, however, is one simple issue: that of copyright. The inconvenient fact about most books, to which Google has arguably paid insufficient attention, is that they are protected by copyright. Copyright laws differ from country to country, but in general protection extends for the duration of an author's life and for a substantial period afterwards, thus allowing the author's heirs to benefit. (In Britain and America, this post-death period is 70 years.) This means, of course, that almost all of the books published in the 20th century are still under copyright – and the last century saw more books published than in all previous centuries combined. Of the roughly 40 million books in US libraries, for example, an estimated 32 million are in copyright. Of these, some 27 million are out of print.
Outside the US, Google has made sure only to scan books that are out of copyright and thus in the "public domain" (works such as the Bodleian's first edition of Middlemarch, which anyone canread for free on Google Books Search).
But, within the US, the company has scanned both in-copyright and out-of-copyright works. Inits defence, Google points out that it displays only small segments of books that are in copyright– arguing that such displays are "fair use". But critics allege that by making electronic copies of these books without first seeking the permission of copyright holders, Google has committed piracy.
"The key principle of copyright law has always been that works can be copied only once authors have expressly given their permission," says Piers Blofeld, of the Sheil Land literary agency in London. "Google has reversed this – it has simply copied all these works without bothering toask."
In 2005, the Authors Guild of America, together with a group of US publishers, launched aclass action suit (集团诉讼) against Google that, after more than two years of negotiation, endedwith an announcement last October that Google and the claimants had reached an out-of-courtsettlement. The full details are complicated - the text alone runs to 385 pages– and trying tosummarise it is no easy task. "Part of the problem is that it is basically incomprehensible," saysBlofeld, one of the settlement's most vocal British critics.
Broadly, the deal provides a mechanism for Google to compensate authors and publishers whose rights it has breached (including giving them a share of any future revenue it generates fromtheir works). In exchange for this, the rights holders agree not to sue Google in future.
This settlement hands Google the power - but only with the agreement of individual rights holders – to exploit its database of out-of-print books. It can include them in subscription deals sold to libraries or sell them individually under a consumer licence. It is these commercial provisions that are proving the settlement's most controversial aspect.
Critics point out that, by giving Google the right to commercially exploit its database, thesettlement paves the way for a subtle shift in the company's role from provider of information to seller. "Google's business model has always been to provide information for free, and sell advertising on the basis of the traffic this generates," points out James Grimmelmann, associate professor at New York Law School. Now, he says, because of the settlement's provisions, Google could become a significant force in bookselling.
Interest in this aspect of the settlement has focused on "orphan" works, where there is noknown copyright holder – these make up an estimated 5-10% of the books Google has scanned. Under the settlement, when no rights holders come forward and register their interest in a work, commercial control automatically reverts to Google. Google will be able to display up to 20% oforphan works for free, include them in its subscription deals to libraries and sell them to individual buyers under the consumer licence.
It is by no means certain that the settlement will be enacted (执行) – it is the subject of afairness hearing in the US courts. But if it is enacted, Google will in effect be off the hook as far as copyright violations in the US are concerned. Many people are seriously concerned by this - and the company is likely to face challenges in other courts around the world.
No one knows the precise use Google will make of the intellectual property it has gained byscanning the world's library books, and the truth, as Gleick, an American science writer and member of the Authors Guild, points out, is that the company probably doesn't even know itself. But what is certain is that, in some way or other, Google's entrance into digital bookselling will have a significant impact on the book world in the years to come.
Google claims its plan for the world's biggest online library is _____.[1分]
to serve the interest of the general public
to encourage reading around the world
to save out-of-print books in libraries
to promote its core business of searching
According to Santiago de la Mora, Google's book-scanning project will _____.[1分]
broaden humanity's intellectual horizons
help the broad masses of readers
revolutionise the entire book industry
make full use of the power of its search engine
Opponents of Google Books believe that digitally archiving the world's books should be controlled by _____.[1分]
the world's leading libraries
Google has involved itself in a legal battle as it ignored _____.[1分]
the copyright of authors of out-of-print books
the copyright of the books it scanned
the interest of traditional booksellers
the differences of in-print and out-of-print books
Google defends its scanning in-copyright books by saying that _____.[1分]
it displays only a small part of their content
it is willing to compensate the copyright holders
making electronic copies of books is not a violation of copyright
the online display of in-copyright books is not for commercial use
What do we learn about the class action suit against Google?[1分]
It ended in a victory for the Authors Guild of America.
It was settled after more than two years of negotiation.
It failed to protect the interests of American publishers.
It could lead to more out-of-court settlements of such disputes.
What remained controversial after the class action suit ended?[1分]
The compensation for copyright holders.
The change in Google's business model.
Google's further exploitation of its database.
The commercial provisions of the settlement.
Part III Listening Comprehension(35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C.and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
M: I don’t know what to do. I have to drive to Chicago next Friday for my cousin’s wedding, but I have got a Psychology test to prepare for.
W: Why don’t you record your notes so you can study on the way?
Q: What does the woman suggest the man do?[1分]
Cancel the trip to prepare for the test.
Review his notes once he arrives in Chicago.
Listen to the recorded notes while driving.
Prepare for the test after the wedding.
M: Professor Wright, you may have to find another student to play this role, the lines are so long and I simply can’t remember them all.
W: Look, Tony. It is still a long time before the first show. I don’t expect you to know all the lines yet. Just keep practicing.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation?[1分]
The woman will help the man remember the lines.
The man lacks confidence in playing the part.
The man hopes to change his role in the play.
The woman will prompt the man during the show.
M: Hello, this is Dr. Martin from the Emergency Department. I have a male patient with a fractured ankle.
W: Oh, we have one bed available in ward 3, send him here and I will take care of him.
Q: What are the speakers talking about?[1分]
Preparations for an operation.
A complicated surgical case.
Arranging a bed for a patient.
Rescuing the woman's uncle.
W: Since Simon will graduate this May, the school paper needs a new editor. So if you are interested, I will be happy to nominate you.
M: Thanks for considering me. But the baseball team is starting up a new season. And I’m afraid I have a lot on my hands.
Q: What does the man mean?[1分]
He is interested in improving his editing skills.
He is eager to be nominated the new editor.
He is sure to do a better job than Simon.
He is too busy to accept more responsibility.
W: Have you heard the news that Jame Smeil has resigned his post as prime minister?
M: Well, I got it from the headlines this morning. It’s reported that he made public at this decision at the last cabinet meeting.
Q: what do we learn about Jame Smeil?[1分]
He has left his position in the government.
He has already reached the retirement age.
He made a stupid decision at the cabinet meeting.
He has been successfully elected Prime Minister.
W: The morning paper says the space shuttle is taking off at 10 a.m. tomorrow.
M: Yeah, it’s just another one of this year’s routine missions. The first mission was undertaken a decade ago and broadcast live then worldwide.
Q: what can we infer from this conversation?[1分]
This year's shuttle mission is a big step in space exploration.
The man is well informed about the space shuttle missions.
The shuttle flight will be broadcast live worldwide.
The man is excited at the news of the shuttle flight.
M: We do a lot of camping in the mountains. What would you recommend for two people?
W: You’d probably be better off with the four reel drive vehicle. We have several off-road trucks in stock, both new and used.
Q: Where does the conversation most probably take place?[1分]
At an auto rescue center.
At a car renting company.
W: I hear you did some serious shopping this past weekend.
M: Yeah, the speakers of my old stereo finally gave out and there was no way to repair them.
Q: What did the man do over the weekend?[1分]
He got his speakers fixed.
He went shopping with the woman.
He listened to some serious music
He bought a stereo system.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
W: Now, could you tell me where the idea for the business first came from?
M: Well, the original shop was opened by a retired printer by the name of Gruby. Mr Gruby being left-handed himself, thought of the idea to try to promote a few products for left-handers.
W: And how did he then go about actually setting up the business?
M: Well, he looked for any left-handed products that might already be on the market which were very few. And then contacted the manufactures with the idea of having products produced for him, mainly in the scissors range to start with.
W: Right. So you do commission some part of your stock.
M: Yes, very much so. About 75 percent of our stock is specially made for us.
W: And the rest of it?
M: Hmm, the rest of it now, some 25, 30 years after Mr. Gruby’s initial efforts, there are more left-handed product actually on the market. Manufactures are now beginning to see that there is a market for left-handed products.
W: And what’s the range of your stock?
M: The range consists of a variety of scissors from children scissors to scissors for tailors, hairdressers etc. We also have a large range of kitchen ware.
W: What’s the competition like? Do you have quite a lot of competition?
M: There are other people in the business now in specialists, but only as mail-order outlets. But we have a shop here in central London plus a mail-order outlet. And we are without any doubt the largest supplier of the left-handed items.
本篇文章为考查细节信息抓取能力题。难度较大主要因为考生可能对产品制造加工行业涉及到的manufacture、stock、mail-order outlet 、supplier等专业术语不太熟悉，而形成困扰。但考生只要能听出这是一篇采访类型的文章，每次都能听到女士（采访者）的问题非常简短，应该立即警惕答案应该是针对男士（被访者）的回答提问。而女士（采访者）的问题中本身就已经暗示出接下来的回答中的关键词。如：女士问的“And what’s the range of your stock?”一句中，stock即为关键信息词。因此，这篇文章同时也提醒考生平时应该注意商务用语和商业常识方面的积累。
What kind of business does the man engaged in?[1分]
Providing aid to the disabled.
Printing labels for manufactured goods.
Promoting products for manufacturers.
Selling products made for left-handers.
What does the man say about his stock of products?[1分]
Most of them are specially made for his shop.
All of them are manufactured in his own plant.
The kitchenware in his shop is of unique design.
About half of them are unavailable on the market.
What does the man say about other people in his line of business?[1分]
They specialise in one product only.
They have outlets throughout Britain.
They run chain stores in central London.
They sell by mail order only.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
M: Can we make you an offer? We would like to run the campaign for four extra weeks.
W: Well, can we summarize the problem from my point of view? First of all, the campaign was late. It missed two important trade affairs. The ads also did not appear into key magazines. As a result, the campaign failed. Do you accept that summary of what happened?
M: Well, the delay wasn’t entirely our fault. You did in fact make late changes to the specifications of the advertisements.
W: Uh, actually, you were late with the initial proposals so you have very little time and in fact, we only asked for small changes.
M: Well whatever, can we repeat our offer to run the campaign for 4 extra weeks?
W: That’s not really the point. The campaign missed two key trade affairs. Because of this, we are asking you either to repeat the campaign next year for free, or we only pay 50% of the fee for this year.
M: Could we suggest a 20% reduction to the fee together with the four week sustention to the campaign.
W: We are not happy. We lost business.
M: I think we both made mistakes. The responsibility is on both sides.
W: Ok, let’s suggest a new solution. How about a 40% cut in fee, or a free repeat campaign?
M: Well, let’s take a break, we’re not getting very far. Perhaps we should think about this.
What do we learn about the man’s company?[1分]
It runs sales promotion campaigns.
It is engaged in product design.
Why was the campaign delayed according to the man?[1分]
The ad specifications had not been given in detail.
The woman's company made last-minute changes.
The woman's company failed to make payments in time.
Organising the promotion was really time-consuming.
What does the woman propose as a solution to the problem?[1分]
Extend the campaign to next year.
Cut the fee by half for this year.
Run another four-week campaign.
Give her a 10 percent discount.
What does the man suggest they do at the end of the conversation?[1分]
Stop negotiating for the time being.
Calm down and make peace.
Reflect on their respective mistakes
Improve their promotion plans.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you willhear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C.and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard.
The University of Tennessee’s Walters Life Sciences building, is a model animal facility, spotlessly clean, careful in obtaining prior approval for experiments from an animal care committee. Of the 15,000 mice house there in a typical year, most give their lives for humanity. These are good mice and as such won the protection of the animal care committee. At any given time however some mice escape and run free. These mice are pests. They can disrupt experiments with the bacteria organisms they carry. They are bad mice and must be captured and destroyed. Usually, this is accomplished by means of sticky traps, a kind of fly paper on which they become increasingly stuck. But the real point of the cautionary tale, says animal behaviorist Herzau, is that the labels we put on things can affect our moral responses to them. Using stick traps or the more deadly snap traps would be deemed unacceptable for good mice. Yet the killing of bad mice requires no prior approval. Once the research animal hits the floor and becomes an escapee, says Herza, its moral standard is instantly diminished. In Herzau’s own home, there was more ironic example when his young son’s pet mouse Willy died recently, it was accorded a tearful ceremonial burial in garden. Yet even as they mourned Willy, says Herzau, he and his wife were setting snap traps to kill the pest mice in their kitchen with the bare change in labels from pet to pest, the kitchen mice obtained totally different moral standards
What does the passage say about most of the mice used for experiments?[1分]
They look spotlessly clean throughout their lives.
They are looked after by animal-care organizations.
They sacrifice their lives for the benefit of humans.
They are labeled pet animals by the researchers.
Why did the so-called bad mice have to be captured and destroyed?[1分]
They may affect the results of experiments.
They may behave abnormally.
They may breed out of control.
They may cause damage to the environment.
When are mice killed without prior approval?[1分]
When they become escapees.
When they are no longer useful.
Why does the speaker say what the Herzau’s did at home is ironical?[1分]
While launching animal protection campaigns, they were trapping kitchen mice.
While holding a burial ceremony for a pet mouse, they were killing pest mice.
While advocating freedom for animals, they kept their pet mouse in a cage.
While calling for animal rights, they allowed their kids to keep pet animals.
Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.
There are roughly three New Yorks. There is, first, the New York of the man or woman who was born here, who takes the city for granted and accepts its size and its turbulence as natural and inevitable. Second, there is the New York of the commuter — the city that is swallowed up by locusts each day and spat out each night. Third, there is the New York of the person who was born somewhere else and came to New York in quest of something. Of these three trembling cities the greatest is the last, the city of final destination, the city that has a goal. It is this third city that accounts for New York's high-strung disposition, its poetical deportment, its dedication to the arts, and its incomparable achievements. Commuters give the city its tidal restlessness; natives give it solidity and continuity; but the settlers give it passion. And whether it is a farmer arriving from Italy to set up a small grocery store in a slum, or a young girl arriving from a small town in Mississippi to escape the indignity of being observed by her neighbors, or a boy arriving from the Corn Belt with a manuscript in his suitcase and a pain in his heart, it makes no difference: each embraces New York with the intense excitement of first love, each absorbs New York with the fresh eyes of an adventurer, each generates heat and light to dwarf the Consolidated Edison Company.
本篇文章中，The Three New Yorks 具有双关含义，既可以指纽约城，也可以指纽约人。有些学生可能看到这里就没看懂。遇到这种情况应该先接着往后看，然后猜这个three New Yorks到底指什么。
What does the speaker say about the natives of New York?[1分]
They take it for granted.
They contribute most to it.
They often find fault with it.
What does the speaker say commuters give to New York?[1分]
What do we learn about the settlers of New York?[1分]
They find the city alien to them.
They are adventurers from all over the world.
They lack knowledge of the culture of the city.
They have difficulty surviving.
Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
“If you asked me television is unhealthy”, I said to my roommate Walter, as I walked into the living room.“While you are sitting passively in front of the TV set, your muscles are turning to fat, your complexion is fading, and your eyesight is being ruined.”
“Shh~”Walter put his finger to his lips, “This is an intriguing murder mystery.”
“Really?” I replied.
“But you know, the brain is destroyed by TV viewing. Creativity is killed by that box. And people are kept from communicating with one another. From my point of view, TV is the cause of the declining interest in school and the failure of our entire educational system.”
“Ah ha, I can’t see your point.” Walter said softly. “But see? The woman on the witness stand in this story is being questioned about the murder that was committed one hundred years ago.”
Ignoring his enthusiastic description of the plot, I went on with my argument.
“As I see it,” I explained, “not only are most TV programs badly written and produced, but viewers are also manipulated by the mass media. As far as I am concerned, TV watchers are cut off from reality from nature, from the other people, from life itself! I was confident in my ability to persuade.
After a short silence, my roommate said, “Anyway, I’ve been planning to watch the football game. I am going to change the channel.”
“Don’t touch that dial!” I shouted, “I wanted to find out how the mystery turns out!”
I am not sure I got my point to cross.
As the speaker walked into the living room, what was being shown on TV?[1分]
What does the speaker say about watching television?[1分]
It enhances family relationships.
It is a sheer waste of time.
It helps broaden one’s horizons.
It is unhealthy for the viewers.
What can we say about the speaker?[1分]
He watches TV programs only selectively.
He can't resist the temptation of TV either.
He doesn't like watching sports programs.
He is not a man who can keep his promise.
Section C Compound Dictation
In the past, one of the biggest disadvantages of machines has been their inability to work on a micro scale. For example, doctors did not have devices allowing them to go inside the human body to detect health problems or to perform delicate surgery. Repair crews did not have a way of identifying broken pipes located deep within a high-rise apartment building. However, that’s about to change. Advances in computers and biophysics have started a micro miniature revolution that allows scientists to envision and in some cases actually build microscopic machines. These devices promise to dramatically change the way we live and work.
Micromachines already are making an impact. At Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, research scientists have designed a 4-inch silicon chip that holds 700 tiny primitive motors. At Lucas Nova Sensor in Fremont, California, scientists have perfected the world’s first microscopic blood-pressure sensor. Threaded through a person’s blood vessels, the sensor can provide blood pressure readings at the valve of the heart itself.
Although simple versions of miniature devices have had an impact, advanced versions are still several years away.
Auto manufacturers, for example, are trying to use tiny devices that can sense when to release an airbag and how to keep engines and breaks operating efficiently. Some futurists envision nanotechnology also being used to explore the deep sea in small submarine, or even to launch finger-sized rockets packed with micro miniature instruments.
“There is an explosion of new ideas and applications,” So, when scientists now think about future machines doing large and complex tasks, they’re thinking smaller than ever before.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
In the past, one of the biggest disadvantages of machines has been their inability to work on a micro-scale. For example, doctors did not have devices allowing them to go inside the human body to (36) _____ health problems or to perform (37) _____ surgery. Repair crews did not have a way of (38) _____ broken pipes located deep within a high-rise (39) _____ building. However, that's about to change. Advances in computers and biophysics have started a microminiature (超微) (40) _____that allows scientists to envision – and in some cases actually build – microscopic machines. These devices promise to (41)_____ change the way we live and work.
Micromachines already are making an impact. At Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland,Ohio, research scientists have designed a 4-inch silicon chip that holds 700 tiny (42) _____motors. At Lucas NovaSensor in Fremont, California, scientists have perfected the world's first microscopic blood-pressure sensor. Threaded through a person's blood (43) _____, the sensor can provide blood pressure readings at the valve of the heart itself.
(44) ______________________________________________________________________. Auto manufacturers, for example, are trying to use tiny devices_______________________________________________________
(45)___________________________________________________________________________. Some futurists envision nanotechnology (纳米技术) also being used to explore the deep sea in small submarines, or even to launch finger-sized rockets packed with microminiature instruments.
There is an explosion of new ideas and applications. So, (46) _________________________________________________________________________________________.
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)(25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2.
Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.
Leadership is the most significant word in today's competitive business environment because it directs the manager of a business to focus inward on their personal capabilities and style. Experts on leadership will quickly point out that "how things get done" influences the success of the outcomes and indicates a right way and a wrong way to do things. When a noted leader on the art of management, Peter Drucker, coined the phrase "Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things," he was seeking to clarify the distinctions he associates with the terms.
When Stephen Covey, founder and director of the Leadership Institute, explored leadership styles in the past decade, he focused on the habits of a great number of highly effective individuals. His Seven Habits of Highly Effective People became a popular bestseller very quickly. His ideas forced a reexamination of the early leadership paradigm (范例), which he observed centered on traits found in the character ethic and the personality ethic. The former ethic suggested success was founded on integrity, modesty, loyalty, courage, patience, and so forth. The personality ethic suggested it was one's attitude, not behavior, that inspired success, and this ethic was founded on a belief of positive mental attitude. In contrast to each of these ideas, Covey advocates that leaders need to understand universal principles of effectiveness, and he highlights how vital it is for leaders to first personally manage themselves if they are to enjoy any hope of outstanding success in their work environments. To achieve a desired vision for your business, it is vital that you have a personal vision of where you are headed and what you value. Business leadership means that managers need to "put first things first," which implies that before leading others, you need to be clear on your own values, abilities, and strengths and be seen as trustworthy.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C.and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
What's the one word of advice a well-meaning professional would give to a recent college graduate? China"} India! Brazil! How about trade!
When the Commerce Department reported last week that the trade deficit in June approached $50 billion, it set off a new round of economic doomsaying. Imports, which soared to $200.3 billion in the month, are subtracted in the calculation of gross domestic product. The larger the trade deficit, the smaller the GDP. Should such imbalances continue, pessimists say, they could contribute to slower growth.
But there's another way of looking at the trade data. Over the past two years, the figures on imports and exports seem not to signal a double-dip recession – a renewed decline in the broad level of economic activity in the United States – but an economic expansion.
The rising volume of trade – more goods and services shuttling in and out of the United States – is good news for many sectors. Companies engaged in shipping, trucking, rail freight, delivery,and logistics (物流) have all been reporting better than expected results. The rising numbers sig¬nify growing vitality in foreign markets – when we import more stuff, it puts more cash in the hands of people around the world, and U.S. exports are rising because more foreigners have the ability to buy the things we produce and market. The rising tide of trade is also good news for people who work in trade-sensitive businesses, especially those that produce commodities for which global demand sets the price – agricultural goods, mining, metals, oil.
And while exports always seem to lag, U.S. companies are becoming more involved in the global economy with each passing month. General Motors sells as many cars in China as in America each month. While that may not do much for imports, it does help GM's balance sheet – and hence makes the jobs of U.S.-based executives more stable.
One great challenge for the U.S. economy is slack domestic consumer demand. Americans are paying down debt, saving more, and spending more carefully. That's to be expected, given what we've been through. But there's a bigger challenge. Can U.S.-based businesses, large and small, figure out how to get a piece of growing global demand? Unless you want to pick up and move to India, or Brazil, or China, the best way to do that is through trade. It may seem obvious, but it's no longer enough simply to do business with our friends and neighbors here at home.
Companies and individuals who don't have a strategy to export more, or to get more involved in foreign markets, or to play a role in global trade, are shutting themselves out of the lion's share of economic opportunity in our world.
How do pessimists interpret the U.S. trade deficit in June?[1分]
It reflects Americans' preference for imported goods.
It signifies a change in American economic structure.
It is the result of America's growing focus on domestic market.
It could lead to slower growth of the national economy.
What does the author say about the trade data of the past two years?[1分]
It indicates that economic activities in the U.S. have increased.
It shows that U.S. economy is slipping further into recession.
It signals decreasing domestic demand for goods and services.
It reflects the fluctuations in the international market.
Who particularly benefit from the rising volume of trade?[1分]
People who have expertise in international trade.
Consumers who favor imported goods and services.
Producers of agricultural goods and raw materials.
Retailers dealing in foreign goods and services.
What is one of the challenges facing the American economy?[1分]
Competition from overseas.
People's reluctance to spend.
What is the author's advice to U.S. companies and individuals?[1分]
To import more cheap goods from developing countries.
To move their companies to where labor is cheaper.
To increase their market share overseas.
To be alert to fluctuations in foreign markets.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
A recurring criticism of the UK's university sector is its perceived weakness in translating new knowledge into new products and services.
Recently, the UK National Stem Cell Network warned the UK could lose its place among the world leaders in stem cell research unless adequate funding and legislation could be assured. We should take this concern seriously as universities are key in the national innovation system.
However, we do have to challenge the unthinking complaint that the sector does not do enough in taking ideas to market. The most recent comparative data on the performance of universities and research institutions in Australia, Canada, USA and UK shows that, from a relatively weak startingposition, the UK now leads on many indicators of commercialisation activity.
When viewed at the national level, the policy interventions of the past decade have helpedtransform the performance of UK universities. Evidence suggests the UK's position is much stronger than in the recent past and is still showing improvement. But national data masks the very largevariation in the performance of individual universities. The evidence shows that a large number ofuniversities have fallen off the back of the pack, a few perform strongly and the rest chase theleaders.
This type of uneven distribution is not peculiar to the UK and is mirrored across other economies. In the UK, research is concentrated: less than 25% of universities receive 75% of the research funding. These same universities are also the institutions producing the greatest share of PhD graduates, science citations, patents and licence income. The effect of policies generating long-term resource concentration has also created a distinctive set of universities which are research-led and commercially active. It seems clear that the concentration of research and commercialisation work creates differences between universities.
The core objective for universities which are research-led must be to maximise the impact oftheir research efforts. These universities should be generating the widest range of social, economic and environmental benefits. In return for the scale of investment, they should share their expertise in order to build greater confidence in the sector.
Part of the economic recovery of the UK will be driven by the next generation of research commercialisation spilling out of our universities. There are three dozen universities in the UKwhich are actively engaged in advanced research training and commercialisation work.
If there was a greater coordination of technology transfer offices within regions and a simultaneous investment in the scale and functions of our graduate schools, universities could, and should, play a key role in positioning the UK for the next growth cycle.
What does the author think of UK universities in terms of commercialisation?[1分]
They fail to convert knowledge into money.
They do not regard it as their responsibility.
They still have a place among the world leaders.
They have lost their leading position in many ways.
What does the author say about the national data on UK universities' performance in commercialisation?[1分]
It masks the fatal weaknesses of government policy.
It does not rank UK universities in a scientific way.
It does not reflect the differences among universities.
It indicates their ineffective use of government resources.
We can infer from Paragraph 5 that "policy interventions" (Line 1, Para. 4) refers to _____.[1分]
government aid to non-research-oriented universities
compulsory cooperation between universities and industries
fair distribution of funding for universities and research institutions
concentration of resources in a limited number of universities
What does the author suggest research-led universities do?[1分]
Publicise their research to win international recognition.
Fully utilise their research to benefit all sectors of society.
Generously share their facilities with those short of funds.
Spread their influence among top research institutions.
How can the university sector play a key role in the UK's economic growth?[1分]
By establishing more regional technology transfer offices.
By asking the government to invest in technology transfer research.
By promoting technology transfer and graduate school education.
By increasing the efficiency of technology transfer agencies.
Part V Cloze(15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C.and D.on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
If you know where to find a good plastic-free shampoo, can you tell Jeanne Haegele? Last September, the 28-year-old Chicago resident __62__ to cut plastics out of her life. The marketing coordinator was concerned about __63__ the chemicals coming out of some common types of plastic might be doing to her body. She was also worried about the damage all the plastic __64__ was doing to the environment. So she __65__ on her bike and rode to the nearest grocery store to see what she could find that didn't __66__ plastic. "I went in and __67__ bought anything," Haegele says. She did __68__ some canned food and a carton (纸盒) of milk – to discover later that both containers were __70__ with plastic resin (树脂). "Plastic," she says, "just seemed like it was in everything."
She's right. Back in the 1960s, plastic was well __71__ its way to becoming a staple of American life. The U.S. produced 28 million tons of plastic waste in 2005 – 27 million tons of which __72__ in landfills (垃圾填埋场). Our food and water come __73__ in plastic. It's used in our phones and our computers, the cars we drive and the planes we ride in. But the __74__ adaptable substance has its dark side. Environmentalists feel worried about the petroleum needed to make it. Parents worry about the possibility of __75__ chemicals making their way from 76plastic into children's bloodstreams. Which means Haegele isn't the only person trying to cut plastic out of her life – she isn't __77__ the only one blogging about this kind of __78__. Butthose who've tried know it's __79__ from easy to go plastic-free. "These things seem to be so common __80__ it is practically impossible to avoid coming into __81__ with them," says Frederick vom Saal, a biologist at the University of Missouri.
Part VI Translation(5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.Please write your translation on Answ&r Sheet 2.