Part Ⅰ Writing(30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled The Certificate Craze. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below.
The Certificate Craze
My opinion on certificate craze
The growing tendency among college students to get all kinds of certificates has now evolved into a craze. Just randomly ask a student what he or she is busily engaged in doing, quite possibly, you would get the answer that he or she is preparing for a certificate of some kind. So, why’s the craze?
The reason behind this phenomenon is common — the enormous pressure of finding a job. Faced with a harsh job market, most students have no choice but to seek more certificates to parlay their qualifications. Another factor is that diploma and certificates still weighs heavily in terms of signifying one’s ability. For the sake（缘故）of increasing their odds of landing a better job, the students are compelled to run from one exam to another.
Though I have an open mind toward the craze on certificates, I suggest that students should be more rational when it comes to certificates, since they do not necessarily tell their ability. Instead, they should be more involved in learning and capability boosting, thus, opportunities would come quite naturally.
The growing tendency … has now evolved into…
be busily engaged in doing
The reason behind…
harsh job market
have no choice but to…
parlay their qualifications
sth. weighs heavily in terms of…
increasing one’s odds of…
be involved in doing …
be compelled to do…
have an open mind toward…
2、微观语言点方面，有个主谓一致的方面的错误（diploma and certificates still weighs heavily）；有些语句稍显啰嗦，比quite possibly, you would get the answer that… 大可简化成you’d most likely be told that… 更好，意思没有丝毫减损，表达力反而增强许多；另外某些用语多重复，比如job多次出现；为了避免此类现象，文中的the enormous pressure of finding a job 不妨改为 the enormous pressure of getting employed。
Recently the phenomenon of certificate craze has become a big concern of the public. It is also a new craze in the university, which seems like a routine activity on campus, for certificates do play a vital role when students look for a decent job.
Admittedly, there are different purposes behind this phenomenon. Some people aim at certificates because of the employment pressure. With the admission expansion of colleges, a great many graduates have to face the fierce competition in the job market. So it is the certificates that can make them more competitive. However, some others consider all the diploma and certificates important standards by which a person’s ability can be measured. They spare no effort to get the certificates for the sole purpose of proving that they are qualified in a certain field. Moreover, there are those who just want to enrich their life by preparing for the certificates because they really enjoy their progress.
From my point of view, we should be more rational when it comes to certificates, since certificates do not necessarily prove one’s ability. Being crazy in getting certifications blindly is nothing but wasting time. To conclude, we should focus on improving our ability but not merely getting a certificate.
The job market today is increasingly sophisticated, requiring workers to have specialized knowledge in their fields. As a result, becoming certified is a trend among today’s job seeking youth. More and more people, students especially, look at obtaining certification as a means to getting a better job and, therefore, enjoying brighter future.
There are as many certificates as there are fields of study. Lawyers will take the LSAT, business majors will take the GMAT to further their study in the US, and those who study a foreign language, like English, might take the TOEFL, TOEIC, or any number of English certification exams.
Is this necessary? Or, is the “certification craze” just a trend that will eventually pass? I myself have obtained two different certifications: one in Japanese (N2) and another in teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL). Both of these certifications have been beneficial in getting good jobs. Therefore, it is my opinion that, trend or not, the results of becoming certified are real and can be invaluable in opening up future opportunities.
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)(15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A., B., C. and D.. For questions 8-10, complete the sen tences with the information given in the passage.
American universities are accepting more minorities than ever. Graduating them is another matter.
Barry Mills, the president of Bowdoin College, was justifiably proud of Bowdoin's efforts to recruit minority students. Since 2003 the small, elite liberal arts school in Brunswick, Maine, has boosted the proportion of so-called under-represented minority students in entering freshman classes from 8% to 13%. "It is our responsibility to reach out and attract students to come to our kinds of places," he told a NEWSWEEK reporter. But Bowdoin has not done quite as well when it comes to actually graduating minorities. While 9 out of 10 white students routinely get their diplomas within six years, only 7 out of 10 black students made it to graduation day in several recent classes.
"If you look at who enters college, it now looks like America," says Hilary Pennington, director of postsecondary programs for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which has closely studied enrollment patterns in higher education. "But if you look at who walks across the stage for a diploma, it's still largely the white, upper-income population."
The United States once had the highest graduation rate of any nation. Now it stands 10th. For the first time in American history, there is the risk that the rising generation will be less well educated than the previous one. The graduation rate among 25- to 34-year-olds is no better than the rate for the 55- to 64-year-olds who were going to college more than 30 years ago. Studies show that more and more poor and non-white students want to graduate from college – but their graduation rates fall far short of their dreams. The graduation rates for blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans lag far behind the graduation rates for whites and Asians. As the minority population grows in the United States, low college graduation rates become a threat to national prosperity.
The problem is pronounced at public universities. In 2007 the University of Wisconsin-Madison – one of the top five or so prestigious public universities – graduated 81% of its white students within six years, but only 56% of its blacks. At less-selective state schools, the numbers get worse. During the same time frame, the University of Northern Iowa graduated 67% of its white students, but only 39% of its blacks. Community colleges have low graduation rates generally – but rock-bottom rates for minorities. A recent review of California community colleges found that while a third of the Asian students picked up their degrees, only 15% of African-Americans did so as well.
Private colleges and universities generally do better, partly because they offer smaller classes and more personal attention. But when it comes to a significant graduation gap, Bowdoin has company. Nearby Colby College logged an 18-point difference between white and black graduates in 2007 and 25 points in 2006. Middlebury College in Vermont, another top school, had a 19-point gap in 2007 and a 22-point gap in 2006. The most selective private schools – Harvard, Yale, and Princeton – show almost no gap between black and white graduation rates. But that may have more to do with their ability to select the best students. According to data gathered by Harvard Law School professor Lani Guinier, the most selective schools are more likely to choose blacks who have at least one immigrant parent from Africa or the Caribbean than black students who are descendants of American slaves.
"Higher education has been able to duck this issue for years, particularly the more selective schools, by saying the responsibility is on the individual student," says Pennington of the Gates Foundation. "If they fail, it's their fault." Some critics blame affirmative action – students admitted with lower test scores and grades from shaky high schools often struggle at elite schools. But a bigger problem may be that poor high schools often send their students to colleges for which they are "undermatched": they could get into more elite, richer schools, but instead go to community colleges and low-rated state schools that lack the resources to help them. Some schools out for profit cynically increase tuitions and count on student loans and federal aid to foot the bill – knowing full well that the students won't make it. "The school keeps the money, but the kid leaves with loads of debt and no degree and no ability to get a better job. Colleges are not holding up their end," says Amy Wilkins of the Education Trust.
A college education is getting ever more expensive. Since 1982 tuitions have been rising at roughly twice the rate of inflation. In 2008 the net cost of attending a four-year public university – after financial aid – equaled 28% of median (中间的)family income, while a four-year private university cost 76% of median family income. More and more scholarships are based on merit, not need. Poorer students are not always the best-informed consumers. Often they wind up deeply in debt or simply unable to pay after a year or two and must drop out.
There once was a time when universities took pride in their dropout rates. Professors would begin the year by saying, "Look to the right and look to the left. One of you is not going to be here by the end of the year." But such a Darwinian spirit is beginning to give way as at least a few colleges face up to the graduation gap. At the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the gap has been roughly halved over the last three years. The university has poured resources into peer counseling to help students from inner-city schools adjust to the rigor (严格要求)and faster pace of a university classroom –and also to help minority students overcome the stereotype that they are less qualified. Wisconsin has a "laserlike focus" on building up student skills in the first three months, according to vice provost (教务长)Damon Williams.
State and federal governments could sharpen that focus everywhere by broadly publishing minority graduation rates. For years private colleges such as Princeton and MIT have had success bringing minorities onto campus in the summer before freshman year to give them some prepara tory courses. The newer trend is to start recruiting poor and non-white students as early as the seventh grade, using innovative tools to identify kids with sophisticated verbal skills. Such pro grams can be expensive, of course, but cheap compared with the millions already invested in scholarships and grants for kids who have little chance to graduate without special support.
With effort and money, the graduation gap can be closed. Washington and Lee is a small, selective school in Lexington, Va. Its student body is less than 5% black and less than 2% Latino. While the school usually graduated about 90% of its whites, the graduation rate of its blacks and Latinos had dipped to 63% by 2007. "We went through a dramatic shift," says Dawn Watkins, the vice president for student affairs. The school aggressively pushed mentoring (辅导) of minorities by other students and "partnering" with parents at a special pre-enrollment session. The school had its first-ever black homecoming. Last spring the school graduated the same proportion of minorities as it did whites. If the United States wants to keep up in the global economic race, it will have to pay systematic attention to graduating minorities, not just enrolling them.
What is the author's main concern about American higher education?[1分]
The small proportion of minority students.
The low graduation rates of minority students.
The growing conflicts among ethnic groups.
The poor academic performance of students.
What was the pride of President Barry Mills of Bowdoin College?[1分]
The prestige of its liberal arts programs.
Its ranking among universities in Maine.
The high graduation rates of its students.
Its increased enrollment of minority students.
What is the risk facing America?[1分]
Its schools will be overwhelmed by the growing number of illegal immigrants.
The rising generation will be less well educated than the previous one.
More poor and non-white students will be denied access to college.
It is going to lose its competitive edge in higher education.
How many African-American students earned their degrees in California community colleges according to a recent review?[1分]
Harvard, Yale, and Princeton show almost no gap between black and white graduation rates mainly because .[1分]
their students work harder
they recruit the best students
their classes are generally smaller
they give students more attention
How does Amy Wilkins of the Education Trust view minority students' failure to get a degree?[1分]
Universities are to blame.
Students don't work hard.
The government fails to provide the necessary support.
Affirmative action should be held responsible.
Why do some students drop out after a year or two according to the author?[1分]
They have lost confidence in themselves.
They cannot afford the high tuition.
They cannot adapt to the rigor of the school.
They fail to develop interest in their studies.
Part III Listening Comprehension(35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A., B., C. and D., and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the correspond ing letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
M: I left 20 pages here to copy. Here is the receipt.
W: I'm sorry, sir. But we're a little behind. Could you come back in a few minutes?
Q: What does the woman mean?[1分]
She will give him the receipt later.
The man should make his own copies.
She has not got the man's copies ready.
The man forgot to make the copies for her.
W: I hope you're not too put out with me for the delay. I have to stop by friends' home to pick up a book on my way here.
M: Well, that's not a big deal. But you might at least phone if you know you're going to keep someone waiting.
Q: What do we learn about the woman from the conversation?[1分]
She phoned Fred about the book.
She was late for the appointment.
She ran into Fred on her way here.
She often keeps other people waiting.
W: Mark is the best candidate for chairman of the student union, isn't he?
M: Well, that guy won't be able to win the election unless he gets some majority vote from women students. And I'm not sure about that.
Q: What does the man mean?[1分]
Mark is not fit to take charge of the Student Union.
Mark is the best candidate for the post of chairman.
It won't be easy for Mark to win the election.
Females are more competitive than males in elections.
M: Sorry to have kept you waiting, Madam. I've located your luggage.It was left behind in Paris and won't arrive until later this evening.
W: Oh, I can't believe this. Have it deliver to my hotel then , I guess.
Q: What happened to the woman's luggage?[1分]
It failed to arrive at its destination in time.
It got seriously damaged on the way.
It got lost at the airport in Paris.
It was left behind in the hotel.
W: I don't think we have enough information for our presentation, but we have to give it tomorrow. There doesn't seem to be much we can do about it.
M: Yeah, at this point we 'll have to make do with what we've got.
Q: What does the man suggest they do?[1分]
Just make use of whatever information is available.
Put more effort into preparing for the presentation.
Find more relevant information for their work.
Simply raise the issue in their presentation.
M: I am taking this great course-Psychology of Language, it's really interesting. Since you are a psychology major, you should sign up for it.
W: Actually I tried to do that, but they told me I have to take language studies first.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation?[1分]
The man has decided to choose Language Studies as his major.
The woman isn't interested in the psychology of language.
The man is still trying to sign up for the course he is interested in.
The woman isn't qualified to take the course the man mentioned.
W: Can you believe the way Larry was talking to his roommate? No wonder they don't get along.
M: Well, maybe Larry was just reacting to something his roommate said. There are two sides to every story you know.
Q: What does the man imply about Larry and his roommate?[1分]
They are both easy to please.
They can manage to get along.
They will make peace in time.
M: We don't have the resources to stop those people from buying us out unless a miracle happens. This may be the end of us.
W: I still have hope we can get help from the bank. After all we don't need that much money.
Q: What do we learn about the speakers from the conversation?[1分]
They are in desperate need of financial assistance.
They hope to do miracles with limited resources.
They want to borrow a huge sum from the bank.
They plan to buy out their business partners.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
W: You know I’ve often wondered why people laugh at the picture of a big belly businessman slipping on a banana skin and falling on his bottom. We are to feel sorry for them.
M: Actually, Laura, I think we laugh because we are glad it didn’t happen to us. But of course there is also a kind of humorous satisfaction in seeing somebody self-important making a fool of themselves.
W: Yes, and there are a lot of jokes about people who are too fat or physically handicapped, you know, deaf, or short-sighted things like that. After all, it’s not really funny to be like that.
M: Oh, I think that’s because we’re embarrassed. We don’t know how to cope with the situation. Perhaps we are even a bit frightened we may get like that, so we laugh.
M: What about the custard pie routine?
W: What do you mean ‘custard pie routine’?
M: You know, all those old films where someone gets so outraged with his boss, He picks up a custard pie and plasters it all over the other person’s face.
W: That never makes me laugh much, because you can guess what’s going to happen. But a lot of people still find it laughable. It must because of the sort of the thing we’d all love to do once in a while and never quiet have the courage to.
M: I had an old aunt who used to throw cups of tea at people when she was particularly irritated. She said it relieved her feelings.
W: It must have come a bit expensive.
M: Not really. She took care never to throw her best china.
We simply cannot help reacting instinctively that way.
We wish to hide our indifference to their misfortune.
We derive some humorous satisfaction from their misfortune.
We think it serves them right for being mean to other people.
They want to show their genuine sympathy.
They have had similar personal experiences.
They don't know how to cope with the situation.
They don't want to reveal their own frustration.
They themselves would like to do it but don't dare to.
It's an opportunity for relieving their tension.
It's a rare chance for them to see the boss lose face.
They have seen this many times in old films.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
W: Your name Sanjay Kumar is that correct?
M: Yes, madam.
W: You claim you are traveling on a scholarship from Delhi University.
M: That’s right.
W: Now it seems that a hand gun was found in your luggage. Do you admit that?
M: Yes, but…
W：According to the statement you made, you had never seen the hand gun before it was found in your bag. Do you still maintain that?
M: But it’s true. I swear it.
W: Mmm, you do realize Mr. Kumar that to bring a hand gun into Hong Kong without proper authorization is a serious offense.
M: But I didn’t bring it. I … I mean I didn’t know anything about it. It wasn’t there when I left Delhi. My bags were searched. It was part of the airport security check.
W: Maybe so, but someone managed to get that hand gun onto the aircraft or it couldn’t have been there.
M: Someone but not me.
W: Tell me , where was your personal bag during the flight?
M: I had it down by my feet between me and the man in the next seat.
M: He was the only person who could have opened my bag while I was asleep. It must have been him.
W: I see. Have you any idea who this man was?
M: He told me his name, Alfred Foster. He was very friendly, after I woke up that is. He hadn’t spoken before.
W: Alfred Foster, we can check that on the passenger list.
M: He said he had a car coming to meet him. He offered me a lift.
W: Oh, Why should he do that?
M: So he can get his handgun back, that’s why. Please find him, Madam.
Smuggling drugs into Hong Kong.
Having committed armed robbery.
Stealing a fellow passenger's bag.
Bringing a handgun into Hong Kong.
He said not a single word during the entire flight.
He took away Kumar's baggage while he was asleep.
He was travelling on a scholarship from Delhi University.
He is suspected of having slipped something in Kumar's bag.
Check the passenger list.
Search all suspicious cars.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A., B., C. and D.. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Everyone is looking for a good investment these days. And with stocks, currencies and companies all crashing, some are finding that taking the trip of a lifetime is actually a smart move right now. Prices are good, crowds are fewer and the dividends like expanded worldview, lifelong memories, the satisfaction of boosting the global economy—can't be easily snatched away. Sylvia and Paul Custerson, a retired couple from Cambridge, England, recently took a 16-day vacation to Namibia, where they went on bird-watching excursions. Later this year, they are planning a trip to Patagonia. "We're using our capital now," says Sylvia, "And why not? We're not getting any interest in the bank. If it's a place we really want to go, then we will go. We may as well travel while we're fit and healthy. "
Some travel agents are thriving in spite of the economy. "We've had more people booking in the first quarter of this year than last," says Hubert Moineau, founder of Tselana Travel, which is planning to introduce a new program of longer adventure trips, including polar expeditions and cruises in the Galápagos. "We're hearing things like, 'We don't know what the situation will be in six months so let's travel now' ", Ashley Toft, managing director of the U. K. tour operator Explore has been surprised to see an increase in last-minute bookings of high-priced trips to such places as India, Bhutan and Nepal. "It seems people would rather give up something else than the big trip," he says. Travel has become a necessity. It's just how we travel that is changing.
本文介绍了在总体市场经济不景气的前提下，旅游业异军突起现象及其前因后果。文章开篇就介绍总的社会背景是各种不景气前提下，外出旅游成为人们的选择之一，紧接着以一个例子来证明。然后旅行社相关的权威人物的话语中更是证明目前旅游业正风头正劲。文章中出现的金融词汇，人名、地名及职务名称，如investment, investment, Namibia, Namibia, managing director of the U. K. tour operator Explore等。一定程度上会让考生觉得头疼，且分散注意力。这就需要考生有一定对重要信息的提取能力。人名、地名及职务名称等听过有个印象就好，不必过于纠结。
According to the speaker, why are some people willing to spend their money on travel these days?[1分]
They think travel has become a trend.
They think travel gives them their money's worth.
They find many of the banks untrustworthy.
They lack the expertise to make capital investments.
What is Tselana Travel planning to do, according to its founder?[1分]
Lower their prices to attract more customers.
Introduce travel packages for young travelers.
Design programs targeted at retired couples.
Launch a new program of adventure trips.
According to Ashley Toft, managing director of Explore, what is changing now with regard to travels?[1分]
The role of travel agents.
The number of last-minute bookings.
The prices of polar expeditions.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Somehow the old male and female stereotypes no longer fit. Men and women in this country haven’t been fulfilling their traditional roles for some time now. And there seem to be fewer and fewer differences between the sexes. For instance, even though more women than men are still homemakers without paying jobs, women have been taking over more responsibility in the business world, earning higher salaries than ever before and entering fields of work that used to be exclusively male areas. At office meetings and in group discussions, they might speak up more often, express strong opinions and come up with more creative and practical ideas than their male colleagues. Several days ago, my 23-year-old daughter came to me with some important news. Not only had she found the highest paying job of her career, but she’d also accepted a date with the most charming men she’d ever met.
“Really?”, I responded,” tell me about them.”
“Receptionist in an attorney’s office and a welder at a construction site.” She answered in a matter-of-fact way. The interesting thing is my daughter’s date is the receptionist and my daughter is the welder. The old stereotypes of men’s and women’s work have been changing more quickly than ever before, except perhaps in my own marriage.
“Who's going to mow the lawn? ” I asked my husband this morning.
“Oh, I will,” he answered politely. ”That's men's work. ”
“What?” Irritated, I raised my voice. “That's a ridiculous stereotype. I'll show you who can do the best job on the lawn.”
The work took 3 hours and I did it all myself.
本文介绍作者对男女关系的老套传统观念持质疑态度，并举例证明其观点。本文难词不多，2个例子也以对话为主，所以难度适中。文章第一句"Somehow the old male and female stereotypes no longer fit. "非常直白的表明了作者的观点。文章难度不大的，题目往往会比较讨巧，所以一定不能放松警惕。题目中的以推理为主的题目会相对比较多。
What is the speaker mainly talking about?[1分]
The old stereotypes about men and women.
The changing roles played by men and women.
The division of labor between men and women.
The widespread prejudice against women.
What might women do at office meetings nowadays according to the speaker?[1分]
Offer more creative and practical ideas than men.
Ask questions that often lead to controversy.
Speak loudly enough to attract attention.
Raise issues on behalf of women.
Why did the speaker mow the lawn herself that morning?[1分]
To prove that she could earn her living as a gardener.
To show that women are more hardworking than men.
To show that women are capable of doing what men do.
To prove that she was really irritated with her husband.
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Florence Hayes is a journalist for the Green Ville Journal, the daily newspaper in town. Specifically she covers crime in the Green Ville area. This responsibility takes her to many different places every week——the police station, the court and the hospital. Most of the crimes that she writes about fall into two groups: violent crimes and crimes against property. There isn’t much violent crime in a small town like Green Ville, or at least not as much as in the large urban areas. But assaults often occur on Friday and Saturday nights, near the bars downtown. There’re also one or two rapes on campus every semester. Florence is very interested in this type of crime and tries to write a long article about each one. She expects that this will make women more careful when they walk around Green Ville alone at night
Fortunately, there were usually no murders in Green Ville. Crimes against property make up most of Miss Heyes’ reporting. They range from minor cases of deliberate damaging of things to much more serious offenses, such as car accidents involving drunk drivers or bank robberies but Florence has to report all of these violations from the thief who took typewriters from every unlock room in the dormitory to the thief who stole one million dollars worth of art work from the university museum. Miss Hayes enjoys working for a newspaper but she sometimes gets unhappy about all the crime she has to report. She would prefer to start writing about something more interesting and less unpleasant such as local news or politics, maybe next year
本文主要从Florence Hayes，一位来自Green Ville Journal的记者的工作揭示Green Ville的治安状况。难词不多，难度适中，难词主要是对犯罪类词汇的，如violent crimes, crimes against property, rape, robbery等，考生平时阅读及词汇学习一定要各种类型都涉及一点，掌握一些基本的专业词汇。其次这类从一个人的角度去看的文章，既要注意文中主人公的主观态度，也要关注客观事实。题目很可能把2者混淆起来考查考生。
What is Florence Hayes’ main responsibility as a journalist?[1分]
Covering major events of the day in the city.
Reporting criminal offenses in Greenville.
Hunting news for the daily headlines.
Writing articles on family violence.
What does the speaker say about security in Greenville?[1分]
It is a much safer place than it used to be.
Rapes rarely occur in the downtown areas.
Assaults often happen on school campuses.
It has fewer violent crimes than big cities.
What do we learn about crimes against property in the Green Ville area?[1分]
There are a wide range of cases.
They are very destructive.
There has been a rise in such crimes.
They have aroused fear among the residents.
What would Florence Hayes prefer to do?[1分]
Write about something pleasant.
Do some research on local politics.
Offer help to crime victims.
Work as a newspaper editor.
In America, people are faced with more and more decisions every day, whether it’s picking one of thirty-one ice cream flavors, or deciding whether and when to get married. That sounds like a great thing, but as a recent study has shown, too many choices can make us confused, unhappy, even paralyzed with indecision. ‘That’s particularly true when it comes to the work place’, says Barry Schwartz, an author of six books about human behavior. Students are graduating with a variety of skills and interests, but often find themselves overwhelmed when it comes to choosing an ultimate career goal. In a study, Schwartz observed decision-making among college students during their senior year. Based on answers to questions regarding their job hunting strategies and career decisions, he divided the students into two groups：maximizers, who consider every possible option, and satisficers, who look until they find an option that is good enough. You might expect that the student who had undertaken the most exhausted search would be the most satisfied with their final decision, but it turns out that’s not true. Schwartz found that while maximizers ended up with better-paying jobs than satisficers on average, they weren’t as happy with their decision. The reason why these people feel less satisfied is that a world of possibilities may also be a world of missed opportunities. When you look at every possible option, you tend to focus more on what was given up than what was gained. After surveying every option, a person is more acutely aware of the opportunities they had to turn down to pursue just one career.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
In America, people are faced with more and more decisions every day, whether it's picking one of 31 ice cream (36) _____ or deciding whether and when to get married. That sounds like a great thing. But as a recent study has shown, too many choices can make us (37) _____, unhappy – even paralyzed with indecision.
That's (38) _____ true when it comes to the workplace, says Barry Schwartz, an author of six books about human (39) _____. Students are graduating with a (40) _____ of skills and interests, but often find themselves (41) _____ when it comes to choosing an ultimate career goal.
In a study, Schwartz observed decision-making among college students during their (42) _____ year. Based on answers to questions regarding their job-hunting (43) _____ and career decisions, he divided the students into two groups: "maximizers" who consider every possible option, and "satisficers" who look until they find an option that is good enough.
You might expect that the students (44) _________________________________. But it turns out that's not true. Schwartz found that while maximizers ended up with better paying jobs than satisficers on average, they weren't as happy with their decision.
The reason (45) _________________________________. When you look at every possible option, you tend to focus more on what was given up than what was gained. After surveying every option, (46) _________________________________.
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)(25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2.
Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.
How good are you at saying "no"? For many, it's surprisingly difficult. This is especially true of editors, who by nature tend to be eager and engaged participants in everything they do. Consider these scenarios:
It's late in the day. That front-page package you've been working on is nearly complete; one last edit and it's finished. Enter the executive editor, who makes a suggestion requiring a more-than-modest rearrangement of the design and the addition of an information box. You want to scream: "No! It's done!" What do you do?
The first rule of saying no to the boss is don't say no. She probably has something in mind when she makes suggestions, and it's up to you to find out what. The second rule is don't raise the stakes by challenging her authority. That issue is already decided. The third rule is to be ready to cite options and consequences. The boss's suggestions might be appropriate, but there are always consequences. She might not know about the pages backing up that need attention, or about the designer who had to go home sick. Tell her she can have what she wants, but explain the consequences. Understand what she's trying to accomplish and propose a Plan B that will make it happen without destroying what you've done so far.
Here's another case. Your least-favorite reporter suggests a dumb story idea. This one should be easy, but it's not. If you say no, even politely, you risk inhibiting further ideas, not just from that reporter, but from others who heard that you turned down the idea. This scenario is common in newsrooms that lack a systematic way to filter story suggestions.
Two steps are necessary. First, you need a system for how stories are proposed and reviewed. Reporters can tolerate rejection of their ideas if they believe they were given a fair hearing. Your gut reaction (本能反应) and dismissive rejection, even of a worthless idea, might not qualify as systematic or fair.
Second, the people you work with need to negotiate a "What if ...?" agreement covering "What if my idea is turned down?" How are people expected to react? Is there an appeal process? Can they refine the idea and resubmit it? By anticipating "What if...?" situations before they happen, you can reach understanding that will help ease you out of confrontations.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A., B., C. and D.. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
At the heart of the debate over illegal immigration lies one key question: are immigrants good or bad for the economy? The American public overwhelmingly thinks they're bad. Yet the consensus among most economists is that immigration, both legal and illegal, provides a small net boost to the economy. Immigrants provide cheap labor, lower the prices of everything from farm produce to new homes, and leave consumers with a little more money in their pockets. So why is there such a discrepancy between the perception of immigrants' impact on the economy and the reality?
There are a number of familiar theories. Some argue that people are anxious and feel threatened by an inflow of new workers. Others highlight the strain that undocumented immigrants place on public services, like schools, hospitals, and jails. Still others emphasize the role of race, arguing that foreigners add to the nation's fears and insecurities. There's some truth to all these explanations, but they aren't quite sufficient.
To get a better understanding of what's going on, consider the way immigration's impact is felt. Though its overall effect may be positive, its costs and benefits are distributed unevenly. David Card, an economist at UC Berkeley, notes that the ones who profit most directly from immigrants' low-cost labor are businesses and employers – meatpacking plants in Nebraska, for instance, or agricultural businesses in California. Granted, these producers' savings probably translate into lower prices at the grocery store, but how many consumers make that mental connection at the checkout counter? As for the drawbacks of illegal immigration, these, too, are concentrated. Native low-skilled workers suffer most from the competition of foreign labor. According to a study by George Borjas, a Harvard economist, immigration reduced the wages of American high-school dropouts by 9% between 1980-2000.
Among high-skilled, better-educated employees, however, opposition was strongest in states with both high numbers of immigrants and relatively generous social services. What worried them most, in other words, was the fiscal (财政的)burden of immigration. That conclusion was reinforced by another finding: that their opposition appeared to soften when that fiscal burden decreased, as occurred with welfare reform in the 1990s, which curbed immigrants' access to certain benefits.
The irony is that for all the overexcited debate, the net effect of immigration is minimal. Even for those most acutely affected – say, low-skilled workers, or California residents – the impact isn't all that dramatic. "The unpleasant voices have tended to dominate our perceptions," says Daniel Tichenor, a political science professor at the University of Oregon. "But when all those factors are put together and the economists calculate the numbers, it ends up being a net positive, but a small one." Too bad most people don't realize it.
What can we learn from the first paragraph?[1分]
Whether immigrants are good or bad for the economy has been puzzling economists.
The American economy used to thrive on immigration but now it's a different story.
The consensus among economists is that immigration should not be encouraged.
The general public thinks differently from most economists on the impact of immigration.
In what way does the author think ordinary Americans benefit from immigration?[1分]
They can access all kinds of public services.
They can get consumer goods at lower prices.
They can mix with people of different cultures.
They can avoid doing much of the manual labor.
Why do native low-skilled workers suffer most from illegal immigration?[1分]
They have greater difficulty getting welfare support.
They are more likely to encounter interracial conflicts.
They have a harder time getting a job with decent pay.
They are no match for illegal immigrants in labor skills.
What is the chief concern of native high-skilled, better-educated employees about the inflow of immigrants?[1分]
It may change the existing social structure.
It may pose a threat to their economic status.
It may lead to social instability in the country.
It may place a great strain on the state budget.
What is the irony about the debate over immigration?[1分]
Even economists can't reach a consensus about its impact.
Those who are opposed to it turn out to benefit most from it.
People are making too big a fuss about something of small impact.
There is no essential difference between seemingly opposite opinions.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Picture a typical MBA lecture theatre twenty years ago. In it the majority of students will have conformed to the standard model of the time: male, middle class and Western. Walk into a class today, however, and you'll get a completely different impression. For a start, you will now see plenty more women – the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School, for example, boasts that 40% of its new enrolment is female. You will also see a wide range of ethnic groups and nationals of practically every country.
It might be tempting, therefore, to think that the old barriers have been broken down and equal opportunity achieved. But, increasingly, this apparent diversity is becoming a mask for a new type of conformity. Behind the differences in sex, skin tones and mother tongues, there are common attitudes, expectations and ambitions which risk creating a set of clones among the business leaders of the future.
Diversity, it seems, has not helped to address fundamental weaknesses in business leadership. So what can be done to create more effective managers of the commercial world? According to Valerie Gauthier, associate dean at HEC Paris, the key lies in the process by which MBA programmes recruit their students. At the moment candidates are selected on a fairly narrow set of criteria such as prior academic and career performance, and analytical and problem solving abilities. This is then coupled to a school's picture of what a diverse class should look like, with the result that passport, ethnic origin and sex can all become influencing factors. But schools rarely dig down to find out what really makes an applicant succeed, to create a class which also contains diversity of attitude and approach – arguably the only diversity that, in a business context, really matters.
Professor Gauthier believes schools should not just be selecting candidates from traditional sectors such as banking, consultancy and industry. They should also be seeking individuals who have backgrounds in areas such as political science, the creative arts, history or philosophy, which will allow them to put business decisions into a wider context.
Indeed, there does seem to be a demand for the more rounded leaders such diversity might create. A study by Mannaz, a leadership development company, suggests that, while the bully-boy chief executive of old may not have been eradicated completely, there is a definite shift in emphasis towards less tough styles of management – at least in America and Europe. Perhaps most significant, according to Mannaz, is the increasing interest large companies have in more collaborative management models, such as those prevalent in Scandinavia, which seek to integrate the hard and soft aspects of leadership and encourage delegated responsibility and accountability.
What characterises the business school student population of today?[1分]
What is the author's concern about current business school education?[1分]
It will arouse students' unrealistic expectations.
It will produce business leaders of a uniform style.
It focuses on theory rather than on practical skills.
It stresses competition rather than cooperation.
What aspect of diversity does Valerie Gauthier think is most important?[1分]
Age and educational background.
Social and professional experience.
Attitude and approach to business.
Ethnic origin and gender.
What applicants does the author think MBA programmes should consider recruiting?[1分]
Applicants with prior experience in business companies.
Applicants with sound knowledge in math and statistics.
Applicants from outside the traditional sectors.
Applicants from less developed regions and areas.
What does Mannaz say about the current management style?[1分]
It is eradicating the tough aspects of management.
It encourages male and female executives to work side by side.
It adopts the bully-boy chief executive model.
It is shifting towards more collaborative models.
Part V Cloze(15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A., B., C. and D. on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Organised volunteering and work experience has long been a vital companion to university degree courses. Usually it is left to __62__ to deduce the potential from a list of extracurricular adventures on a graduate's resume, __63__ now the University of Bristol has launched an award to formalise the achievements of students who __64__ time to activities outside their courses. Bristol PLuS aims to boost students in an increasingly __65__ job market by helping them acquire work and life skills alongside __66__ qualifications.
"Our students are a pretty active bunch, but we found that they didn't __67__ appreciate the value of what they did __68__ the lecture hall," says Jeff Goodman, director of careers and employability at the university. "Employers are much more __69__ than they used to be. They used to look for __70__ and saw it as part of their job to extract the value of an applicant's skills. Now they want students to be able to explain why those skills are __71__ to the job."
Students who sign __72__ for the award will be expected to complete 50 hours of work experience or __73__ work, attend four workshops on employ-ability skills, take part in an intensive skills-related activity __74__, crucially, write a summary of the skills they have gained. __75__ efforts will gain an Outstanding Achievement Award. Those who __76__ best on the sports field can take the Sporting PLuS Award which fosters employer-friendly sports accomplishments.
The experience does not have to be __77__ organised. "We're not just interested in easily identifiable skills," says Goodman. " __78__ , one student took the lead in dealing with a difficult landlord and so __79__ negotiation skills. We try to make the experience relevant to individual lives."
Goodman hopes the __80__ will enable active students to fill in any gaps in their experience and encourage their less-active __81__ to take up activities outside their academic area of work.
Part VI Translation(5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.