They remained full of hope and determination ______ their repeated failures.[1分]
People try to avoid public transportation delays by using their cars, and this ______ creates further problems.[1分]
The football player is hoping to ______ to another club.[1分]
I wish my son would stop ______ and do something realistic.[1分]
He was ______ by the external examiner.[1分]
A trap is one of the five essential ______ for a commercial accumulation of oil or gas.[1分]
The Saudis are also afraid that releasing too much oil could prompt a sudden price ______.[1分]
The largest ______ever to attend a soccer match was at the World Cup final on July 16, 1950.[1分]
If you travel ______ , you see new customs, eat new foods, do new things, and come back home with a broader mind.[1分]
The special education class contained the slow learners, those with ______ or mental disabilities, or those whose behavior made it hard for them to learn.[1分]
By one ______, almost one billion people watched the 1982 championship game on television.[1分]
Petrochemicals are generally chemical ______ derived from petroleum.[1分]
American pencil makers ______ their product by the millions.[1分]
Washington Roebling was a cripple ______ he lived.[1分]
The Buick driver, a former convict, had been ______ from the Oklahoma county jail only a week before.[1分]
Lincoln pulled Grigsby off, raised him shoulder high and threw him aside ______ he were a sack of meal.[1分]
Gene technology is already being used in a ______ of fields.[1分]
The oil under the surface of the earth ______ in the distant past.[1分]
The costs may be so high that no company will ______ the work,[1分]
If President Jackson ______ of a paper, he would write “all correct” on it.[1分]
II. Grammatical Structure
I would rather ______ here than go home.[1分]
The test ______, we began our holiday.[1分]
I’m not sure ______.[1分]
why did she refused theft invitation
why would she refused their invitation
why have she refused their invitation
why she refused their invitation
Each of us ______ thinking the same thing.[1分]
China is larger than ______.[1分]
any other countries in Asia
Japan and Thailand as well as Asia
The existence of oil wells ______ for a long time.[1分]
Soccer is a fast sport ______ demands strong, hard play.[1分]
If that Shell had hit us half a second sooner, it ______ the pilot.[1分]
Not ______ any letter from him, I gave him a call.[1分]
This room needs ______.[1分]
It was very reluctantly ______ she agreed to help.[1分]
We would like to hear some more ideas, ______ this matter?[1分]
Not till he got home ______ that he had lost his keys.[1分]
We shall start at seven if it __ by that time.[1分]
will have stopped to rain
Like the old, __ respected in our country.[1分]
Let us wait for you in the reading-room, __ ?[1分]
You’ll soon get used to __ a large breakfast in England.[1分]
Since ___, he had to postpone his departure for Europe.[1分]
The squirrel was lucky that it just missed __[1分]
Television was not invented by any one person. Nor did it spring into being overnight. It developed gradually, over a long period, from the ideas of many people - each one building on the work of their predecessors’. The process began in 1873, when it was accidentally discovered that the electrical resistance of the element selenium (硒) varied in proportion to the intensity of the light shining on it. Scientists quickly recognized that this provided a way of transforming light variations into electrical signals. Almost immediately a number of schemes were proposed for sending pictures by wire (it was, of course, before radio).
One of the earliest of these schemes was patterned on the human eye. Suggested by G. R. Carey in 1875. It envisioned (想像，展望) a mosaic (感光嵌镶幕) of selenium cells on which the picture to be transmitted would be focused by a lens system. At the receiving end there would be a similarly arranged mosaic made up of electric lights. Each selenium cell would be connected by an individual wire to the similarly placed light in the receiving mosaic. Light falling on the selenium cell would cause the associated electric light to shine in proportion. Thus the mosaic of lights would reproduce the original pictures, Had the necessary amplifiers(放大器)and the right kind of lights been available this system would have worked. But it also would have required an impractical number of connecting wires. Carey recognized this and in a second scheme proposed to “scan” the cells - transmitting the signal from each cell to its associated light, in turn, over a single wire. If this were done fast enough the retaining power of the eye would cause the resultant image to be seen as a complete picture.
Which of the following is the best title for the passage?[1.5分]
Television in the Electronic Era
Harmful Effects of Television Viewing
First Steps in the Invention of Television
As it is used in the passage, the word “predecessors” (paragraph 1) means[1.5分]
a teacher of the highest rank in a university department
a person who plans and understands the making of machines, roads, bridges, etc.
a person who teaches, esp. as a profession
a person who held a position before someone else
An important discovery in early television was the electrical resistance of___[1.5分]
According to the information of the passage, the original picture would be reproduced by the[1.5分]
Questions 45 to 48 are based on the following passage:
There are many similarities between public speaking and daily conversation. The three major goals of public speaking - to inform, to persuade, to entertain - are also the three major goals of everyday conversation. In conversation, almost without thinking about it, you employ a wide range of skills. You organize your ideas logically. You tailor your message to your audience. You tell a story for maximum impact. You adapt to feedback from your listener. These are among the most important skills you will need for public speaking.
Of course, public speaking is also different from conversation. First, public speaking is more highly structured than conversation. It usually imposes strict time limitations on the speaker, and it requires more detailed preparation than ordinary conversation. Second, speechmaking requires more formal language. Listeners react negatively to speeches loaded with slang, jargon, and bad grammar. Third public speaking demands a different method of delivery. Effective speakers adjust their voices to the larger audience and work at avoiding distracting physical mannerism and verbal habits.
One of the major concerns of students in any speech class is stage flight. Actually, most successful speakers are nervous before making a speech. Your speech class will give you an opportunity to gain confidence and make your nervousness work for you rather than against you. You will take a big step toward overcoming stage fright if you think positively, choose speech topics you really care about, prepare thoroughly, and concentrate on communicating with your audience. Like many students over the years, you too can develop confidence in your speechmaking abilities.
Because speechmaking is a form of power, it carries with it heavy ethical responsibilities. Ethical speakers use sound means to achieve sound goals. They do this by being well informed about their subjects, by being honest in what they say, by using sound evidence, and by employing valid reasoning
The major goals that public speaking and daily conversation have in common are:[1.5分]
The main goals of public speaking and daily conversation are to convey the message using formal language and requiring detailed preparation.
The main goal of public speaking and daily conversation is to convey the message to a listener using their feedback
The main goals of public speaking and daily conversation are to inform, persuade, entertain the audience.
The main goals of public speaking and daily conversation are to communicate a clear message through a channel without interference.
Public speaking and daily conversation are different because:[1.5分]
Daily conversation uses formal language and requires detailed preparation to convey the message.
Daily conversation is more structured than public speaking.
Public speaking uses slang and physical gestures to convey their message to a larger audience.
Public speaking uses formal language and is more structured than daily conversation.
According to the article, you can gain confidence and make your nervousness work for you rather than against you by:[1.5分]
more preparation and choosing topics you really care about.
less preparation and more concentration on communicating with the audience.
rehearsing your speech for hours on stage.
memorizing every word of your speech before giving it.
The main message of this article is:[1.5分]
Public speaking is much harder than daily conversation.
Public speaking requires years of training.
Skilled public speakers have an ethical responsibility in the message they convey to their audience by being honest and using sound evidence.
Skilled public speakers are never nervous and have no stage fright.
Questions 49 to 52 are based on the following passage:
What was the origin of the oil which now drives our motor-cars and aircraft? Scientists are confident about the formation of coal, but they do not seem so sure when asked about oil. They think that the oil under the surface of the earth was formed from living things in the sea. Countless billions of minute sea creatures and plants lived and sank to the sea bed. They were covered with huge deposits of mud; and by processes of chemistry, pressure and temperature were changed through long ages into what we know as oil. For these creatures to become oil, it was necessary that they should be imprisoned between layers of rock for an enormous length of time. The statement that oil originated in the sea is confirmed by a glance at a map showing the chief oilfield of the world; very few of them are far distain from the oceans of today. In some places gas and oil come up to the surface of the sea from its bed. The rocks in which oil is found are of marine origin too. They are sedimentary rocks which were laid down by the action of water on the bed of the ocean. Almost always the remains of shells, and other proofs of sea life, are found close to the oil. A very common sedimentary rock is called shale, which is a soft rock and was obviously formed by being deposited on the sea bed. And where there is shale there is likely to be oil.
Geologists, scientists who study rocks, indicate the likely places to the oil drillers. In some cases oil comes out of the ground without any drilling at all and has been used for hundreds of years. In the island of Trinidad the oil is in the form of asphalt, a substance used for making roads. Sir Walter Raleigh visited the famous pitch lake of Trinidad in 1595; it is said to contain nine thousand million tons of asphalt. There are probably huge quantities of crude oil beneath the surface.
The king of the oilfield is the driller. He is a very skilled man. Sometimes he sends his drill more than a mile into the earth. During the process of drilling, gas and oil at great pressure may suddenly be met, and if this rushes out and catches fire, the oil well may never be brought into operation at all. This danger is well known and steps are always taken to prevent it.
There is a lot of luck in drilling for oil. The drill may just miss the oil although it is near; on the other hand, it may strike oil at a fairly high level. When the drill goes down, it brings up soil. The samples of soil from various depths are examined for traces of oil. If they are disappointed at one place, the drillers go to another. Great sums of money have been spent, for example in the deserts of Egypt, in ‘prospecting’ for oil. Sometimes little is found. When we buy a few gallons of petrol for our cars, we pay not only the cost of the petrol, but also pm of the cost of the search that is always going on.
Scientists think that[1.5分]
oil was formed from large deposits of mud on the sea bed.
coal was formed from shale under the surface of the earth.
oil was formed from sea creatures caught between layers of rock.
oil was formed from sea water by processes of chemistry, pressure and temperature.
“Where there is shale, there is likely to be oil.” The author says this in order to show that[1.5分]
shale is a sedimentary rock.
oil was first formed under the sea.
shale is another form of oil.
The author mentions Trinidad because[1.5分]
it has a famous lake which was visited by Sir Walter Raleigh.
it probably has large quantities of crude oil under the surface.
it is an example of a place where drilling is not necessary to obtain oil.
its asphalt is very good for making roads.
The driller is unlucky when[1.5分]
the drill does not bring up any soil.
the drill brings up soil.
the drill strikes oil at a high level.
the drill goes very near the oil without striking it.
Questions 53 to 56 are based on the following passage:
Thomas Jefferson was inaugurated on March 4, 1801. He was the first President to take the oath of office in the nation’s permanent capital-Washington, D.C. Although Washington was a new city, it was already familiar to President Jefferson. In fact, Jefferson had helped plan the capital’s streets and public buildings. Besides being a city planner and architect the new President was a writer, a scientist, and the inventor of several gadgets and tools.
After his inauguration, Jefferson moved into the Presidential Palace. The Palace was more than a home; it contained offices for the President and some of his staff and advisors. It also included dining and reception rooms, where the President could entertain congressmen. However, President Jefferson did not give many formal parties. This was partly because there was no First Lady. Jefferson’s wife had died in 1782. But it was also because Jefferson liked to live in a simple fashion. Once, he showed up for an important meeting wearing old clothes and down-at-the-heels slippers! Neither Washington nor Adams would ever have dressed so casually.
Jefferson was different from the first two Presidents in other ways, too. He disagreed with them about how the country should be run, and about what part a President should play in running it.
Which of the following statements about Washington, D. C. can be correctly inferred from the passage’?[1.5分]
It contained many old buildings in 1801.
It was not the first capital of the United States.
The Presidential Palace was not located there.
Thomas Jefferson was a newcomer there in 1801.
According to the passage, the Presidential Palace was built to be ____ .[1.5分]
a meeting place for newspaper
a hotel for visiting kings
an office building and home
a museum for colonial American tools and gadgets
It can be inferred that one reason Thomas Jefferson did not entertain very often in Washington was because____[1.5分]
he and his wife did not have appropriate clothes
he did not enjoy elaborate parties
the food in the area was not good
he could not understand foreign languages
It can be interred from the passage that George Washington and John Adams both[1.5分]
lived for a long time in Washington,D.C
traveled to many foreign countries
were rather formal gentlemen
encouraged Jefferson to run for the presidency
Questions 57 to 60 are based on the following passage:
The United State court system, as part of the federal system of government, is characterized by dual hierarchies: there are both state and federal courts. Each state has its own system of courts, composed of civil and criminal trial courts, sometimes intermediate courts of appeal, and a state supreme court. The federal court system consists of a series of trial courts (called district courts) serving relatively small geographic regions (there is at least one for every state), a tier of circuit courts of appeal that hear appeals from many district courts in a particular geographic region, and the Supreme court of the United States. The two court systems are to some extent overlapping, in that certain kinds of disputes (such as a claim that a state law is in violation of the Constitution) may be initiated in either system. They are also to some extent hierarchical, for the federal system stands above the state system in that litigants (person engaged in lawsuits) who lose their cases in the state supreme court may appeal their cases to the Supreme Court of the United States.
Thus, the typical court case begins in a trial court - court of general jurisdiction - in the state or federal system. Most cases go no further than the trial court: for example, the criminal defendant convicted (by a trial or a guilty plea) and sentenced by the court and the case ends; the personal injury suit results in a judgment by a trial court (or an out-of-court settlement by the parties while the courts suit is pending) and the parties leave the court system. But sometimes the losing party at the trial court cares enough about the cause that the matter does not end there. In these cases, the “loser” at the trial court may appeal to the next higher court.
According to the passage district courts are also know as ____.[1.5分]
In the last sentence of the first paragraph, the phrase “engaged in” could best be replaced by which of the following?[1.5分]
The passage indicates that litigants who lose their cases in the state trial court may take them to a ____[1.5分]
different trial court in the same state
court in a different geographic region
It can be inferred from the passage that typical court cases are __[1.5分]
usually resolved in the district courts
usually settled by the Supreme Court
Directions: There are 10 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark your answer on the Answer Sheet.
Foreign visitors to England often ask 61 for a good restaurant but when their hosts suggest one to them, it is usually Italian or French or Indian - in short, 62 English. The truth is that English people enjoy their own cooking at home but are often ashamed of it in public. Even the experts who write articles on food 63 to use the French word “cuisine”, which suggests that “cooking” is inferior.
In fact, English cooking is not 64 as people think. The trouble with it, in my opinion, is that the most appetizing typical dishes do not go with wine. At home, English people usually drink either water or beer or even (strange as it may seem) tea with their meals; in restaurants they sometimes think they had better order wine for the 65 of appearances.
66 a number of exclusive restaurants in Britain are trying to develop a “national cuisine”. But their main criterion 67 appears to be to search 68 in ancient cookery books and give the results names like “Mutton Winchester” - it’s amazing how snobbery survives in the imitation French name, with the objective after the noun. Why couldn’t they have called it “Winchester Mutton”? At 69 of the scale, there are restaurants in London where you can have regional working-class specialties. Personally I would rather avoid the two extremes and go to a pub. Most pubs serve food that goes well with beer and, 70, who could ask for anything better?
being English beer what it is
English beer being what is it
being English beer what is it
English beer being what it is
Supplying energy in 1970 required the harvesting, processing and combustion of some three billion metric tons of coal, some 17 billion barrels of oil, more than a trillion cubic meters of natural gas and perhaps two billion cubic meters of fuel wood. It entailed the use of dirty coal as well as clean; undersea oil as well as terrestrial; deep gas as well as shallow; mediocre hydroelectric sites as well as good ones; and deforestation as well as sustainable fuel wood harvesting.
Except for the huge pool of oil underlying the Middle East, the cheapest oil and gas are already gone. Some scientists believe there is a lot more to be found. But even if a few more giant oil fields are discovered, they will make little difference, against consumption on today’s scale. Oil and gas will have to come increasingly as imports from countries with very unstable economic conditions.
There are a variety of other energy resources that are more abundant than oil and gas. Coal, solar energy, wind energy, and fission and fusion fuels are the most important ones. But they all require elaborate and expensive transformation into electricity or liquid fuels in order to meet society’s need None has very good prospects for delivering large quantities of electricity at costs comparable to those of the cheap coal-fired and hydropower plants of the 1960’s. It appears, then, that expensive energy is a permanent condition, even without allowing for its environmental costs.