Within days he became paralyzed, and people feared that he might die. But he _________.[1分]
Tilden, the other presidential ______, actually received more votes.[1分]
An Olympic runner wins a _______.[1分]
To find out how the bees managed to tell time, an unusual experiment was _______ four years ago.[1分]
Every society has its own peculiar custom and _____ of acting.[1分]
They ______ their knowledge in the exploding world of ideas.[1分]
I should like to rent a house, modern, comfortable and ______ in a quiet neighborhood.[1分]
It’s difficult to divine what constitutes an ______ tip in any country.[1分]
Shipbuilders would not _____ their money unless they knew that they could make a profit.[1分]
At the end of four years, these six extra hours of each year ____ twenty-four hours, or one full day.[1分]
Don’t ______ this news to the public until we give you the go-head.[1分]
Earth is one of nine planets which ______ around the sun.[1分]
“No sense in you getting us both killed!” I yelled _____ him.[1分]
What you have done is ______ doctor’s orders.[1分]
I want to express the _____ of all of us, for this wonderfully warm welcome.[1分]
We hire and ______ people mainly for their ability to do business.[1分]
According to government mandate in the Lion City, tipping is not ______.[1分]
The environmental costs were regarded more as temporary inconveniences than as _____ liability.[1分]
Scientists predict that the world’s known oil resources will _____ early in the next century.[1分]
Now a person works for a certain amount of money _____ he can pay for food and clothing.[1分]
The basic rock material is referred to ______.[1分]
by scientist to be the matrix
The oil industry of India ______ two World Wars and withstood the economic, social and political upheavals of a particularly troubled century.[1分]
Although baleen whale may weigh ______ twenty elephants, it feeds on sea plants and animals.[1分]
Man uses the energy for everything from flying to the moon to ______ about it.[1分]
_______ his arms over his head, Lincoln declared he was the “big buck of the lick.”[1分]
______ retire are still able to receive pension that they have paid into the social security system during their working days.[1分]
The reward was not always given to everyone, nor _____ to those who deserved it most.[1分]
Between 1890 and 1970 the monetary costs of supplying energy _____ more or less constant or declined.[1分]
The water ________ Manhattan has been very important to New York.[1分]
The assumption _____ human cloning rests is that all genetic cells contain exact copies of the original set o9f genetic instructions.[1分]
For the creatures to become oil, it was necessary that they ______ between layers of rock for an enormous length of time.[1分]
The gas-oil contact or gas-water contact_____ the lower limit of producible gas.[1分]
There is also an interest in sea horse, puffers and other salty types with shapes ____ and colors ____ than even the showiest of fresh-water fish.[1分]
_______ was a planted sapling of the American redwood tree.[1分]
There is one of the gifts
An air ship _______ by energy from the sun has been suggested.[1分]
Most scientists agree _______ was hot for at least a time.[1分]
A group of scientists demanded that the federal government ____ all the studies it has founded on cloning.[1分]
_______ hearing is really produced in all animals by the effect of pressure is not definitely known by scientists.[1分]
It was something we ________.[1分]
“Could I borrow your bike?”
III. Reading comprehension (30 points)
Saudi Arabia, OPEC’s cautious giant, understands all this. When Bill Clinton met Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Abdullah this week, Mr. Clinton argued for an output rise big enough to put an end to these painful prices. Prince Abdullah has promised to “make every effort to ensure equilibrium in the oil markets and to stabilise prices.” This week he revealed that Saudi Arabia has been quietly leaking an extra 600,000 barrels per day (bpd) on to the market since July in an effort to cool prices.
If that is true, it just goes to show that managing the oil markets is easier said than done. Despite several Saudi-inspired output increases by the cartel in recent months, the price has remained stubbornly high; this week, it soared to nearly $35 a barrel, the highest since theGulf war in 1990. As the cartel’s oil ministers gather in Vienna on September 10th to hammer out new production quotas, they are once again under intense pressure to release more oil, and fast.
To hear OPEC members talk, you might think that serious price relief is on the way. There is discussion of “managing” prices down through a newish price mechanism. At the cartel’s meeting in March, ministers quietly agreed a grand new plan to keep oil within a target band of $22-28 a barrel. If the price of a basket of seven OPEC crudes stays below $22 for 20 trading days, the cartel is supposed to cut production by 500,000 barrels a 0ay. If it stays above $28 for 20 trading days, it will automatically raise production by the same amount. This price band has become the main topic of discussion in advance of the upcoming gathering of ministers. Prince Abdullah even talks of a return to a stable market within months.
Oil traders and analysts note that the 20-day limit looks likely to be triggered again this week. A new report by Lehman Brothers, an investment bank, echoes the view of many: “Our expectation is that production will be increased by 500,000 bpd, either through the price mechanism or through a separate agreement.” When it released new figures suggesting that domestic oil-stock levels are lower than previously thought, the American government’s Energy Information Administration added that it too expects an increase of that size. Adding support to this theory are mumblings from OPEC delegates in support of the mechanism.
Two decades ago, in the year of the cartel’s 20th birthday celeb rations, ministers gathered in Indonesia to hammer out details of a clever new scheme: a mechanism whereby the price of oil would be fixed, and adjusted every quarter automatically for such factors as inflation and currency fluctuations. Members had agreed on the ambitious plan, except for one crucial detail: at what price to start this price-peg crawling. The cautious Saudis, the self-proclaimed guardians of the oil market, wanted a price below $30 a barrel; the hawks in the cartel, unconcerned about consumers’ pain, demanded a much higher price. The ensuing bickering ensured that the scheme collapsed.
History may now be repeating itself. When the current price-stabilization scheme was first unveiled, punters with short memories placed big bets that the cartel would adhere to it. By mid-June, the price basket had sailed past the 20-day upper trigger. But OPEC did not “automatically” release 500,000 barrels. Various confused and contradictory explanations surfaced from ministers, but not the oil. Only at their next officially scheduled meeting did they come up with a meager quota increase.
The passage confirms that[1.5分]
high oil prices can be controlled if OPEC increase oil output.
Bill Clinton accomplished his mission for the visit to Prince Abdullah.
Abdullah made all his efforts to control oil price without considering the benefits of his own country.
managing the oil market is easier said than done.
How many oil price schemes were recommended by OPEC ministers according to the passage?[1.5分]
What’s the author’s opinion about Saudi Arabia?[1.5分]
Saudi Arabia is the largest country among the members of OPEC.
Saudi Arabia is the most active country in OPEC to control oil prices for the benefit of the rest of the world.
Saudi Arabia is the guardian of the world oil market.
Saudi Arabia seems to have strong intention to control the oil prices to a acceptable level, but it takes actions very carefully for the consideration of its own benefit.
What can you infer from the passage?[1.5分]
OPEC is, in the most cases, not reliable.
all the members of OPEC have the intention to lower oil prices when the prices get very high.
The oil prices are fully controlled by the market and OPEC can do nothing with them even though they wish to
In most cases OPEC has been very efficient in managing oil prices.
The horse preceded man on earth. Although the earliest remains of primitive horses have been found on the North American continent, many scientist believe this small species traveled over a land mass in the Bering Sea to found the beginnings of the modern horse in Asia. It became extinct in America. Other scientists believe that the horse may have originated in Asia. In any event the animal soon spread into China, Europe, and the Middle East. The first modern horses to be introduced into the American continent came with the early Spanish explorers. Horses were bred into many types. The heavy horses developed in the low countries of Europe and were used for Arabian. The only true wild horses left in the 20th century are found in Mongolia. Horses are said to rate in intelligence after the ape, elephant, and dog. They have excellent memories and can sometimes find their way home when lost, and sense danger better that their masters. The early civilizations of man that had made use of ht horse developed more rapidly than those which did not.
Some of the characteristics of the horse are _________[1.5分]
in some areas they can surpass the abilities of man
The horse originated___________[1.5分]
on the North American continent
The primary uses of the horse for early man were ___________[1.5分]
What can be said about the varieties of horses?[1.5分]
The early horses were larger than the more modern breeds.
The only true wild horses left in the 20th century are in the Middle East.
The oldest breed of the modern horse is said to be the Arabian.
Medieval knights preferred fast, active horses.
Recent intrusions into the lives of public figures have highlighted the lack of laws guarding privacy in Britain. As a result, one issue under discussion as Parliament returns this week is the possible introduction of legislation to curb press powers.
The government will probably take no action until it receives a report from a committee chaired by Sir David Calcutt, due in January 1993. the committee is examining whether the press should be regulated by tougher legislation. It is also considering the ways in which the press has invaded the private lives of the famous.
The Calcutt committee has reported once before, in 1990. it recommendations led to the creation of the Press Complaints Commission, under which the press was given the chance to regulate itself without the need for a privacy law. It also proposed a new criminal offence of physical intrusion to obtain information for publication.
This proposal, which was not acted upon, would have made it unlawful to photograph people on private property to record their conversations without permission. It would have made it an offence to enter a property to place a bug or obtain personal information.
The committee said that the press should be allowed to invade the privacy of a public figure only when it was likely to expose or prevent criminal activity, otherwise his or privacy should be left alone. But a general law protecting privacy was rejected.
Since then, reports in some newspapers and magazines about people’s private lives have ignored the committee’s recommendations. The private lives of Government Ministers and members of the Royal Family have featured prominently in the press. Photographs of the Duchess of York Sunbathing in France, for example, have been widely published.
Some sections of the media justify their intrusion by saying it is in the public interest. In a democracy, they argue, the public has a right to know what people in positions of power are doing. Politicians and others are accountable for their lives. Privacy laws, these critics say, would protect the privileged.
Additionally, many politicians use their private lives to gain popular support, for example by parading their families before cameras to emphasized “traditional value”. Hence, some editors say they are justified in prying into private lives to uncover any faults.
Likewise, the Royal Family is supported from public funds, and therefore it is argued that its members should lead responsible private lives.
Which of the following occurred recently in Britain?[1.5分]
a report from a committee chaired by Sir David Calcutt.
Intrusion into the lives of public figures
Introduction of legislation to cub press power
The Government’s action to protect privacy.
Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?[1.5分]
The press has more freedom to publish privacy of the famous after the foundation of the Press Complaints Commission.
To photograph public figures on public property is legal.
A privacy law is unnecessary since the press has the ability to regulate itself.
The Press Complaints Commission was formed out of the press and thus did something in favor of the press
What kind of people are likely to appreciate the invasion of their private life?[1.5分]
The members of Calcutt committee
Which is a lawful purpose for intrusion into privacy?[1.5分]
To disclose criminal activity
To be in agreement with Privacy Law
To protect the privileged
When did sport begin? If sport is, in essence, play, the claim might be made that sprot is much older than humankind for, as we all have observed, the beasts play. Dogs and cats wrestle and play ball games. Fished and birds dance. The apes have simple, pleasurable games. Frolicking infants, school children playing tag, and adult arm wrestlers are demonstrating strong, trans-generational and trans-species bonds with the universe of animals past present and future. Young animals, particularly, tumble, chase, run wrestle, mock, imitate, and laugh( or so it seems) to the point of delighted exhaust. Their play, and ours, appears to serve no other purpose than to give pleasure to the players, and apparently to remove us temporarily form the anguish of life in earnest.
Some philosophers have claimed that our playfulness is the most noble part of our basic nature. In their generous conception, play harmlessly and experimentally permits us to put our creative forces, fantasy, and imagination into action. Play is release form the tedious battles against scarcity and decline which are the incessant, and inevitable, tragedies of life. This is a grand conception that excites and provokes. The holders of this view claim that origins of our highest accomplishments-liturgy, literature and law-can be traced to play a impulse which, paradoxically, we see most purely enjoyed by young beasts and children. Our sports, in this rather happy, non-fatalistic view of human nature, are more splendid creations of the non-datable, trans-species play impulse.
The best title for the passage is _________[1.5分]
The Origins and Meaning of Play
A Playful View of Modern Philosophy
The Role of Sport in Child Development
It seems to the author that young animals play in order to ________[1.5分]
learn specific behavior patterns
exercise their growing muscles
One may infer from the passage that play is important to adults because it helps them_____[1.5分]
understand their children
interact more with animals and nature
improve their physical strength
The word “noble” could best be replace by which of the following?[1.5分]
To ensure similarity in scientific investigation or monitoring, nationally and internationally agreed standards are being introduced. Several systems of documenting experimental methods and procedures are in use today and are becoming increasingly important for indicating data quality and verifying the integrity of studies. One such approach is Good Laboratory Practice which was introduced in 1982 by the Health and Safety Executive to monitor the testing of industrial chemicals. Since 1982 the range of laboratories inspected has been extended to include those working with pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, cosmetics and food additives. Good Laboratory Practice is concerned with the way. laboratory or field studies are planned, monitored, recorded and reported and the conditions under which this occurs. Following the principles of GLP ensures that the studies are properly planned, can be adequately carried out and are fully and accurately reported. As pan of the planning, execution and reporting of a study, the various processes carried out are carefully documented as Standard Operating Procedures.
The value of long-term observation of environmental factors has only been recognized relatively recently although some monitoring of the environmental factors have been in existence for over a century. The best known long-term study is probably the Broadbalk Experiment at Rothamsted. Broadbalk and the other long-term experiments at Rothamsted and elsewhere are now proving to be extremely valuable by answering questions not considered, nor even conceived, when they were originally set up. Even so they are limited in geographic scope and by the fact that they are confined to one land use category. Current environmental and ecological monitoring networks, while not limited geographically, have in the main been set up to measure just one aspect of the environment. In contrast, the Environmental Change Network (ECN) was set up to give added value to long-term monitoring and data collection by providing a network of sites in different parts of the U.K. and under a variety of land use conditions where comparable long-term data on a wide variety of environmental variables could be recorded.
The idea of a network such as ECN was first considered in the mid 1970s but the concept did not reach fruition until 1992. The selection of the initial network of terrestrial sites was based on a range of criteria. One of the most important requirements, given the intended long-term nature of the project, was financial security although consistent quality of research was also required. The project intended that other sites representing more variable climate zones and land use will eventually join the network as funding becomes available.
The monitoring carded out at each ECN site covers a range of physical, chemical and biological measurements. Where possible procedures and measurements used by existing national monitoring schemes are employed so that ECN provides an integrating function for the more extensive sectorial networks. Environmental changes due to factors such as climate change are likely to be difficult to identify against the background noise arising from the numerous sources, both natural and man-made, of environmental variability. It is desirable, therefore, to minimize any additional variation due to operator involvement. To this end, and to ensure consistency and repeatability, protocols for each of the key measurements were produced.
How many experiment(s) was (were) conducted on the monitoring of the environmental factors?[1.5分]
What does the underlined word mean in “ One such approach is Good Laboratory Practice which was introduced in 1982 by the Health and Safety Executive to monitor the testing of industrial chemicals?”[1.5分]
Which is the correct description of “ Environment Change Network?”[1.5分]
It is a network which is expected to provide environmental and ecological data representing more geographical areas
It is a current environmental and ecological network to measure only one aspect of the environment
Environmental Change Network remained functioning until 1992.
Environmental Change Network was wet up to make long-term monitoring of environment more costly
The passage implies, though it does not explicitly state, that _______ is ( are) the most promising approach to the long-term monitoring of environmental factors.[1.5分]
Environmental Change Network
Standard Operating Procedures
Cloze (10 points)
Until recently most historians spoke very critically of the Industrial Revolution. They ______ that in the long run industrialization greatly raised the standard of living for the _______ man. But they insisted that its ______ results during the period from 1750 to 1850 were widespread poverty and misery for the _______of the English population. _______ contrast, they saw in the preceding hundred years from 1650-1750, when England was still a _______ agricultural country, a period of great abundance and prosperity.
This view, _____ , is generally thought to be wrong. Specialists _______ history and economics, have ______ two things: that the period from 1650 to 1750 was _______ by great poverty, and that industrialization certainly did not worsen and may have actually improved the conditions for the majority of the populace (平民).
Translation (20 points)
The chemical industry depends very heavily on petroleum and natural gas as sources of raw materials. It is likely that in excess of 80% of the literally thousands of different basic organic chemicals employed today are derived from these sources.
The petrochemical industry has grown with the petroleum industry. As is the case with the latest trends in changing crude oil types, it must also evolve to meet changing technological and humanitarian needs.
The manufacture of chemicals from petroleum and natural gas constituents is an excellent example of the conversion of such materials to more valuable products. The individual chemicals made from petroleum and natural gas numerous and include industrial chemicals, household chemicals and paints, as well as intermediates for the manufacture of products, such as synthetic rubber and plastics.
The processing of petroleum hydrocarbon to yield materials that are, essentially, the building blocks of other chemicals industries, is now very extensive.
The classification of materials such as petrochemicals is used to indicate the source of the chemical compounds, but it should be remembered that many common petrochemicals can be made form other sources, and the terminology is therefore a matter of source identification.,
Petrochemicals are generally chemical compounds derived from petroleum either by direct manufacture or by indirect manufacture as by-products from the variety of processes that are used during the refining of petroleum. Gasoline, fuel oils, lubricating oils, waxes, asphalts, and the like are excluded from the definition of petrochemicals, since they are not, in the true sense, chemical compounds but are in fact intimate mixtures of hydrocarbons.