正在载入试卷 ...
2011年职称英语考试真题卫生类(B级)
试卷编号:128293
录入者 :李天华(西安建大)
试卷总分:100
出卷时间:
答题时间:120分钟
 
 
第1部分:词汇选项(第1~15题,每题1分,共15分)
下面每个句子中均有1个词或短语划有底横线,请为每处划线部分确定1个意义最为接近的选项。
1.
Jane said that she couldn’t [tolerate] the long hours.[1分]
spend
take
last
stand
2.
At that time,we did not fully [grasp] the significance of what had happened.[1分]
give
attach
understand
lose
3.
His shoes were [shined] to perfection.[1分]
cleared
washed
mended
polished
4.
Marsha[confessed] that she knew nothing of computer.[1分]
reported
hoped
answered
admitted
5.
We have to act within the existing legal [framework].[1分]
system
limit
procedure
status
6.
The high-speed trains can have a major [impact] on our lives.[1分]
effort
problem
influence
concern
7.
The study also notes a [steady] decline in the number of college students taking science courses.[1分]
relative
general
continuous
sharp
8.
They [converted] the spare bedroom into an office.[1分]
reduced
turned
moved
reformed
9.
Mr.Henley has [accelerated] his sale of shares over the past year.[1分]
held
increased
expected
offered
10.
We need to [extract] the relevant financial data.[1分]
obtain
store
save
review
11.
The police believe the [motive] for the murder was jealousy.[1分]
choice
idea
decision
reason
12.
We [explored] the possibility of expansion at the conference.[1分]
investigated
offered
included
accepted
13.
Anderson left the table,[remarking] that he had some work to do.[1分]
saying
doubting
thinking
knowing
14.
She always [finds fault with] everything.[1分]
simplifies
criticizes
evaluates
examines
15.
The view from my bedroom window was absolutely [spectacular].[1分]
general
traditional
magnificent
strong
第2部分:阅读判断(第16-22题,每题1分,共7分)
下面的短文后列出了7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断:如果该句提供的是正确信息,请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及,请选择C。

                    Relieving the Pain
    "Exercise may be the best treatment of chronic pain," say doctors at a new clinic for dealing with pain, "People with chronic pain need to stop lying around, go out more, and start exercising." The instinctive reaction to acute pain is to stop moving and to try to protect the source of pain. But it seems that this is often not productive, especially in the case of back pain. Back pain, after headaches and tiredness, has become the third most common reason for people to visit their doctors. Painful backs now account for millions of days off work.
    Lumbar(腰部的) pains are partly the price humans pay for taking their forelimbs off the ground, but they are made worse by a sedentary(久坐不动的) lifestyle. Lack of exercise slowly decreases the flexibility and strength of muscles, so that it is more difficult to take pressure off the site of pain. Exercise is essential. It releases endorphins(内啡肽), the body's "feel-good" chemicals, which are natural painkillers. In fact, these are so important that researchers are now looking for drugs that can maintain a comfortable level of endorphins in the body.
    Most people who go to a family doctor complaining of pain are prescribed pain-killing drugs rather than exercise. Since finding the cause of backache is not so easy, doctors frequently do not know the precise cause of the discomfort, and as the pain continues, sufferers end up taking stronger doses or a series of different drugs. "It's crazy," says Dr. Brasseur, a therapist at the International Association for the Study of Pain. "Some of them are taking different drugs prescribed by different doctors. I've just seen a patient who was taking two drugs which turned out to be the same thing under different names."
    A generation of new pain clinics now operates on the basis that drugs are best avoided. Once patients have undergone the initial physical and psychological check up, their medication is cut down as much as possible. Taking patients off drugs also prepares them for physical activity.
    In some pain-relief clinics, patients begin the day with muscle contraction and relaxation exercises, followed by an hour on exercise bikes. Later in the day, they practice tai chi (太极), self-defense, and deep thought. This compares with an average of two-and-a-half hours' physiotherapy(理疗) a week in a traditional hospital program. "The idea is to strengthen and to increase long-lasting energy, flexibility, and confidence," explains Bill Wiles, a consultant pain doctor in Liverpool. "Patients undergoing this therapy get back to work and resume healthy active lifestyles much sooner than those subjected to more conservative treatment."
16.
To treat pain,patients should stop moving around.[1分]
Right
Wrong
Not mentioned
17.
Headaches are partly caused by lack of exercise.[1分]
Right
Wrong
Not mentioned
18.
Exercise helps to take the pressure off the site of pain.[1分]
Right
Wrong
Not mentioned
19.
Doctors often use drugs such as endorphins to treat patients.[1分]
Right
Wrong
Not mentioned
20.
Backache sufferers often end up taking more than one drug to kill pain.[1分]
Right
Wrong
Not mentioned
21.
Exercise helps pain sufferers to recover more quickly than traditional treatment.[1分]
Right
Wrong
Not mentioned
22.
New pain clinics ask patients to give up drugs completely.[1分]
Right
Wrong
Not mentioned
第3部分:概括大意与完成句子(第23-30题,每题l分,共8分)
下面的短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23~26题要求从所给的6个选项中为第2~5段每段选择1个最佳标题;(2)第27~30题要求从所给的6个选项中为每个句子确定1个最佳选项。

                    The Meaning of dreams
    1 Dreams play an important role in our lives. If they can be correctly interpreted, we can come to understand ourselves better. Here, we look at four common dreams and what they potentially symbolize.
    2 I can see their laughing faces…laughing at me. But they aren't as smart. If they were, they'd be up here flying with me! This dream has both positive and negative connotations(涵义). On the positive side, the dream may express a strong desire to travel and get away from everyday routine. It can be interpreted as a powerful desire to achieve. On the other hand, this dream can mean the person has a problem or is afraid of something and they wish to escape. The dream could represent an inferiority complex(自卑情结), which the dreamer attempts to escape from by putting themselves up above others.
    3 I'm moving fast now, but it's still behind me. Doesn't matter how fast I go, I still can't escape. Although this is a traditional symbol of health and vitality(生命力) like the first one, it can also suggest the dreamer is trying to escape from danger. Usually, fear is the dominant emotion. By running hard, the dreamer can possibly escape the threat. However, they can also stumble(蹒跚) or worse still stop moving altogether. This makes the fear even more terrifying(恐怖的). One possible interpretation suggests that the person is under pressure in their everyday life.
    4 1'm sweating and my heart is beating. I'm trapped in my own bed. In this dream, the person is often standing on a high, exposed place such as on the top of a tower, or on the edge of a cliff. The overwhelming (强烈的) feeling changes from anxiety to a loss of control. There is nothing to stop the person, and the feeling as they go over the edge can be horrifyingly (恐怖地) real. Fortunately, just before hitting the ground, the dreamer awakens with a sense of enormous relief. This dream suggests that the dreamer is afraid of losing control and has a fear of failure or even death.
    5 The wind is pushing me and I slip. There's nothing I can do . . . nothing I can hold on to. This symbol is associated with fear: suddenly the dreamer loses all power of movement. They try hard to move their arms and legs,but they simply cannot. Frozen in a terrifying situation with no escape,they become more and more terrified as the seconds go by. Another frequent context for this dream is failing to do something in public, often something which you are normally very good at, such as your job. Not only is this extremely embarrassing, but it also shows a deep-seated phobia (恐惧) of losing a job and a livelihood.
23.
Paragraph 2_______[1分]
Dream of diving into the water
Dream of running hard
Dream of falling down
Dream of flying into the air
Dream of being pushed away
Dream of climbing trees
24.
Paragraph 3________[1分]
Dream of diving into the water
Dream of running hard
Dream of falling down
Dream of flying into the air
Dream of being pushed away
Dream of climbing trees
25.
Paragraph 4________[1分]
Dream of diving into the water
Dream of running hard
Dream of falling down
Dream of flying into the air
Dream of being pushed away
Dream of climbing trees
26.
Paragraph 5_______[1分]
Dream of diving into the water
Dream of running hard
Dream of falling down
Dream of flying into the air
Dream of being pushed away
Dream of climbing trees
27.
If a person puts himself up above others in the dream,he may__________.[1分]
be under pressure in everyday life
feel tired in real life
be afraid of losing his job in real life
feel lonely in everyday life
feel inferior in reality
be afraid of losing control in real life
28.
If a person dreams of being chased by others,he may__________.[1分]
be under pressure in everyday life
feel tired in real life
be afraid of losing his job in real life
feel lonely in everyday life
feel inferior in reality
be afraid of losing control in real life
29.
If a person dreams of going over the edge of a cliff,he may__________.[1分]
be under pressure in everyday life
feel tired in real life
be afraid of losing his job in real life
feel lonely in everyday life
feel inferior in reality
be afraid of losing control in real life
30.
If a person dreams of failing to do something in public,he may__________.[1分]
be under pressure in everyday life
feel tired in real life
be afraid of losing his job in real life
feel lonely in everyday life
feel inferior in reality
be afraid of losing control in real life
第4部分:阅读理解(第31--45题,每题3分。共45分)
下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题。请根据短文内容,为每题确定1个最佳选项。

                    第一篇 Cell Phones: Hang Up or Keep Talking?
    Millions of people are using cell phones today. In many places it is actually considered unusual not to use one. In many countries, cell phones are very popular with young people. They find that the phones are more than a means of communication-having a mobile phone shows that they are cool and connected.
    The explosions around the world in mobile phone use make some health professional worried. Some doctors are concerned that in the future many people may suffer health problems from the use of mobile phones. In England, there has been a serious debate about this issue. Mobile phone companies are worried about the negative publicity of such ideas. They say that there is no proof that mobile phones are bad for your health.
    On the other hand, why do some medical studies show changes in the brain cells of some people who use mobile phones? Signs of change in the issues of the brain and head can be detected with modern scanning (扫描) equipment. In one case, a traveling salesman had to retire at a young age because of serious memory loss. He couldn't remember even simple tasks. He would often forget the name of his own son. This man used to talk on his mobile phone for about six hours a day, every day of his working week, for a couple of years. His family doctor blamed his mobile phone use, but his employer's doctor didn't agree.
    What is it that makes mobile phones potentially harmful? The answer is radiation. High-tech machines can detect very small amounts of radiation from mobile phones. Mobile phone companies agree that there is some radiation, but they say the amount is too small to worry about.
    As the discussion about their safety continues, it appears that it's best to use mobile phones less often. Use your regular phone if you want to talk for a long time. Use your mobile phone only when you really need it. Mobile phones can be very useful and convenient, especially in emergencies. In the future, mobile phones may have a warning label that says they are bad for your health. So for now, it's wise not to use your mobile phone too often
31.
People buy cell phones for the following reasons EXCEPT that[3分]
they’re cheap.
they’re popular.
they’re useful.
they’re convenient.
32.
The word“detected’’in paragraph 3 could be best replaced by[3分]
cured.
removed.
caused.
discovered.
33.
The salesman retired young because[3分]
he disliked using mobile phones.
he was tired of talking on his mobile phone.
he couldn’t remember simple tasks.
his employer’s doctor persuaded him to.
34.
On the safety issue of mobile phones,the manufacturing companies[3分]
deny the existence of mobile phone radiation.
hold that the amount of radiation is too small to worry about
develop new technology to reduce mobile phone radiation.
try to prove that mobile phones are not harmful to health.
35.
The writer’s purpose of writing this article is to advise people[3分]
to buy mobile phones.
to update regular phones.
to stop using mobile phones.
to use mobile phones less often.
                    第二篇 Preventing Child Maltreatment(虐待)
    Child maltreatment is a global problem with serious life-long consequences. There are no reliable global estimates for the prevalence (流行) of child maltreatment. Data for many countries, especially low-and middle-income countries, are lacking.
    Child maltreatment is complex and difficult to study. Current estimates vary widely depending on the country and the method of research used. Nonetheless, international studies reveal that approximately 20% of women and 5%-10% of men report being sexually abused as children, while 25%-50%of all children report being physically abused. Additionally, many children are subject to1 emotional abuse(sometimes referred to as2 psychological abuse).
    Every year, there are an about 31,000 homicide(杀人) deaths in children under 15.This number underestimates the true extent of the problem, as a significant proportion of deaths due to child maltreatment are incorrectly attributed to falls, bums and drowning.
    Child maltreatment causes suffering to children and families and can have long-term consequences. Maltreatment causes stress that is associated with disruption in early brain development. Extreme stress can impair the development of the nervous and immune systems. Consequently, as adults, maltreated children are at increased risk for behavioural, physical and mental health problems. Via the behavioural and mental health consequences, maltreatment can contribute to heart disease, cancer, suicide and sexually transmitted infections.
    Beyond the health consequences of child maltreatment, there is an economic impact, including costs of hospitalization, mental health treatment, child welfare, and longer-term health costs.
    A number of risk factors for child maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors are not present in all social and cultural contexts, but provide an overview when attempting to understand the causes of child maltreatment.
    It is important to emphasize that children are the victims and are never to blame for maltreatment. A number of characteristics of an individual child may increase the likelihood of being maltreated, such as being either under four years old or an adolescent, being unwanted, or failing to fulfill the expectations of parents and having special needs, crying persistently or having abnormal physical features.
36.
International studies reveal that[3分]
many children have been neglected.
child maltreatment is most serious in developed countries.
20%of children have been sexually abused.
25—50%of girls have been physically abused.
37.
The word“underestimates”in paragraph 3 means[3分]
exaggerates.
points out.
assumes.
miscalculates.
38.
Child maltreatment can bring all the following consequences EXCEPT[3分]
stress.
suicide.
heart disease.
poor memory.
39.
Children are more likely to be maltreated if they[3分]
cry a lot.
are not good-looking.
are over 4 years old.
are quiet.
40.
We can infer from the passage that[3分]
researchers have collected enough data on child maltreatment.
more than 31,000 children under 15 are killed every year.
many countries have set up special institutions for maltreated children.
some children are also to blame for mal treatment.
                    第三篇 Sprained (扭伤) Ankle
    One of the most common injuries teenagers and adults experience is a sprained ankle. A sprain occurs when the ligaments(韧带) of a joint are twisted(扭伤) and possibly torn. Ligaments are bands of fibers that hold the bones of a joint in position. A sprain can occur from a sudden twisting at the joint, or a stretching or tearing of the fibers of the ligaments. The injured area usually swells(肿胀) and becomes black and blue. Stepping off the sidewalk at the wrong angle or having one foot land in a hole while walking or running can leave you rolling on the ground in pain with an ankle on fire! If you cannot walk without experiencing intense pain, you must seek medical help. If the pain is manageable, and you can walk, here are three words to help you remember how to treat yourself:
    ■ Elevate(抬高)
    ■ Cool
    ■ Bandage(打绷带)
    As soon as there is injury to that ligament, there will be a certain amount of bleeding under the skin. Once the blood pools around the damaged blood vessels, swelling occurs. The pressure from the swelling results in additional stress and tenderness to the region. In order to reduce the degree of swelling, lie down as soon as possible and keep the ankle elevated so that it is actually higher than your heart. Next, to reduce blood distribution and keep bleeding(流血) to minimum, apply a cold pack. After 20 minutes, take the pack off, wait half an hour, and then reapply. This can be several times a day for a total of three days.
    Never leave a cold pack on for more than 20 minutes at a time. Reducing the temperature in that area for an extended period of time signals the body to increase blood flow to raise the body temperature! Therefore, one accidentally triggers(引起) more blood distribution to the affected area by leaving a cold pack on for too long! Finally, bandage the angle. Be careful not to wind it too tightly; doing so can restrict blood flow and cause harm to the entire foot.
41.
A sprain is caused by[3分]
ligament fibers of a joint being twisted.
blood vessels being hurt in the foot.
constantly changing body temperature.
elevating one’s ankle.
42.
The black—and—blue symptom of a sprain is due to[3分]
bleeding under the skin.
pressing one’s ankle.
a tight bandage.
applying a cold pack.
43.
The word“it”in paragraph 2(line 5)refers to[3分]
ankle.
injury.
pressure.
swelling.
44.
Once the initial cold pack is removed,what is to be done?[3分]
Begin bandaging the ankle.
Wait 30 minutes and then reapply the ice pack for 20 minutes.
Keep the ankle in a position lower than your heart.
Wait 20 minutes and then reapply the ice pack for 30 minutes.
45.
The main idea of the passage is to explain[3分]
how a sprain occurs.
how to bandage an injured foot.
how to treat a sprained ankle.
how to reduce the temperature of a wounded area.
第5部分:补全短文(第46~50题,每题2分,共10分)
下面的短文有5处空白,短文后有6个句子,其中5个取自短文,请根据短文内容将其分别放回原有位置,以恢复文章原貌。

                    Flying into History
    When you turn on the television or read a magazine, celebrities (名人) are everywhere. Although fame and the media play such major roles in our lives today, it has not always been that way. ____ (46) Many historians agree that Charles Lindbergh was one of the first major celebrities, or superstars.
    Lindbergh was born in Detroit, Michigan, in 1902, but he grew up in Little Falls, Minnesota. As a child, he was very interested in how things worked, so when he reached college, he pursued a degree in engineering. At the age of 20, however, the allure(诱惑) of flying captured Lindbergh's imagination. ____ (47) Soon after, Lindbergh bought his own plane and traveled across the nation performing aerial stunts(空中特技).
    In 1924, Lindbergh became more serious about flying. He joined the United States military and graduated first in his pilot class. ____(48)
    During the same time, a wealthy hotel owner named Raymond Orteig was offering a generous award to the first pilot who could fly nonstop from New York City to Paris, France. The Orteig Prize was worth $25, OOO - a large amount even by today's standards.
    Lindbergh knew he had the skills to complete the flight, but not just any plane was capable of flying that far for that long. ____ (49)
    On May 20, 1927, Charles Lindbergh took off from Roosevelt Field in New York City and arrived the next day at an airstrip (简易机场) outside Paris. Named in honor of the sponsor, The Spirit of St. Louis carried Lindbergh across the Atlantic Ocean and into the record books. He became a national hero and a huge celebrity.
    When he returned to the United States, Lindbergh rode in a ticker-tape (热烈的) parade held to celebrate his accomplishment. was even named for Charles Lindbergh-the kept at the Smithsonian Institute's National Air ____ (50) A very popular dance Lindy Hop. Today, The Spirit of St. Louis is and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.
46.
 [2分]
Lindbergh used this additional training to get a job as an airmail pilot,flying out of St.Louis, Missouri.
Working with an aviation company from San Diego,California,and with financial help from the city of St.Louis,Lindbergh got a customized(定制的)airplane that could make the journey.
He also received a Medal of Honor,the highest United States military decoration.
Eighty years ago,radio and movies were just beginning to have that kind of effect on Americans.
His childhood was not full of fond memories.
He quit school and moved to Nebraska where he learned to be a pilot.
47.
 [2分]
Lindbergh used this additional training to get a job as an airmail pilot,flying out of St.Louis, Missouri.
Working with an aviation company from San Diego,California,and with financial help from the city of St.Louis,Lindbergh got a customized(定制的)airplane that could make the journey.
He also received a Medal of Honor,the highest United States military decoration.
Eighty years ago,radio and movies were just beginning to have that kind of effect on Americans.
His childhood was not full of fond memories.
He quit school and moved to Nebraska where he learned to be a pilot.
48.
 [2分]
Lindbergh used this additional training to get a job as an airmail pilot,flying out of St.Louis, Missouri.
Working with an aviation company from San Diego,California,and with financial help from the city of St.Louis,Lindbergh got a customized(定制的)airplane that could make the journey.
He also received a Medal of Honor,the highest United States military decoration.
Eighty years ago,radio and movies were just beginning to have that kind of effect on Americans.
His childhood was not full of fond memories.
He quit school and moved to Nebraska where he learned to be a pilot.
49.
 [2分]
Lindbergh used this additional training to get a job as an airmail pilot,flying out of St.Louis, Missouri.
Working with an aviation company from San Diego,California,and with financial help from the city of St.Louis,Lindbergh got a customized(定制的)airplane that could make the journey.
He also received a Medal of Honor,the highest United States military decoration.
Eighty years ago,radio and movies were just beginning to have that kind of effect on Americans.
His childhood was not full of fond memories.
He quit school and moved to Nebraska where he learned to be a pilot.
50.
 [2分]
Lindbergh used this additional training to get a job as an airmail pilot,flying out of St.Louis, Missouri.
Working with an aviation company from San Diego,California,and with financial help from the city of St.Louis,Lindbergh got a customized(定制的)airplane that could make the journey.
He also received a Medal of Honor,the highest United States military decoration.
Eighty years ago,radio and movies were just beginning to have that kind of effect on Americans.
His childhood was not full of fond memories.
He quit school and moved to Nebraska where he learned to be a pilot.
第6部分:完形填空(第51~65题,每题l分,共15分)
下面的短文有15处空白,请根据短文内容为每处空白确定1个最佳选项。

                    Food Safety and Foodborne Illness
    Food safety is an increasingly important public health issue. Governments all over the world are intensifying their efforts to (51) food safety. These efforts are in response to an increasing number of food safety problems and (52) consumer concerns.
    Foodborne illnesses are defined as diseases, usually either infectious or toxic (有毒的) in nature, caused by agents that (53) the body through the ingestion of food. Every person is risk of foodborne illness.
    Foodborne diseases are a widespread and growing public health (55),both in developed and developing countries. The global incidence of foodborne disease is difficult to ____ (56), but it has been reported that in 2005 alone8 million people died from diarrhoeal (腹泻) diseases. A great proportion of these ____ (57) can be attributed to contamination (污染) of food and drinking water. Additionally, diarrhoeal is a ____ (58) cause of malnutrition(营养不良) in infants and young children.
    In industrialized countries, the percentage of the population suffering from foodborne diseases each year has been ____ (59) to be 10 up to 30%.In the United States of America, for example, around 76 million cases of foodborne diseases, resulting____ (60)325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths. are estimated to occur each year.
    ____ (61) less well documented, developing countries bear the brunt (首当其冲) of the problem due to the presence of a wide ____ (62)of foodborne diseases, including those caused by parasites(寄生虫). The high prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in many developing countries suggests major ____ (63) food safety problems.
    In partnership with other stakeholders, WHO is developing ____ (64) that will further promote the safety of food. These policies ____ (65) the entire food chain from production to consumption and will make use of different types of expertise(专长).
51.
 [1分]
meet
improve
provide
reach
52.
 [1分]
following
careful
rising
immediate
53.
 [1分]
find
govern
enter
push
54.
 [1分]
with
for
at
in
55.
 [1分]
interest
problem
service
benefit
56.
 [1分]
compare
estimate
explain
reduce
57.
 [1分]
factors
products
cases
countries
58.
 [1分]
natural
major
similar
iust
59.
 [1分]
imagined
acknowledged
considered
reported
60.
 [1分]
to
in
from
of
61.
 [1分]
As
Since
Hence
While
62.
 [1分]
range
distance
order
arrangement
63.
 [1分]
prevailing
spreading
troubling
underlying
64.
 [1分]
policies
methods
programs
systems
65.
 [1分]
form
set
cover
break

≡ 本试卷共计65题,此处为结束标志。
examcoo™