Part Ⅰ Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write A Letter of Apology according to the outline given below. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese.
21st century has brought with it an unprecedented variety of recreational activities ranging from traditional outdoor activities such as playing ball games to all kinds of online ones, the latter of which is a great appeal to the young generation. So I’d like to narrow my topic down to online recreational activities.
It goes without saying that various activities brought by modern technology have greatly broadened our horizon and brought much excitement to us. With access to the Internet, you can get to know people from any country in the world and you can talk with them, play games with them --- a temptation very hard to resist, and even see them via web cam. The disadvantage, however, is that anyone who lacks self-control would very easily get lost and become addicted to the online world, which in turn might seriously affect their life, work and interpersonal relationships.
As a college student, I think what really matters is to make better choice and exert more discipline. We’d better take advantage of good online recreational activities to enrich our lives and broaden the scope of knowledge. When it comes to those addictive, time-consuming and less meaningful activities, I think to stay away from them is a wise decision.
Media Selection for Advertisements
After determining the target audience for a product or service, advertising agencies must select the appropriate media for the advertisement. We discuss here the major types of media used in advertising. We focus our attention on seven types of advertising: television, newspapers, radio, magazines, out-of-home. Internet, and direct mail.
Television is an attractive medium for advertising because it delivers mass audiences to advertisers. When you consider that nearly three out of four Americans have seen the game show Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? you can understand the power of television to communicate with a large audience. When advertisers create a brand, for example, they want to impress consumers with the brand and its image. Television provides an ideal vehicle for this type of communication.But television is an expensive medium, and not all advertisers can afford to use it.
Television's influence on advertising is fourfold. First, narrowcasting means that television channels are seen by an increasingly narrow segment of the audience. The Golf Channel, for instance.
is watched by people who play golf. Home and Garden Television is seen by those interested in household improvement projects. Thus, audiences are smaller and more homogeneous(具有共同特点的) than they have been in the past. Second, there is an increase in the number of television channels available to viewers, and thus, advertisers. This has also resulted in an increase in the sheer number of advertisements to which audiences are exposed. Third, digital recording devices allow audience members more control over which commercials they watch. Fourth, control over programming is being passed from the networks to local cable operators and satellite programmers.
After television, the medium attracting the next largest annual ad revenue is newspapers. The New York Times, which reaches a national audience, accounts for $1 billion in ad revenue annually, ii m increased its national circulation (发行量) by 40% and is now available for home delivery in ion ciues. Locally, newspapers are the largest advertising medium.
Newspapers are a less expensive advertising medium than television and provide a way for advertisers to communicate a longer. more detailed message to their audience than they can through 48 hours,meaning newspapers are also a quick way of getting the massage out.Newspapers are ofen the most important form of news for a local community, and they develop a high degree of loyalty from local reader.
Advertising on radio continues to grow Radio is often used in conjunction with outdoor bill-boards (广告牌) and ihe Internet to reach even more customers than television. Advertisers are likely to use radio because it is a less expensive medium than television, which means advertisers can afford to repeal their ads often. Internet companies are also turning 10 radio advertising. Radio provides a way for advertisers to communicate with audience members at all times of the day.Consumers listen to radio on their way to school or work, at work, on the way home, and in the evening hours.
Two major changes—satellite and Internet radio—will force radio advertisers to adapt their methods. Both of these radio forms allow listeners to tune in stations that are more distant than the
local stations they could receive in the past. As a result, radio will increasingly attract target audiences who live many miles apart.
Newsweeklies, women’s titles, and business magazines have all seen increases in advertising because they attract the high-end market, magazines are popular with advertisers because of the narrow market that they deliver. A broadcast medium such as network television attracts all types of audience members, but magazine audiences are more homogeneous, if you read sports illustrated, for example, you have much in common with the magazine’s other readers. Advertisers see magazines as an efficient way of reaching target audience members.
Advertiser using the print media-magazines and newspapers-will need to adapt to two main changes. First, the internet will bring larger audiences to local newspapers, these second. Advertisers will have to understand how to use an increasing number of magazines for their target audiences. Although some magazines will maintain national audiences, a large number of magazines will entertain narrower audiences.
Out-of-home advertising. Also called place-based advertising, has become an increasingly effective way of reaching consumers, who are more active than ever before. Many consumers today do not sit at home and watch television. Using billboards, newsstands, and bus shelters for advertising is an effective way of reaching these on-the-go consumers. More consumers travel longer distances to and from work, which also makes out-of-home advertising effective, technology has changed the nature of the billboard business, making it a more effective medium than in the past.
Using digital printing, billboard companies can print a billboard in 2 hours, compared with 6 days previously. This allows advertisers more variety in the types of messages they create because they.
Can change their messages more quickly.
As consumers become more comfortable with online shopping, advertisers will seek to reach this market As consumers get more of their news and information from the Internet, the ability of television and radio to get the word out to consumers will decrease. The challenge to Internet advertisers Is to create ads that audience members remember.
Internet advertising will play a more prominent role in organizations' advertising in the near ftuture. Internet audiences tend to be quite homogeneous, but small. Advertisers will have to adjust their methods to reach these audiences and will have to adapt their persuasive strategies to the online medium as well.
A final advertising medium is direct mail, which uses mailings to consumers to communicate a client's message Direct mail includes newsletters. postcards and special promotions. Direct mail is an effective way to build relationships with consumers.For many businesses.direct mail is the most effective from of advertising.
Television is an attractive advertising medium in that_____________.[1分]
it helps build up a company's reputation
it is affordable to most advertisers
With the increase in the number of TV channels_________.[1分]
the cost of TV advertising has decreased
the nuiflber of TV viewers has increased
advertisers' interest in other media has decreased
the number of TV ads people can see has increased
Compared with television, newspapers as an advertising medium_________________.[1分]
earn a larger annual ad revenue
convey more detailed messages
use more production techniques
get messages out more effectively
Advertising on radio continues to grow because ___________.[1分]
more local radio stations have been set up
modern technology makes it more entertaining
it provides easy access to consumers
it has been revolutionized by Internet radio.
Magazines are seen by advertisers as an efficient way to___________.[1分]
modern technology makes it more entertaining
appeal to educated people.
convey all kinds of messages
Oui-of-home advertising has become more effective because_______[1分]
billboards can be replaced within two hours
consumers travel more now ever before
such ads have been made much more attractive
the pace of urban life is much faster nowadays
The challenge to Internet advertisers is to create ads that are___________.[1分]
Give his ankle a good rest.
Treat his injury immediately.
Continue his regular activities.
Be careful when climbing steps.
Smith's unusual life story.
Smith's sleeping problem.
Review the details of all her lessons.
Compare notes with his classmates.
Talk with her about his learning problems.
Focus on the main points of her lectures.
The man blamed the woman for being careless.
The man misunderstood the woman's apology.
The woman offered to pay for the man's coffee.
The woman spilt coffee on the man's jacket.
Reading very extensively.
Using test-taking strategies.
The digital TV system will offer different programs.
He is eager to see what the new system is like.
He thinks it unrealistic to have 500 channels.
The new TV system may not provide anything better.
Question 19 to 22 are based on the passage you have just heard.
a notice by the electricity board.
ads promoting electric appliances.
the description of a thief in disguise.
a new policy on pensioners'welfare.
speaking with a proper accent.
wearing an official uniform.
to be on the alert when being followed.
not to leave senior citizens alone at home.
not to let anyone in without an appointment.
to watch out for those from the electricity board.
she was robbed near the parking lot.
all her money in the bank disappeared.
the pension she had just drawn was stolen.
she was knocked down in the post office.
Question 23 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
business conference organization
having a good knowledge of its customs.
knowing some key people in tourism.
having been to the country before.
being able to speak japanese.
it will bring her potential into full play.
it will involve lots of train travel.
it will enable her to improve her chinese.
it will give her more chances to visit japan.
Question 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
The frustrations at work.
The pressure on working families.
They were just as busy as people of today.
They saw the importance of collective efforts.
They didn't complain as much as modern man.
They lived a hard life by hunting and gathering.
To look for creative ideas of awarding employees.
To explore strategies for lowering production costs.
To seek new approaches to dealing with complaints.
To find effective ways to give employees flexibility.
Question 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
his second wife's positive influence.
his improved financial condition.
his second wife's positive influence.
divorce often has disastrous consequences.
happiness is hard to find in blended families.
Question 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
its owner died of a heart attack
it went bankrupt all of sudden.
its potted plants were for lease only.
planting some trees in the greenhouse
writing a want ad to a local newspaper
putting up a going out of business sign
helping a customer select some purchases
opening an offive in the new office park
keeping better relations with her company
developing fresh business opportunities
building a big greenhouse of his own
owning the greenhouse one day
securing a job at the office park
cultivating more potted plants.
finding customers out of town
We're now witnessing the emergence of an advanced economy based on information and knowledge. Physical(36)___, raw materials, and capital are no longer the key(37) ____ in the creation of wealth. Now, the(38) ____ raw material in our economy is knowledge. Tomorrow's wealth depends on the development and exchange of knowledge. And(39) ___ entering the workforce offer their knowledge, not their muscles. Knowledge workers get paid for their education and their ability to learn. Knowledge workers(40)____ in mind work. They deal with symbols: words,(41) ___ and data.
What does all this mean for you? As a future knowledge worker, you can expect to be(42) ____ , processing, as well as exchanging information. (43)____ , three out of four jobs involve some form of mind work, and that number will increase sharply in the future. Management and employees alike(44)____ .
In the new world of work, you can look forward to being in constant training (45)____ . You can also expect to be taking greater control of your career. Gone are the nine-five jobs. lifetime security, predictable promotions, and even the conventional workplace, as you are familiar with. (46)____ , and don’t wait for someone to “empower” you. You have to empower yourself.
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Question 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Some years ago I was offered a writing assignment that would require three months of travel through Europe. I had been abroad a couple of times, but I could hardly -47- to know my way around the continent. Moreover, my knowledge of foreign languages was -48- to a little college French.
I hesitated. How would I, unable to speak the language, -49- unfamiliar with local geography or transportation systems, set up-50- and do research? It seemed impossible, and with considerable-51-I sat down to write a letter begging off. Halfway through, a thought ran through my mind: you can’t learn if you don’t try. So I accepted the assignment.
There were some bad-52-. But by the time I had finished the trip I was an experienced traveler. And ever since. I have never hesitated to head for even the most remote of places. Without guides or even-53- bookings. Confident that somehow I will manage.
The point is that the new, the different, is almost by definition –54- . but each time you try something. You learn. And as the learning plies up. The world opens to you.
I’ve learned to ski at 40, and flown up the Rhine river in a –55-. And I know I’ll go to doing such things. It’s not because I’m braver or more daring than others. I’m not. But I’ll accept anxiety as another name for challenge and I believe I can-56-wonders.
A complish I manufacture
B advanced J moments
C balloon K news
D claim L reduced
E constantly M regret
F declare N scary
G interviews O totally
Question 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Global warming may or may not be the great environmental crisis of the 21st century, but- regardless of whether it is or isn't - we won't do much about it. We will argue over it and may even, as a nation, make some fairly solemn-sounding commitments to avoid it. But the more dramatic and meaningful these commitments seem, the less likely they are to be observed.
A1 Gore calls global warming an "inconvenient truth," as if merely recognizing it could put us on a path to a solution. But the real truth is that we don't know enough to relieve global warming, and - without major technological breakthroughs - we can't do much about it.
From 2003 to 2050,the world 's population is projected to grow from 6.4 billon to 9.1 billion ,a 42% increase. if energy use per person and technology remain te same, total energy use and greenhouse gas emissions(mainly,CO2)will be 42% higher in 2050.But that's too low, because societies that grow richer use more energy. We need econmic growth unless we condemn the world's poor to their present
Poverty and freeze everyone else's living standards. With modest growth, energy use and greenhouse emissions more then double by 2050.
No government will adopt rigid restrictions on economic growth and personal freedom (limits on electricity usage, driving and travel)that might cut back global warming. Still, politicians want to show they're "doing something "Consider the Kyoto Protoco(京都议定书).It allowed countries that joined to punish those that didn't. But it hasn't reduced CO2 emissions(up about 25% since 1990),and many signatories(签 字国) didn't adopt tough enough policies to hit their 2008-2012 targets.
The practical codusion is that if global warming is a potential disaster, the only solution is new technology. Only an aggressive research and development program might find ways of breaking our dependence on fossil fuels or dealing with it.
The trouble with the global warming debate is that it has become a moral proble when it's really an engineering one. The inconvenient truth is that if we don't solve the engineering problem, we're helpless.
What is said about global warming in the first paragraph?[1分]
It may not prove an environmental crisis at all.
It is an issue requiring worldwide commitments.
Serious steps have been taken to avoid or stop it.
Very little will be done to bring it under control.
According to the author's understanding, what is A1 Gore's view on global warming?[1分]
It is a reality both people and politicians are unaware of.
It is a phenomenon that causes us many inconveniences.
It is a problem that can be solved once it is recognized.
It is an area we actually have little knowledge about.
Greenhouse emissions will more than double by 2050 because of ___.[1分]
the widening gap between the rich and poor
the rapid advances of science and technology
The author believes that, since the signing of the Kyoto Protocol,____.[1分]
politicians have started to do something to better the situation
few nations have adopted real tough measures to limit energy use
reductions in energy consumption have greatly cut back global warming
international cooperation has contributed to solving envoronmental problems
What is the message the author intends to convey?[1分]
Global warming is more of a moral issue than a practical one.
The ultimate solution to global warming lies in new technology.
The debate over global warming will lead to technological breakthroughs.
People have to give up certain material comforts to stop global warming.
Question 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
Someday a siranger will read your e-mail without your permission or scan the Website you've visited，Or perhaps someone will casually glance through your credit card purchases or cell phonebills to find out your shopping preferences or calling habits.
In fact, it's likely some of these things have already happened to you. Who would watch you without your permission? It might be a spouse, a girl friend, a marketing company, a boss, a cop or a criminal. Whoever it is, they will see you in a way you never intended to be seen - the 21st century equivalent of being caught naked.
Psychologists tell us boundaries are healthy, that it's important to reveal yourself to friends, family and lovers in stages, at appropriate times. But few boundaries remain. The digital bread crumbs(碎屑) you leave everywhere make it easy for strangers to reconstruct who you are, where you are and what you like. In some cases, a simple Google search can reveal what you think. Like it or not, increasingly we live in a world where you simply cannot keep a secret.
The key question is: Does that matter?
For many Americans, the answer apparently is "no."
When opinion polls ask Americans about privacy, most say they are concerned about losing it. A survey found an overwhelming pessimism about privacy, with 60 percent of respondents saying they feel their privacy is "slipping away, and that bothers me."
But people say one thing and do another. Only a tiny fraction of Americans change any behaviors in an effort to preserve their privacy. Few people turn down a discount at tollbooths(收费站) to avoid using the EZ-Pass system that can track automobile movements. And few turn down supermarket loyalty cards. Privacy economist A lessandro Acauisti has run a series of tests that reveal people will surrender personal information like Socail Security numbers just to get their hands on a pitiful 50-cents-off coupon(优惠卷)。
But privacy does matter - at least sometimes. It's like health: When you have it, you don't notice it. Only when it's gone do you wish you'd done more to protect it.
What does the author mean by saying "the 21st century equivalent of being caught naked" (Lines 3-4,Para.2)?[1分]
People's personal information is easily accessed without their knowledge.
In the 21st century people try every means to look into others' secrets.
People tend to be more frank with each other in the information age.
Criminals are easily caught on the spot with advanced technology.
What would psychologists advise on the relationships between friends?[1分]
Friends should open their hearts to each other.
Friends should always be faithful to each other.
There should be a distance even between friends.
There should be fewer disputes between friends.
Why does the author say "we live in a world where you simply cannot keep a secret" (Line5,para.3)[1分]
Modern society has finally evolved into an open society.
People leave traces around when using modern technology.
There are always people who are curious about others' affairs.
Many search engines profit by revealing people's identities.
What do most Americans do with regard to privacy protection?[1分]
They change behaviors that might disclose their identity.
They use various loyalty cards for business transactions.
They rely most and more on electronic devices.
They talk a lot but hardly do anything about it.
According to the passage, privacy is like health in that ___.[1分]
people will make every effort to keep it.
its importance is rarely understood
is is something that can easily be lost
people don't cherish it until they lose it
Part V Cloze (15 minutes)
Universities are institutions that teach a wide variety of subjects at advanced levels. They also carry out research work aimed -67- extending man's knowledge of these subjects. The emphasis given to each of these functions -68- from university to university, according to the views of the people in -69- and according to the resources available. The smaller and newer universities do no -70- the staff or equipment to carry out the -71- research projects possible in larger institutions. -72- most experts agree that some research activity is -73- to keep the staff and their students in -74- with the lastest developments in their subjects.
Most students attend a university mainly to -75- the knowledge needed for their chosen -76-. Educationists believe that this aim should not be the -77- one. Universities have always aimed to produce men and women -78- judgment and wisdom as well as knowledge. For this reason, they -79- students to meet others with differing -80- and to read widely to -81- their understanding in many fields of study. -82- a secondary school course, a student should be interested enough in a subject to enjoy gaining knowledge for its own -83-. He should be prepared to -84- sacrifices to study his chosen -85- in depth. He should have an ambition to make some -86- contribution to man's knowledge.
Part VI Translation ( 5 minutes )
Our efforts will pay off if the results of the research _________ .(能应用于新技术的开发)[1分]
can be applied to the research and development of new technology
I can’t boot my computer now. Something __________(一定出了毛病)with its operating system.[2分]
There must be something wrong/there must be some errors/problems
Leaving one’s job, _____________ (无论是什么工作), is a difficult change,even for those who look forward to retiring.[2分]
no matter what kind it is / whatever it is
_________(与我成长的地方相比), this town is more prosperous and exciting.[2分]
Compared with the place where I grew up
_________(直到他完成使命)did he realize that he was seriously ill.[2分]
Not until he had accomplished the task