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人事部翻译资格证书(CATTI)2005年5月英语二级《笔译实务》试题
试卷编号:102344
录入者 :紫瑜
试卷总分:150
出卷时间:
答题时间:180分钟
 
 
Section 1: English-Chinese Translation(英译汉)(60 point)
This section consists of two parts: Part A "Compulsory Translation" and Part B "Optional Translations" which comprises "Topic 1" and "Topic 2". Translate the passage in Part A and your choice from passage in Part B into Chinese. Write "Compulsory Translation" above your translation of Part A and write "Topic 1" or "Topic 2" above your translation of the passage from Part B. The time for this section is 100 minutes.

Part A  Compulsory Translation (必译题)(30 points)
1.
It was one of those days that the peasant fishermen on this tributary of the Amazon River dream about.

With water levels falling rapidly at the peak of the dry season, a giant school of bass, a tasty fish that fetches a good price at markets, was swimming right into the nets being cast from a dozen small canoes here.
"With a bit of luck, you can make $350 on a day like this," Lauro Souza Almeida, a leader of the local fishermen's cooperative, exulted as he moved into position. "That is a fortune for people like us," he said, the equivalent of four months at the minimum wage earned by those fortunate enough to find work. 

But hovering nearby was a large commercial fishing vessel, a "mother boat" equipped with large ice chests for storage and hauling more than a dozen smaller craft. The crew on board was just waiting for the remainder of the fish to move into the river's main channel, where they intended to scoop up as many as they could with their efficient gill nets. 

A symbol of abundance to the rest of the world, the Amazon is experiencing a crisis of overfishing. As stocks of the most popular species diminish to worrisome levels, tensions are growing between subsistence fishermen and their commercial rivals, who are eager to enrich their bottom line and satisfy the growing appetite for fish of city-dwellers in Brazil and abroad. 

In response, peasants up and down the Amazon, here in Brazil and in neighboring countries like Peru, are forming cooperatives to control fish catches and restock their rivers and lakes. But that effort, increasingly successful, has only encouraged the commercial fishing operations, as well as some of the peasants' less disciplined neighbors, to step up their depredations. 

"The industrial fishing boats, the big 20- to 30-ton vessels, they have a different mentality than us artisanal fishermen, who have learned to take the protection of the environment into account," said the president of the local fishermen's union. "They want to sweep everything up with their dragnets and then move on, benefiting from our work and sacrifice and leaving us with nothing."
[30分]
参考答案:
    在亚马逊河的这一支流上捕鱼的农民就希望遇上那天的情况。 
   
    旱季最缺水的时候,河面迅速下降,一大群鲈鱼正游进从十几只小船上撒下的网里。鲈鱼味道鲜美,能在市场上卖个好价钱。     

    "要是运气不错,赶上今天这种情况,就能挣350美元,"劳鲁?苏扎?阿尔梅达说道。他是当地渔民合作社的一位负责人。他一边兴高采烈地说着,一边摆好了架式准备干活。他说:"对我们这样的人来说,这可是一大笔钱呀。"因为就算一个人运气好,能找到工作,按最低工资计算,要四个月才能挣这么些钱。   

    然而就在不远的地方,有一只大型商业渔船在游弋,那是一只"母船",备有巨大的储藏冰柜,还拖着十几只小船。船员都在船上等候,等到剩余的鱼进入主河道以后,他们就用高效率的刺网进行捕捞,能捞多少,就捞多少。    

    亚马逊河在世界上是物产丰富的标志,到它现在正经受一场过量捕鱼的危机。随着人们最喜爱的各种鱼类数量日渐减少,到了令人担忧的地步,靠打鱼糊口的渔民和他们商业对手之间的紧张关系也日益加剧,因为这些对手一心想着装满自己的船舱,以满足巴西乃至国外城里人越来越大的吃鱼胃口。   

    针对这种情况,亚马逊河沿岸的农民群众,在巴西境内也好,在秘鲁等邻国也好,纷纷成立合作社,以求控制捕鱼量,增加河湖中鱼的数量。但是,这方面的努力虽日见成效,却促使那些为商业目的而捕鱼的机构以及附近一些不大守规矩的农民加紧进行掠夺。    
 
    "那些工业化的渔船,二、三十吨位的,他们的想法跟我们这些手工操作的渔民不一样,我们懂得考虑怎样保护环境,"当地的渔业工会主席说道。"他们想用拖网一网打尽,然后有上别处去打。我们出力,他们受益,弄得我们一无所有。"
 Part B  Optional Translations  (二选一题) (30 points)
2.
Topic 1  (选题一)
Ever since the economist David Ricardo offered the basic theory in 1817, economic scripture has taught that open trade-free of tariffs, quotas, subsidies or other government distortions-improves the well-being of both parties. U.S. policy has implemented this doctrine with a vengeance. Why is free trade said to be universally beneficial? The answer is a doctrine called "comparative advantage". 

Here's a simple analogy. If a surgeon is highly skilled both at doing operations and performing routine blood tests, it's more efficient for the surgeon to concentrate on the surgery and pay a less efficient technician to do the tests, since that allows the surgeon to make the most efficient use of her own time. 

By extension, even if the United States is efficient both at inventing advanced biotechnologies and at the routine manufacture of medicines, it makes sense for the United States to let the production work migrate to countries that can make the stuff more cheaply. Americans get the benefit of the cheaper products and get to spend their resources on even more valuable pursuits, That, anyway, has always been the premise. But here Samuelson dissents. What if the lower wage country also captures the advanced industry? 

If enough higher-paying jobs are lost by American workers to outsourcing, he calculates, then the gain from the cheaper prices may not compensate for the loss in U.S. purchasing power. 

"Free trade is not always a win-win situation," Samuelson concludes. It is particularly a problem, he says, in a world where large countries with far lower wages, like India and China, are increasingly able to make almost any product or offer almost any service performed in the United States. 

If America trades freely with them, then the powerful drag of their far lower will begin dragging down U.S. average wages. The U.S. economy may still grow, he calculates, but at a lower rate than it otherwise would have. [30分]
参考答案:
    自从经济学家李嘉图于1817年提出基本理论以来,经济学方面的经典著作都说自由贸易免除关税、限额和补贴,也没有政府的其他小动作,因此会增加双方的利益。美国的政策是不遗余力地实行这一理论。为什么说自由贸易可以使大家普遍受益呢?这可以在所谓"相对优势"的理论中找到答案。   

    打个简单的比方,假如一位外科医生,既擅长动手术,又会做常规的验血工作,要取得较好的效益,就应让她集中精力做手术,同时雇一个能力较差的技术员去搞化验,因为这样就能让这位外科医生最有效的利用自己的时间。   

    引申而言,虽然美国既擅长发明高级的生物技术,有精于日常的药品生产,明智的做法还是把药品生产从美国转移至生产费用更低的国家。这样,美国人就可以一方面因廉价产品获利,一方面把自己的资源用来从事更有价值的事业。这一向就是讨论问题的前提。但是现在萨缪尔森却提出了不同的看法。如果低工资国家也掌握了先进的产业,怎么办?   

    据他估计,假如把过多的美国工人失去的较高工资的工作包到国外去,美国从廉价商品的获益不见得能补偿它购买力下降造成的损失。    
 
    萨缪尔森断言:"自由贸易并不总是一种双赢的局面。"他说,当今世界这个问题尤其突出。因为像印度和中国这样的大国,他们的工资低的多,可是他们的能力有在不断提高,美国能生产的产品,他们几乎都能生产,美国能提供的服务,他们也几乎都能够提供。    
 
    假如美国与这些国家进行自由贸易,它们低的多的工资产生的巨大影响就会把美国的平均工资往下拉。据他推算,美国的经济仍然会增长,不过比应有的增长速度要低。
3.
Topic 2 (选题二)
Uganda's eagerness for genuine development is reflected in its schoolchildren's smiles and in the fact that so many children are now going to school. Since 1997, when the government began to provide universal primary education, total primary enrollment had risen from 3 million to 7.6 million in 2004. Schools have opened where none existed before, although there is some way to go in reaching the poorest areas of the country. 

Uganda has also made strides in secondary and higher education, to the point that it is attracting many students from other countries. At the secondary level, enrollment is above 700,000, with the private sector providing the majority if schools. For those who want to take their education further, there are 12 private universities in addition to the four publicly funded institutions, together providing 75,000 places. 

Education is seen as a vital component in the fight against poverty. The battle for better health is another, although it is one that will take longer to win in a country that carries a high burden of disease, including malaria and AIDS. Here, the solutions can only arise from a combination of international support and government determination to continue spending public money on preventive care and better public health information. 

Current government plants include recruiting thousands of nurses, increasing the availability of drugs and building 200 new maternity units. 

Uganda's high rate of population growth, at 3.6 percent per annum, poses a special challenge in the fight against poverty, says Finance Minister Gerald Ssendaula, who points out that the fertility rate, at 6.9 children per female, is the highest in Africa. 

The government's newly revised Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) puts the "restoration of security" at the top of the current government agenda. This is because it estimates that Uganda has lost 3 percent of its gross domestic product each year that the conflict has persisted. Displaced people are not only a financial burden, they are unable to the economy. 

The other core challenges identified by the revised PEAP are finding ways to keep the lowest income growing, improving the quality of education, giving people more control over the size of their families and using public resources transparently and efficiently. It is a document that other poor countries could learn from.[30分]
参考答案:
    乌干达渴望得到真正的发展,这种愿望不仅反映在小学生的笑脸上,而且还体现在那么多孩子在上学的现实中。自1997年政府开始普及小学教育以来,小学在校总人数已从300万增至2004年的760万。过去没有学校的地方,现已开办了学校,不过要把教育发展到国内最贫困的地区,还要经过一番努力。   

    乌干达在发展中等教育和高等教育方面也取得了进展,甚至吸引了其他国家的许多学生前来就学。在中等教育方面,在校人数现已超过70万,大多数学校是民办的。如有学生想继续深造,除4家公立大学外,还有12家私立大学,共7.5万个名额。   

    人们认为教育是战胜贫困的重要一环,努力增强体质也是重要的一环。然而,乌干达饱受疾病的拖累,如疟疾、艾滋病等,增强体质绝非一日之功。在这方面,要解决问题,必须一方面靠国际援助,一方面政府要下决心,继续拨款预防疾病,并加强宣传公共卫生知识。   

    目前政府计划包括招聘数千名护理人员,增加药品供应,新建200所产科诊所。   

    财政部长杰拉尔德?森达乌拉说,乌干达人口的年增长率为百分之3.6,这样高的增长率对消除贫困构成特殊障碍。他还指出,乌干达平均每个女人生6.9孩子,这一生育率是全非洲最高的。   

    政府最近修订过的《消除贫困行动计划》将"恢复安全"列为政府当前的首要任务。这是因为它估计连年不断的冲突已使乌干达的国内生产总值每年下降3个百分点。流离失所的人们不仅是财政方面的负担,也不能为发展经济出力。   

    修订过的《消除贫困行动计划》列举的其他重大事项还包括设法不断提高最低收入,改进教育质量,帮助人们最好地控制家庭人口,透明而有效地使用公共资源等。这一文件值得其他贫困国家借鉴。
Section 2: Chinese- English Translation(汉译英)(40 point)
This section consists of two parts: Part A "Compulsory Translation" and Part B "Optional Translations" which comprises "Topic 1" and "Topic 2".Translation the passage in Part A and your choice from passage in Part B into English. Write "Compulsory Translation" above your translation of Part A and write "Topic 1" or "Topic 2" above your translation of the passage from Part B. The time for this section is 80 minutes.

Part A  Compulsory Translation (必译题)(20 points)
4.
    矿产资源是自然资源的重要组成部分,是人类社会发展的重要物质基础。中国是世界上最早开发利用矿产资源的国家之一。 过去50年,中国在矿产资源勘探开发方面取得巨大成就。这为中国经济的持续、快速、健康发展提供了重要保障。     
 
    中国政府高度重视可持续发展和矿产资源的合理利用,把可持续发展确定为国家战略,把保护资源作为可持续发展战略的重要内容。 

    中国是一个人口众多、资源相对不足的发展中国家。中国主要依靠本国的矿产资源来保障现代化建设的需要。同时,中国又积极引进国外资本和技术开发中国矿产资源,利用国外市场与国外矿产资源,并努力推动中国矿山企业和矿产品进入国际市场。[20分]
参考答案:
Mineral resources are an important part of natural resources and an important material foundation for the development of human society. China is one of the first countries in the world to develop and utilize resources. 

Over the past five decades, China has made great achievements in the survey and development of its mineral resources. This has provided an important guarantee for the sustained, rapid and sound development of the Chinese economy. 

The Chinese Government attaches great importance to sustainable development and the rational utilization of mineral resources. It has made sustainable development a national strategy and the protection of resources an important part of this strategy. 

China is developing country with a large population and a relative shortage of resources. It depends mainly on the exploitation of its own mineral resources to meet the needs of its modernization program. Meanwhile, it has made energetic efforts to introduce foreign capital and technology to exploit its own resources, make use of foreign markets and foreign mineral resources, and strive to help its own mining enterprises and mineral products to enter the international market.
Part B Optional Translations (二选一题)(20 points)
5.
Topic 1(选题一)
    众所周知,鸟无翅膀不能飞,人无双腿不能走。但对尹小星而言,鸟无翅膀不能飞,人无双腿却能走! 

    1970年出生于江苏一户农民家庭的尹小星,出生仅8个月就患小儿麻痹症并发急性肺炎。虽然最终保住了命,他却再也不能站立。因为身体残疾,初中毕业后小星不得不辍学。生存的压力对他来说显得格外沉重,他贩过水果,养过鸡,还下功夫学习过中医。 

    在他21岁的时候,这个年轻人竟怀揣一幅地图,手持一个指南针,摇着轮椅踏上了走遍全中国的艰难路途。 

    近21年来小星手摇轮椅,足迹遍布31省、市、自治区,行程7万多公里,用坏了4部轮椅。他实现了徒手攀登泰山、华山、衡山等20多座名山,孤身翻越海拔5231米的唐古拉山,手摇轮椅走过丝绸之路,穿越塔克拉玛干(Taklimakan)大沙漠,徒手攀登上海东方明珠电视塔,圆满完成从沙漠到香港的旅行。[20分]
参考答案:
As everyone knows, birds cannot fly without wings and a person cannot walk without legs. But for Yin Xiaoxing, while birds cannot fly without wings, a person can walk even without legs! 

Born in 1970 into a farmer's family in Jiangsu Province, Yin Xiaoxing suffered from polio and acute pneumonia at the age of only eight months. He survived but lost the ability to stand on his feet. Because of his disability, Xiaoxing had to give up his study after junior middle school. The burden of life seemed to be especially heavy for him. He tried to make a living by selling fruits, raising chickens and taking pains to learn traditional Chinese medicine. 

At the age of 21, this young man, with a map and a compass in hand, embarked on the hard journey of traveling around China in his wheelchair. 

In the last 12 years, Yin Xiaoxing traveled a total of 70,000 kilometers in his wheelchair and left his footprints in 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. During this period, he wore out four wheelchairs. He left a trail of human records including climbing more than 20 famous mountains like Mont Tai, Mount Hua and Mount Heng with his hands, crossing the 5,231-meter-high Mount Tanggula alone, traveling along the Silk Road in wheelchair, crossing the Taklimakan Desert, getting to the top of the Oriental Pearl TV Tower in Shanghai with his hands, and completing the journey from the desert to Hong Kong.
6.
Topic 2 (选题二)
    长城是世界一大奇迹。现在,每年都有几百万人到长城游览。在旺季,几处最著名的景点总是让成群结队的游客挤得水泄不通。 

    中国人修筑城墙的历史久远,可以追溯到战国时期。历史上,中国共修过大约20座长城。在所有这些长城中,明长城最长,达到6700公里。在当时,中国技术在世界上处于领先地位,因此明长城的结构也是最复杂的。明长城的修筑是为了抵御北方游牧民族的入侵。 

    清朝建立后,由于它的建立者本身也是游牧民族,他们觉得没有必要继续修筑长城。不过,清政府还是颁布法令对长城进行保护,禁止拆砖。但是,岁月的流逝和连续战乱使人们易到之处遭到了严重的破坏。 

    十几年来,蓬勃发展的旅游业促进了长城的修缮工程。目前,多处长城已经修复,或正在修缮中。[20分]
参考答案:
The Great Wall is a wonder of the world. Now, millions of people journey to the Great Wall each year, making its most popular sites besieged by hordes of tourists during busy seasons. 

The Chinese have a long history of building walls, dating from the Warring States period. In history, about 20 walls were built, with the wall constructed during the Ming Dynasty being the longest, extending 6,700 km. China was the most technologically advanced nation in the world then, so the wall was also the most sophisticated in structure. It was built to ward off the invasion of nomads from the north. 

After the establishment of the Qing Dynasty, since its founders were themselves nomads, they did not see a need to continue with wall building. Nonetheless, the Qing government did institute a law to preserve the wall, banning the removal of bricks from it. But, the impact of time and continuous wars have left the wall greatly damaged in its most accessible sections. 

Over the past 10-plus years, the booming tourist industry has stimulated the Great wall's renovation project. Now, many of its sections have been or are being revamped.

≡ 本试卷共计6题,此处为结束标志。
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